Gisli Hannes Gudjonsson

Gisli Hannes Gudjonsson
King's College London | KCL · Department of Psychology

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492
Publications
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Publications

Publications (492)
Article
Full-text available
Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor educational outcomes that can have long-term negative effects on the mental health, wellbeing, and socio-economic outcomes of university students. Mental health provision for university students with ADHD is often inadequate due to long waiting times for access to di...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the different types of resistant behavioural responses to unanswerable questions, their respective individual contribution to the overall variance in resistance efficacy, and their differential protective effect on repeated questioning, interrogative pressure, and delayed suggestibility. The participants wer...
Article
The consistency of young asylum-seeker's verbal testimony is often critical in determining the outcome of their claims. It is well established that an interviewee may change their answers to appease an interviewer or in response to suggestions. Experiencing adversity during childhood may increase vulnerability in such interview situations. Here, th...
Article
Background: despite evidence-based national guidelines for ADHD in the United Kingdom (UK), ADHD is under-identified, under-diagnosed, and under-treated. Many seeking help for ADHD face prejudice, long waiting lists, and patchy or unavailable services, and are turning to service-user support groups and/or private healthcare for help. Methods: a gr...
Article
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Background ADHD is neurodevelopmental disorder which persists into adulthood. Presently, therapeutic approaches are mainly pharmacological and psychological whilst the role, scope and approaches of occupational therapists have not been adequately described. Results In this consensus statement we propose that by assessing specific aspects of a pers...
Article
Full-text available
This review shows that there is now a solid scientific evidence base for the “expert” evaluation of disputed confession cases in judicial proceedings. Real-life cases have driven the science by stimulating research into “coercive” police questioning techniques, psychological vulnerabilities to false confession, and the development and validation of...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate whether the extent of sexual trauma symptoms was negatively associated with ‘no’ answers to misleading questions after negative feedback. The participants were 180 children aged between 7 and 17 years who were suspected victims of sexual abuse. All children completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS 2...
Article
The study aimed to investigate the relationship between ‘don't know’(DK) responses to unanswerable leading questions and a response that refutes a suggestion by giving a ‘direct explanation’ (DE) on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS 2). The unique feature of the DE response style is that it involves effective source monitoring, a social cogn...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is evidence to suggest that the broad discrepancy in the ratio of males to females with diagnosed ADHD is due, at least in part, to lack of recognition and/or referral bias in females. Studies suggest that females with ADHD present with differences in their profile of symptoms, comorbidity and associated functioning compared with...
Article
There is general absence of research about the relationship between trauma symptoms and immediate and delayed suggestibility in children who have been sexually abused. The participants were 134 children aged between 7 and 17 years with a history of reported sexual abuse. All children completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (2), a non‐verbal I...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Individuals with co-occurring hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have complex presentations that may complicate diagnosis and treatment. There are established guidelines with regard to the identification and treatment of ADHD and ASD as independent conditions. However, ADHD and A...
Article
Although alcohol-intoxicated witnesses to violent crimes are common, research on how alcohol affects witnesses’ perception of aggression is sparse. In the present study, it was investigated whether different levels of intoxication altered how severe witnesses perceived aggression displayed by involved parties in an intimate partner violence (IPV) s...
Article
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Mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) endorse difficulties with attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Assessing these difficulties among MDOs may confer practical benefits for the management and provision of care for this population, by informing strategies to improve rehabilitative engagement and risk assessments for violence. However, there i...
Article
Objective: To investigate salient predictors of self-reported false confessions. The conditions included mild intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD, conduct disorder (CD), psychiatric symptoms, and compliance. Method: The sample consisted of 386 male Scottish prisoners, who completed a diagnostic ADHD interview, psychom...
Article
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The empirical base relating to alcohol’s effects on underlying memory mechanisms among witnesses is sparse. Therefore, the effect of alcohol intoxication on memory mechanisms was investigated, as well as how degree of intoxication and interview delay affected gist and detail elaboration in these witnesses’ reports. Participants (n = 136) were rando...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Around 25% of prisoners meet diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Because ADHD is associated with increased recidivism and other functional and behavioural problems, appropriate diagnosis and treatment can be a critical intervention to improve outcomes. While ADHD is a treatable condition, best manag...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent amongst prison inmates and the criminal justice system (CJS) likely bears considerable costs for offenders with ADHD. We aimed to examine the relationship between ADHD and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) amongst imprisoned...
Article
Full-text available
Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and head injury (including traumatic brain injury (TBI)) manifest in high levels across prison samples and guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence notes that people with acquired brain injury may have increased prevalence of ADHD. We aimed to examine the associat...
Book
Provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the development of the science behind the psychology of false confessions. Four decades ago, little was known or understood about false confessions and the reasons behind them. So much has changed since then due in part to the diligent work done by Gisli H. Gudjonsson. This eye-opening book by the I...
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The identification and management of inmates with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) has been insufficiently addressed in the literature. We estimated the proportion of cases with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Intellectual disability (ID) in prison, their comorbidity, and associations with disrup...
Article
This study investigates the extent to which hyperactivity and anxiety predicts susceptibility to false confessions compared with inattention and anti-social behavioural tendencies. The sample was comprised of 11,388 young people – 5439 males and 5837 females - in further education, split into three age groups: 14–16, 17–19 and 20–24 years of age. O...
Article
Objective: There is a reasonable theoretical base for understanding the possible causes and motivations behind substance misuse and its dependency. There is a need for a reliable and valid measure that delineates the markers of substance use from its initiation and identifies different motivations for drug use transitioning, maintenance, and depen...
Article
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Studies assessing psychological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults are increasingly reported. However, functional outcomes are often neglected in favour of symptom outcomes. We investigated functional outcomes in 95 adults with ADHD who were already treated with medication and randomized to receive treatment as u...
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Purpose: To examine the role of family conflict in the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). Methods: A cross-sectional national population survey was carried out among 10,838 14-16 year old students in all secondary schools in Iceland. Three latent measures, financial status, ADHD and CD...
Article
Objective: The objective of the study is to quantify the extent of specific polysubstance use, drug transitions to current substances, and describe the association with alcohol use disorders among inmates with ADHD. We also examined health risk behaviors and patterns of offending in relation with ADHD. Method: A total of 387 male British prison...
Article
The introduction of ‘fitness to be interviewed’ assessments into legal practice in the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) Code C in England and Wales was a significant step toward to a safer and fairer criminal justice system. There is now a proper conceptual framework and assessment procedures available to healthcare professional service...
Article
A framework for clinical and forensic practitioners for the preparation and implementation of a forensic interview is described, which is used to obtain honest and accurate accounts disseminated to a court of law or other judicial process where the integrity of the product is paramount. A framework ‘PEER’ that has been influenced by a number of dis...
Article
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AIM To investigate factors predicting treatment completion and treatment outcome of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Mental Health Programme (R&R2MHP) cognitive skills programme for mentally disordered offenders. METHODS Secondary analysis of data previously obtained from 97 male patients who were sectioned and detained under the United Kingdom Me...
Article
In the present study we assess the relationship of verbal ability, depression, and anxiety with interrogative suggestibility (IS) in a sample of children exposed to life adversities and requiring assistance by the governmental social service (n = 39), as compared with normal controls (n = 36). The GSS 2 was administered to participants in a battery...
Article
Hans Eysenck's theory of criminality was first published in 1964 and evolved over the next 30 years. The principal theme of his work is that psychological factors and individual differences are related to personality, namely Psychoticism (P), Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N), which are of central importance in relation to both the causes of cri...
Article
This paper explores gender differences in personality disorder traits, clinical syndromes and IQ among 210 parental competency examinees. Examinees completed the MCMI-III and WAIS-III. Male examinees obtained higher IQ scores than females, although both were in the low average range of ability. Males had significantly higher social desirability sco...
Article
The main aim of this study was to investigate age, gender and memory effects on ‘immediate’ and ‘delayed’ suggestibility among children, and the relationship between immediate and delayed suggestibility. The participants were 1183 children aged between 7 and 16 years, who had been divided into three age band groups (7–9, 10–12, and 13–16 years). Al...
Article
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Background: The association of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) results in a complex constellation of symptoms that complicates the successful diagnosis and treatment of the affected individual. Current literature lacks formal guidelines, randomized control trials, and evidence-based treat...
Article
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The aim of this consensus statement was to discuss transition of patients with ADHD from child to adult healthcare services, and formulate recommendations to facilitate successful transition. An expert workshop was convened in June 2012 by the UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN), attended by a multidisciplinary team of mental health professionals, allied...
Article
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Malingering of a cognitive deficit (i.e. memory and/or intellectual functioning) commonly occurs in civil and criminal cases. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between malingering and personality traits in civil cases. 63 participants (46 male, 17 female) seeking financial compensation following an accidental injury and refer...
Article
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Purpose: The principal aims of this study are to identify risk factors associated with police arrest and false confessions and to investigate whether the severity of the ADHD condition/symptoms increases the risk. Methods: 22,226 young persons in Iceland anonymously completed self-report questionnaires screening for conduct disorder and ADHD. In...
Article
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented in prison, making it imperative to identify a screening tool that can be quickly applied to efficiently detect the disorder. We explored the discrimination ability of a widely used ADHD screen, the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale (BAARS-IV), against a clinical diagnosti...
Article
This study investigates the interplay between the reported witnessing and experiencing of physical violence within the home, the death of a parent or sibling, latent stress-sensitivity levels, and reported false confessions in males. Data were obtained from 5394 male students in further education in Iceland. Zero-inflated negative binomial models w...
Article
The principal aim of this study is to investigate the interplay between the reported experience of physical/psychological trauma and disturbances involving parents within the home, latent stress-sensitivity, and the likelihood of reporting false confessions in females. This study also investigates gender differences by fitting the hypothesised part...
Article
This study examines the rate of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). One hundred and thirty-one male MDOs with a primary diagnosis of either severe mental illness (SMI) or personality disorder (PD) completed screening questionnaires for ADHD. If positive, they...
Article
Children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse are often interviewed by police, but little is known about the effects of sexual abuse on their suggestibility. The aim of this paper was to investigate differences in ‘immediate’ and ‘delayed’ suggestibility between children being investigated as suspected victims of sexual abuse and other childr...
Article
Full-text available
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by high rates of co-morbid psychopathology. Randomized controlled trials of multimodal interventions, combining pharmacological and psychological treatments, have shown a robust treatment effect for ADHD symptoms but outcomes for co-morbid symptoms have b...
Article
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Rates of psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among prison inmates, and recent evidence confirms over-representation of youths and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The risk for psychiatric co-morbidity may be greater among offenders with ADHD. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported rates of...
Article
This study investigates the interplay between the reported experiences of negative life events, reported levels of nerves, fear and tension experienced over the past 30 days, and reported false confessions. Data were obtained from 11388 students in further education in Iceland, out of which 5439 participants were male and 5837 were female. Single l...
Article
This paper reviews the literature on the role of 'memory distrust' in cases of internalised false confessions and provides a heuristic model for understanding the antecedents and mechanism involved. It also provides an in-depth analysis of two real life cases of 'suspected' murders involving six convicted persons, five of whom showed evidence of pr...
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is frequently linked with antisocial behaviour, yet less is known about its relationship with sociomoral reasoning, and the possible mediating effect of intelligence. A pilot study was designed to investigate the relationship between antisocial personality traits, intelligence and sociomoral reasoning...
Article
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Compared with general population rates, prevalence rates of ADHD have been consistently reported to be higher in both male and female offender populations, the latter estimated to range between 10–29%. Research in forensic institutional settings has reported that aggressive behaviour is a particularly prominent source of impairment among men with A...
Article
This paper reviews the literature on the role of ‘memory distrust’ in cases of internalised false confessions and provides a heuristic model for understanding the antecedents and mechanism involved. It also provides an in-depth analysis of two real life cases of ‘suspected’ murders involving six convicted persons, five of whom showed evidence of pr...
Article
Full-text available
Research has indicated that, compared with the general population, the prevalence of offenders with ADHD in prison is high. The situation for offenders managed in the community by the Probation Service is unknown. This study aimed to bridge the gap in our knowledge by (1) surveying the awareness of probation staff about ADHD and (2) screening the r...
Article
Based on a sample of 9085 16- to 19-year-old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004, the current study examines depressed mood and anger as potential mediators between family conflict/violence and sexual abuse, on the one hand, and suicidal ideations and suicide attempts on the other. Agnew's general strain theory provides the theor...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of delivering the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Mental Health Program (R&R2MHP) to female mentally disordered offenders detained in medium and low secure hospital settings. Group treatment participants (N = 18) and control participants receiving treatment as usual (N = 20) completed self-re...
Article
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Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are recognized psychological vulnerabilities in police interviews and court proceedings in England and Wales. The aims of this study were to investigate: (a) the prevalence of ID and/or ADHD among suspects detained at a large London metropolitan police station and th...
Article
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Objective: Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and schizophrenia, as well as childhood abuse, are associated with violent behaviour and show marked volumetric reduction in the anterior cingulate (AC), a brain region implicated in regulation of violence through its involvement in decision making, empathy, impulse control, and emotion regulation....
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the computer based application of the Secret Agent (SA) task of risk-taking and moral decision-making. The participants were 100 male patients in a maximum security hospital (50 with severe mental illness and 50 with personality disorder) and 50 community based healthy control...
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The growing popularity of offending behavior programs has led to the interest of whether such programs are effective with mentally disordered offenders. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation program adapted for offenders with severe mental illness (R&R2 MHP). A sample of 59 adult high risk males detained...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the role of emotional distress as well as ADHD symptomatology in explaining (a) recidivism, (b) behavioral disturbances in prison, and (c) violent and nonviolent offending. Method: In all, 196 male prisoners from Aberdeen prison completed the Symptom Checklist-90, which examines various clinical sy...
Article
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Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:...
Article
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Background ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood. Its symptoms cause impairments in a number of social domains, one of which is employment. We wish to produce a consensus statement on how ADHD affects employment. Methods This consensus development conference statement was developed as a result of a joint interna...
Book
This book is a direct response to a severe treatment gap in recognising, treating and managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. Affecting 3-4% of the global population, ADHD has long been considered a pediatric psychiatric condition and continues to be overlooked in adults, who often go on to endure a lifetime of clinicall...
Article
To date research has been inconclusive in explaining the relationship between sociomoral reasoning and adult offending, with some researchers suggesting that this relationship is mediated by intelligence. This study investigated sociomoral reasoning among 100 mentally disordered offenders in a maximum security hospital, 50 with a primary diagnosis...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the relative contribution of hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems in predicting criminal offending. Method: In all, 173 boys aged 6 to 8 years (assessed for hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems) were followed up 19 years later by examining criminal offense histories. Results: Significant main effects for to...
Article
KEY POINTS DEFINITION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF INTERROGATIVE SUGGESTIBILITY THE GUDJONSSON AND CLARK MODEL OF INTERROGATIVE SUGGESTIBILITY (1986) INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THE GSS AND GCS MALINGERING ON THE GSS AND GCS CONCLUSIONS AND FORENSIC IMPLICATIONS REFERENCES
Article
Objective: Violent behaviour has been associated with presence of certain mental disorders, most notably antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and schizophrenia, childhood abuse, and multiple brain abnormalities. This study examined for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, the role of psychosocial deprivation (PSD), including childhood phys...
Article
The study simulated risk-taking and explored its relationship with aspects of personality (i.e., EPQ-R Psychoticism, IVE impulsivity and venturesomeness). The simulation used a multi-tasking board game task, which comprised a behavioural (experimental) measure rather than the more traditional questionnaire approach. This was investigated in 60 comm...