Giuliana Mazzoni

Giuliana Mazzoni
University of Hull · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

150
Publications
37,593
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3,866
Citations
Citations since 2016
40 Research Items
1925 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Additional affiliations
December 2006 - June 2016
University of Hull
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (150)
Article
Although long-term memory and Theory of Mind (ToM) are closely related across the whole lifespan, little is known about the relationship between ToM and semantic memory. Clinical studies have documented the co-occurrence of ToM impairments and semantic memory abnormalities in individuals with autism or semantic dementia. However, to date no study h...
Preprint
Tests derived from the implicit social cognition framework allow practitioners to control faking outcomes in clinical and forensic assessments. The questionnaire-based Implicit Association Test (qIAT) is a new assessment technique, based on reaction times in a categorization task of items taken from self-report measures.The aim of this study is (1)...
Article
Full-text available
Although mouse-tracking has been seen as a real-time window into different aspects of human decision-making processes, currently little is known about how the decision process unfolds in veridical and false memory retrieval. Here, we directly investigated decision-making processes by predicting participants' performance in a mouse-tracking version...
Article
Full-text available
Autobiographical memories are thought to be retrieved using two possible ways: a generative one, which is effortful and follows a general-to-specific pathway, and a direct one, which is automatic and relatively effortless. These two retrieve processes are known to differ on the quantitative side (especially considering retrieval times), from a qual...
Preprint
In the last decades many studies demonstrated that self-report measures are massively prone to malingering, especially in specific sensitive assessment contexts where socially desirable responding assumes a particularly relevant role (e.g., clinical assessment for the assignment of a disability pension). In this regard, within the tradition of impl...
Preprint
Full-text available
È possibile recuperare una memoria andata perduta? Questo intervento si propone di commentare alcune importanti questioni rispetto all’impatto dell’Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing sulla memoria autobiografica. La tecnica EMDR si sta rapidamente diffondendo non solo come metodo di intervento di elezione per numerose forme di patologia,...
Article
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In February and March 2020, the Italian government decided to provide guidelines in order to counter the spreading of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Several studies have shown that the first Lockdown deeply affected the psychological well-being of the individuals, but the role of possible protective variables is currently not known. In the present...
Article
The main assumption underlying the present investigation is that action observation elicits a mandatory mental simulation representing the action forward in time. In Experiment 1 participants observed pairs of photos portraying the initial and the final still frames of an action video; then they observed a photo depicting the very same action but e...
Article
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background After a year from the emergence of COVID-19 in February 2020, between March and May 2021 Italy faced its third wave of infections. Previous studies have shown that in the first phases of the pandemic certain factors had a protec- tive effect against distress. However, little is known regard- ing the role of possible protective variables...
Article
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It is assumed that the difference between voluntary and involuntary autobiographical memories lies in the intentionality to retrieve a memory assigned by the experimenter. Memories that are retrieved when people are instructed to do so in response to cues are considered voluntary (VAMs), those that pop up spontaneously are considered involuntary (I...
Article
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Which episodes from our lives will be remembered and which will be forgotten, and why? This question has still not been answered satisfactorily by research into autobiographical memory. Previous work has shown that retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) might be a factor responsible for forgetting parts of the autobiographical memory content. However,...
Article
Objectives While voluntary memories are intended and expected, involuntary memories are retrieved with no intention and are usually unexpected (when one is not waiting for a memory). The present study investigates the effects of retrieval intentionality ( wanting to retrieve a memory) and monitoring processes ( expecting a memory to appear) on the...
Preprint
Full-text available
After a year from the emergence of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on February 2020, between March and May 2021 Italy faced its third wave of infections. Previous studies have shown that in the first phases of the pandemic certain factors had a protective role against distress. However, as the months in the pandemic went by, people’s feelings an...
Preprint
Full-text available
During February and March 2020, the Italian government decided to provide guidelines in order to counter the spreading of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Several studies have shown that the first Lockdown deeply affected the psychological well-being of the individuals, but the role of possible protective variables is currently not known. In the pre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite mouse-tracking has been taken as a real-time window into different aspects of human decision-making processes, currently little is known about how the decision process unfolds in veridical and false memory retrieval. Here, we directly investigated these processes by predicting participants' performance in a mouse-tracking version of a typic...
Article
Full-text available
© 2021, American Psychological Association. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the final, authoritative version of the article. Please do not copy or cite without authors' permission. The final article will be available, upon publication, on the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General via its DOI: 10.1037/xge0001...
Preprint
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There is a fervent debate about the processes underpinning false memories formation. Seminal theories have suggested that semantic memory would be involved in false memories production, while episodic memory would counter their formation. Yet, direct evidence corroborating such view is still missing. Here, we tested this possibility by asking parti...
Article
Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary memories. While involuntary memories are retrieved with no conscious intention and are therefore unexpected, voluntary memories are both intended and expected. Recent research has shown that participants sometimes classify their memories as either involuntary or volun...
Article
Action observation triggers by default a mental simulation of action unfolding in time. We assumed that this simulation is "embodied": the body is the medium through which observer's sensorimotor modalities simulate the observed action. The participants in two experiments observed videos, each depicting the central part of an action performed by an...
Article
Available here: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010945220304354 Traditionally, the cerebellum has been linked to motor functions, but recent evidence suggest that it is also involved in a wide range of cognitive processes. Given the uniformity of cerebellar cortex microstructure, it has been proposed that the same computational...
Article
Background: The neural mechanisms of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory are poorly understood. To shed light on the fMRI-informed neurobiology of this condition, in this study we characterise for the first time the neurofunctional architecture of a 20-year old individual (BB) with Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory and no concurrent neur...
Article
Individuals misrecognise as seen the never-presented natural continuation of an action. These false memories derive from the running of kinematic mental models of the actions seen, which rest on motor inferences from implicit knowledge. We verified an implied prediction: kinematic false memories should be detectable even in children. The participan...
Article
In the present study, the persistence of personal false memories (FM) after social feedback that denies their truth was assessed with a procedure similar to Nash, Wade and Lindsay (2009b). Participants imitated actions performed by the experimenter (Session 1) and watched a doctored video with performed and critical “fake” actions (Session 2), foll...
Article
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During the past 20 years involuntary memories have been established as a noteworthy phenomenon, which occur spontaneously in everyday life and with greater frequency than expected. Other types of ideations also occur involuntarily and very frequently, both in the normal population and in clinical groups. The aim of this paper was to assess for the...
Article
While involuntary memories are retrieved with no intention and are usually unexpected (when one is not waiting for a memory to arise), voluntary memories are intended and expected (when one is searching and waiting for a memory to arise). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of retrieval intentionality (i.e. wanting to retrieve a memo...
Article
Full-text available
Belief in occurrence is theorized to play a central role in remembering autobiographical events. Ernst and D'Argembeau (2017) proposed that belief in occurrence also plays a key role in determining the "realness" of future events, or the subjective sense that imagined future events will genuinely occur. They reported data indicating that belief in...
Article
This is the first study to examine functional brain activation in a single case of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) who shows no sign of OCD. While previous work has documented the existence of HSAM, information about brain areas involved in this exceptional form of memory for personal events relies on structural and resting state con...
Article
A vast literature on false memories reveals that they can result from several mental processes. We assume that false memories can result also from a kinematic mental simulation that individuals build in the attempt to understand what is going on when they observe a state of affairs. The participants in our study were invited to observe for 10 secon...
Article
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When receiving disconfirmatory social feedback about recollected events, people sometimes defend and sometimes reduce the belief that the event genuinely occurred. To improve estimates of the rates of memory defense and reduction, and the magnitude of the change in belief in occurrence that results, the current studies examined the effect of discon...
Article
Our investigation focuses on memory for scenes depicted in photos. According to the mental model theory, the observation of a static scene depicted in a photo which portrays an actor near to perform an action can trigger a kinematic mental simulation of that action unfolding in time. The deriving prediction is that such a kinematic mental model sup...
Article
This is an attempt to articulate and explore the relationship between the science of memory and the applied theatre project, The Not Knowns. The project was a collaboration between theatre practitioners and a psychologist who worked together with a group of young people known, problematically, as the ‘not knowns’ throughout 2014. For applied theatr...
Article
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Henry Otgaar, Alan Scoboria & Giuliana Mazzoni; Introduction to Special Issue: Theoretical and legal issues regarding autobiographical belief and recollection. Memory, 25 (7), 865-868 Special Issue Contents: Hartmut Blank (2017). Recollection, belief and metacognition: a reality check. Memory, 25, 869-875 Alan Scoboria, Robert A. Nash & Giuliana...
Article
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Nonbelieved memories (NBMs) highlight the independence between distinct metamemorial judgements that contribute to the experience of remembering. Initial definitions of NBMs portrayed them as involving the withdrawal of belief in occurrence despite sustained recollection. While people rate belief for their NBMs as weaker than recollection, the aver...
Article
Perspective: This article presents an experiment suggesting that a placebo treatment applied to a rubber hand during the rubber hand illusion can produce placebo analgesia. This finding indicates that embodiment may influence the placebo effect, a previously unexamined factor in the treatment process with potential applications to treatment admini...
Article
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While some studies have shown that providing a cue to selectively forget one subset of previously learned facts may cause specific forgetting of this information, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this memory phenomenon. In three experiments we aimed to better understand the nature of the selective directed forgetting (SDF) effect. Pa...
Article
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This article summarizes key advances in hypnosis research during the past two decades, including (i) clinical research supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for managing a number of clinical symptoms and conditions, (ii) research supporting the role of various divisions in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices in hypnotic responding, and (ii...
Article
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Brewin and Andrews (2016) make many cogent observations on the state of knowledge about the development of false autobiographical beliefs and false recollections. Owing to inconsistent use of terminology and imprecise definitions, the framework they propose does not clearly map onto the studies that are summarized, making the resulting estimates of...
Article
The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy and false memories using the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm, whereby people falsely remember words not presented in lists. In two studies participants were presented with DRM lists and asked to recall and recognize presented items. In the first study, we found a...
Article
Eyewitnesses have always played a fundamental role in the legal process. However, eyewitness evidence is not always as reliable or as accurate as one might hope, given the weight that decision makers often ascribe to it. In this article, we review some of the many factors that can determine the reliability of witness testimony, including factors th...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study we examined whether higher levels of object imagery, a stable characteristic that reflects the ability and preference in generating pictorial mental images of objects, facilitate involuntary and voluntary retrieval of autobiographical memories (ABMs). Individuals with high (High-OI) and low (Low-OI) levels of object imagery wer...
Chapter
Hypnosis has long generated controversy as a recall-enhancement method. Concerns about hypnosis are warranted by findings of a tradeoff between the number of memories recalled and memory accuracy. Moreover, witnesses often express confidence in hypnotically augmented remembrances, regardless of their accuracy, increasing the risk of juror bias stem...
Article
Recent research findings have illustrated that false memories induced in the laboratory can be dissociated from the beliefs that the events had in fact occurred. In this study we assessed whether this dissociability is a quality peculiar to false memory, or whether it represents a general characteristic of autobiographical memory. To this end we ex...
Article
This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at re...
Article
Recent research on involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) has shown that these memories can be elicited and studied in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Employing a modified version of a vigilance task developed by Schlagman and Kvavilashvili (Mem Cogn 36:920-932, 2008) to elicit IAMs, we investigated the effects of varying the freq...
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In this paper, we review the state of knowledge about a previously assumed to be rare memory phenomenon called nonbelieved memories. Nonbelieved memories refer to a counterintuitive phenomenon in which vivid autobiographical memories are no longer believed to have happened although vivid recollective features remain present. Such memories stand in...
Article
One of the most persistent beliefs about hypnosis is its ability to transcend mnemonic abilities. This belief has paved the way to the use of hypnosis in the clinical and legal arenas. The authors review the phenomena of hypnotic hypermnesia, pseudo-memories, and amnesia in light of current knowledge of hypnosis and memory. The investigation of the...
Article
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In two experiments, pictorial cues were compared with their verbal labels to assess their effectiveness in eliciting involuntary autobiographical memories. Cues were relatively complex in Experiment 1 (e.g., relaxing on a beach) and simple objects in Experiment 2 (e.g., a ball). In both experiments, participants went through a vigilance task in whi...
Article
When people try not to think about a certain item, they can accomplish this goal by using a thought substitution strategy and think about something else. Research conducted with the think/no-think (TNT) paradigm indicates that such strategy leads subsequently to forgetting the information participants tried not to think about. The present study pur...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have shown that involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) can be elicited in the laboratory. Here we assessed whether the specific instructions given to participants can change the nature of the IAMs reported, in terms of both their frequency and their characteristics. People were either made or not made aware that the aim of the...
Article
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This paper examines the idea that believing that events occurred in the past is a non-memorial decision which reflects underlying processes that are distinct from recollecting events. Research on autobiographical memory has often focused on events that are both believed to have occurred and remembered, thus tending to overlook the distinction betwe...
Article
Aging is thought to involve a decline in executive-control capacities although evidence regarding this claim is not always clear. Thus, while studies exist that suggest impoverished inhibitory memory control in older adults relative to younger adults, experiments with the list-method direct forgetting procedure have mostly failed to show adult-age...
Article
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Previous studies have shown that many people hold personal memories for events that they no longer believe occurred. This study examines the reasons that people provide for choosing to reduce autobiographical belief in vividly recollected autobiographical memories. A body of nonbelieved memories provided by 374 individuals was reviewed to develop a...
Article
The effects of posthypnotic suggestion on health-related behavior, using a behavioral measure of adherence, were investigated. Three hundred twenty-three students covering the full range of hypnotic suggestibility were prescribed an easy (mood rating) or a difficult (physical activity) task. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a)...
Article
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Metacognitive monitoring and control are two interdependent mechanisms by which people regulate encoding and retrieval processes in memory. While much is known about monitoring, and how the results of monitoring processes affect control at encoding, much less evidence is available for the monitoring–control relationship with respect to the regulati...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the level of metacognitive sensitivity previously observed in global Judgments-of-Learning (JOLs) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients could also be established when making item-by-item JOLs. Fourteen TLE patients and 14 control participants were compared on a memory task where 39 semant...
Article
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The role of the plausibility of suggested events in the formation of false autobiographical beliefs and memories has long been debated. In two studies, the shape of the relationship between presuggestion personal plausibility and the development of postsuggestion false beliefs was examined. Participants rated personal plausibility and autobiographi...
Article
Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is the finding of impaired memory performance for information stored in long-term memory due to retrieval of a related set of information. This phenomenon is often assigned to operations of a specialized mechanism recruited to resolve interference during retrieval by deactivating competing memory representations....
Article
A controversy in the field of hypnosis has centered on the question of whether there is a uniquely hypnotic state of consciousness and, if so, whether it is causally related to responsiveness to suggestion. Evidence from brain imaging studies has been used to support claims for various altered state hypotheses, without resolving the debate. The des...
Article
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Memory is prone to illusions. When people are presented with lists of words associated with a non-presented critical lure, they produce a high level of false recognitions (false memories) for non-presented related stimuli indistinguishable, at the explicit level, from presented words (DRM paradigm). We assessed whether true and false DRM memories c...
Article
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A recent study showed that many people spontaneously report vivid memories of events that they do not believe to have occurred [1]. In the present experiment we tested for the first time whether, after powerful false memories have been created, debriefing might leave behind nonbelieved memories for the fake events. In Session 1 participants imitate...
Data
The twenty five memory characteristics rated for each of the six critical actions. Ratings were on 7-point scales. (DOC)
Article
Memory for visual objects, although typically highly accurate, can be distorted, especially in older adults. Here we asked whether also erroneous identifications of visual objects subsequently corrected and replaced by a correct identification might induce false recognitions, and whether this is more likely to occur in older people. For this aim a...
Article
This study investigated the relationship between hostile false memories (violent and verbal/aggressive) and engagement in traditional and cyberbullying, controlling for their co-occurrence. Two hundred eleven adolescents completed measures of traditional and cyberbullying and performed a modified version of the “DRM paradigm”, a false memory task f...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between hostile false memories (violent and verbal/aggressive) and engagement in traditional and cyberbullying, controlling for their co-occurrence. Two hundred eleven adolescents completed measures of traditional and cyberbullying and performed a modified version of the ''DRM paradigm'', a false memory task...
Article
This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study investigated high and low suggestible people responding to two visual hallucination suggestions with and without a hypnotic induction. Participants in the study were asked to see color while looking at a grey image, and to see shades of grey while looking at a color image. High suggestible par...