Giovanni Zanchetta

Giovanni Zanchetta
Università di Pisa | UNIPI · Department of Earth Sciences

About

396
Publications
91,740
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12,169
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - April 2016
Università di Pisa
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (396)
Article
Current global warming causes a change in atmospheric dynamics, with consequent variations in the rainfall regimes. Understanding the relationship between global climate patterns, global warming, and rainfall regimes is crucial for the creation of future scenarios and for the relative modification of water management. The aim of this study is to im...
Article
Full-text available
A full review of the 79 CE Plinian eruption of Vesuvius is presented through a multidisciplinary approach, exploiting the integration of historical, stratigraphic, sedimentological, petrological, geophysical, paleoclimatic, and modelling studies dedicated to this famous and devastating natural event. All studies have critically been reviewed and in...
Article
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Explosive activity preceding the ~40 ka Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption in the Neapolitan volcanic area, Southern Italy, has long been speculated based on the occurrences of widespread tephra layers, with a Campanian geochemical signature, such as the C-22, X-5, and X-6, preserved in Mediterranean Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 sedimentary records...
Article
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Tephrochronology relies on the availability of the stratigraphical, geochemical and geochronological datasets of volcanic deposits, three preconditions which are both often only fragmentary accessible. This study presents the tephrochronological dataset from the Lake Ohrid (Balkans) sediment succession continuously reaching back to 1.36 Ma. 57 teph...
Article
The reconstruction of millennial-scale interactions between ecosystems and societies can provide unique and valuable references for understanding the creation of cultural landscapes and help elucidate their value, weaknesses and legacies. Among the most emblematic forms of Mediterranean land use, olive groves and pastoralism have occupied a promine...
Article
There is still a paucity of hydrological data explaining the relationship between (rapid, millennial‐scale) climate forcing and Mediterranean rainfall since the Last Glacial. We show that distinct lake‐level fluctuations at Lake Trasimeno (Italy) are associated with changing aridity in the central Mediterranean during the last ˜47 800 years. The la...
Article
The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation are widely used to track processes occurring within the hydrological cycle and understand regional atmospheric patterns that influence a specific area. Moreover, the oxygen isotopic composition of continental carbonates is extensively used for palaeohydrological reconstruction. Nevertheles...
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Relative sea‐level (RSL) evolution during Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5 in the Mediterranean basin is still not fully understood despite a plethora of morphological, stratigraphic and geochronological studies carried out on highstand deposits of this area. In this review we assembled a database of 323 U/Th‐dated samples (e.g. corals, molluscs, spel...
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Identification of the remnant traces of paleo-glaciers provides important proxies to understand the response of the environment to rapid climate changes. We present a 1:25,000 scale geomorphological map covering ∼12.5 km² of the upper part of Mount Bistra (North Macedonia) on the basis of remote sensing analyses and geomorphological surveys. Partic...
Article
Accurately reconstructing the scale and timing of dynamic processes, such as Middle-Late Pleistocene explosive volcanism and rapid climatice change, requires rigorous and independent chronological constraints. In this framework, the study of distal volcanic ash layers, or tephra, transported and deposited over wide regions during explosive volcanic...
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In this paper we illustrate the stratigraphy, geochronology, and geochemistry (major, minor, trace elements and Sr-isotopes) of a Holocene tephra layer found within coastal sedimentary deposits north of Caleta Olivia (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina). The stratigraphic succession comprises beach deposits with basal erosive surface resting on the loc...
Article
Glacial-interglacial variations in ice volume and sea level are essential components of the Pleistocene global climate evolution. Deciphering the timing of change of these key climate parameters with respect to the insolation forcing is central to understanding the processes controlling glacial terminations. Here we exploit the sensitivity of the P...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Stable water isotopes of precipitation are widely used to track processes occurring within the hydrological cycle and to understand regional atmospheric patterns that influence a specific area. Moreover, the use of the oxygen isotopic composition in continental carbonates (e.g. speleothems) is a well-established practice to reconstruct climatic var...
Article
Identifying the hydrological and environmental response of the European Alpine region to different combinations of climate boundary conditions is crucial to advance the reliability of predictive climate models and thus shape climate adaptation policies that will impact millions of people in seven countries. Here we present a high-resolution multipr...
Article
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The original article has been corrected. During proof correction of the article, mistakes in the author affiliations of Petra Bajo, John C. Hellstrom, Robert Wiśniewski, Anthony E. Fallick, Stefano Natali, and Marco Luppichini were introduced. Please find the correct affiliations here as well.
Article
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Integrating palaeoclimatological proxies and historical records, which is necessary to achieve a more complete understanding of climate impacts on past societies, is a challenging task, often leading to unsatisfactory and even contradictory conclusions. This has until recently been the case for Italy, the heart of the Roman Empire, during the trans...
Article
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A sedimentary sequence of fluvial deposits preserved in the Corchia Cave (Alpi Apuane) provides new chronological constraints for the evolution of the cave system and the timing and rate of uplift of this sector of the Alpi Apuane since the late Pliocene. Supported by magnetostratigraphic analysis performed on fine-grained fluvial deposits, and by...
Article
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As a means for investigating human mobility during late the Neolithic to the Copper Age in central and southern Italy, this study presents a novel dataset of enamel oxygen and carbon isotope values (δ18Oca and δ13Cca) from the carbonate fraction of biogenic apatite for one hundred and twenty-six individual teeth coming from two Neolithic and eight...
Article
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The stable isotope composition of living and of Holocene Mytilidae shells was measured in the area of Camarones (Chubut, Argentina). The most striking results were the high δ 18 O values measured in samples older than ca. 6.1 cal ka BP. In the younger samples, the δ 18 O values remained substantially stable and similar to those of living specimens....
Article
The timing, duration and evolution of sea level during the Marine Isotope Stage 5e (MIS 5e) highstand is a subject of intense debate. A major problem in resolving this debate is the difficulty of chronologically constraining the sea level fall that followed the peak of the highstand. This was mainly controlled by ice-sheet dynamics, the understandi...
Article
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Few palaeoclimate archives beyond the polar regions preserve continuous and datable palaeotemperature proxy time series over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. This hampers efforts to develop a more coherent picture of global patterns of past temperatures. Here we show that Mg concentrations in a subaqueous speleothem from an Italian cave track...
Article
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The scarcity of high-resolution empirical data directly tracking diversity over time limits our understanding of speciation and extinction dynamics and the drivers of rate changes. Here, we analyze a continuous species-level fossil record of endemic diatoms from ancient Lake Ohrid, along with environmental and climate indicator time series since la...
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Southern Tuscany (Italy) is an important metallogenic district that hosts relevant S-polymetallic deposits that have intensely been exploited for centuries. Consequently, potential toxic elements, such as Hg and As, are widely distributed in the surrounding environment. In this paper, an extensive sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical stu...
Article
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We present the results of the geomorphological mapping of a region of the Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) including two contrasting physiographic units sharing a common drainage system into the Arabian Sea: the Jebel Qara limestone massif and the coastal plain of Salalah. Neogene to Quaternary tectonic activity controlled the formation of an extensive s...
Article
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Study of the climate in the Mediterranean basin during different historical periods has taken on a particular importance, particularly regarding its role (together with other factors) in the evolution of human settlement patterns. Although the Roman age is traditionally considered a period with a favourable climate, recent studies have revealed con...
Article
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Radiometric dating of glacial terminations over the past 640,000 years suggests pacing by Earth’s climatic precession, with each glacial-interglacial period spanning four or five cycles of ~20,000 years. However, the lack of firm age estimates for older Pleistocene terminations confounds attempts to test the persistence of precession forcing. We co...
Article
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We present a stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) and growth rate record from a southern Balkans stalagmite, LID1, de-posited between ca. 8.4 and 4.1 ka. Both stable isotope time series show significant changes at the centennial-millennial time scale, which are broadly consistent with variations in growth rate. The δ13C signal and the growth rate appear...
Article
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Understanding low temperature carbon sequestration through serpentinite-H2O-CO2 interaction is becoming increasingly important as it is considered a potential approach for carbon storage required to offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In this study, we present new insights into spontaneous CO2 mineral sequestration through the formation of hydromag...
Article
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Disentangling the effects of climate and human impact on the long-term evolution of the Earth Critical Zone is crucial to understand the array of its potential responses to the ongoing Global Change. This task requires natural archives from which local information about soil and vegetation can be linked directly to climate parameters. Here we prese...
Article
Lake Ohrid, located in the Central Mediterranean region downwind of the Italian volcanoes, has great potential for developing a detailed record of the explosive activity of these volcanoes. Electron microprobe and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry geochemical analyses of juvenile glass fragments of previously not analysed...
Article
Rationale: The suitability of organic matter (OM) removal pre-treatments in isotopic studies of lacustrine carbonates is currently under debate. Naturally occurring OM seems to have a negligible effect on the bulk isotopic composition of carbonates compared with changes induced by pre-treatments. This study provides further insights into the possi...
Article
Here we present the first tephrostratigraphic, palaeomagnetic, and multiproxy data from a new ~98 m-deep sediment core retrieved from the Fucino Basin, central Italy, spanning the last ~430 kyr. Palae-oenvironmental proxy data (Ca-XRF, gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility) show a cyclical variability related to interglacial-glacial cycles since th...
Preprint
Full-text available
RATIONALE: The suitability of organic matter (OM) removal pre-treatments in isotopic studies of lacustrine carbonates is currently under debate. Naturally occurring OM seems to have a negligible effect on the bulk isotopic composition of carbonates compared to changes induced by pre-treatments. This study provides further insights into the possible...
Poster
Full-text available
We present the preliminary results of a ~ 230 m deep borehole (CN1) drilled in the eastern part of the Paganica-San Demetrio-Castelnuovo Basin (PSC) (L’Aquila, central Italy), at the top of the Castelnuovo hill within the Valle Daria paleosurface (Fig. 1). The PSC is a NW-SE trending graben bordered by active normal faults and filled by Plio-Quater...
Article
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Mediterranean climates are characterized by strong seasonal contrasts between dry summers and wet winters. Changes in winter rainfall are critical for regional socioeconomic development, but are difficult to simulate accurately¹ and reconstruct on Quaternary timescales. This is partly because regional hydroclimate records that cover multiple glacia...
Article
The trace-element geochemistry of speleothems is becoming increasingly used for reconstructing palaeoclimate, with a particular emphasis on elements whose concentrations vary according hydrological conditions at the cave site (e.g. Mg, Sr, Ba and U). An important step in interpreting trace-element abundances is understanding the underlying processe...
Article
There are areas in the world where our understanding of past sea-level changes is less robust than in others. This is partly due to the difficulty past investigators had adopting i) high-resolution elevation measurement techniques (largely available only in the last decade) and ii) standardized methodological approaches to reconstruct past relative...
Article
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There are only a few data concerning the Quaternary climate fluctuations in the marine environments of the Atlantic Patagonian coast. In this regard, the aragonitic shell of the Ameghinomya antiqua bivalve offers the possibility to study the climate variability and the seasonal cycles of sea water temperature in the region at different geological t...
Article
Understanding the evolution of soil systems on geological time scales has become fundamentally important to predict future landscape development in light of rapid global warming and intensifying anthropogenic impact. Here, we use an innovative uranium isotope-based technique combined with organic carbon isotopes and elemental ratios of sediments fr...
Article
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The Mediterranean region and the Levant have returned some of the clearest evidence of a climatically dry period occurring around 4200 years ago. However, some regional evidence is controversial and contradictory, and issues remain regarding timing, progression, and regional articulation of this event. In this paper, we review the evidence from sel...
Article
Proxy records of past climate change spanning beyond the radiocarbon range commonly derive their chronologies from orbital tuning strategies, thus bounding our spatio-temporal reconstructions to a priori assumptions that can not be directly tested. Here we present a tephrochronologically constrained framework of past environmental and climatic chan...
Article
During the Quaternary several glaciations occurred in the mountain regions around the Mediterranean and, in recent years, new ages have better constrained their timing. However, this is not the case for the Apuan Alps, a high-rainfall mountain chain adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea. Here, in spite of the widespread evidence for glaciers, the compl...
Article
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Oxygen-isotope thermometry played a critical role in the rise of modern geochemistry and remains extensively used in (bio-)geoscience. Its theoretical foundations rest on the assumption that ¹⁸O/¹⁶O partitioning among water and carbonate minerals primarily reflects thermodynamic equilibrium. However, after decades of research, there is no consensus...
Article
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We present new data on the 4.2ka event in the central Mediterranean from Corchia Cave (Tuscany, central Italy) stalagmite CC27. The stalagmite was analyzed for stable isotopes (δ¹³C and δ¹⁸O) and trace elements (Mg, U, P, Y), with all proxies showing a coherent phase of reduced cave recharge between ca. 4.5 and 4.1kaBP. Based on the current climato...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable ambiguity remains over the extent and nature of millennial/centennial-scale climate instability during the Last Interglacial (LIG). Here we analyse marine and terrestrial proxies from a deep-sea sediment sequence on the Portuguese Margin and combine results with an intensively dated Italian speleothem record and climate-model experimen...
Article
Full-text available
We present new data on the 4.2ka BP event in the central Mediterranean from Corchia Cave (Tuscany, central Italy) stalagmite CC27. The stalagmite was analysed for stable isotopes (δ¹³C δ¹⁸O) and trace elements (Mg, U, P, Y), with all proxies showing a coherent phase of reduced cave recharge between ca. 4.5 and 4.1ka. Based on the current climatolog...