Giovanni Martinotti

Giovanni Martinotti
Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara | UNICH · Department of Neuroscience & Imaging

MD, PhD, PhB, MAA

About

501
Publications
170,546
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11,903
Citations
Citations since 2017
210 Research Items
8109 Citations
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Additional affiliations
June 2011 - present
Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara
Position
  • Lecturer and Clinical Reseracher
Education
November 2005 - January 2008
October 2001 - October 2005
November 1995 - June 2001

Publications

Publications (501)
Article
Purpose/background: Based on a population-pharmacokinetic model, the European Medicines Agency has recently approved a simplified starting strategy of aripiprazole once a month (AOM), injectable and long-acting antipsychotic, with two 400 mg injections and a single oral 20 mg dose of aripiprazole, administered on the same day, instead of 1 injecti...
Article
Background: Natural Cannabis (NC) and Synthetic Cannabinoids (SCs) use can increase the risk of developing psychotic disorders and exacerbate their course. Aims: To examine the differences between psychoses not associated with cannabis use and those associated with NC and SCs use, evaluating psychotic symptoms, global functioning, dissociative s...
Article
Introduction Gambling disorder (GD) consists in a persistent, recurrent pattern of gambling that is associated with substantial distress or impairment. The aetiology of GD is multifactorial. GD frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders, and is often untreated. Different psychosocial interventions, particularly cognitive-behavioural ther...
Article
Acute alcoholic hallucinosis is a psychotic disorder characterized by a predominance of auditory hallucinations with delusions and affective symptoms in the clinical picture. Classically, it develops as part of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The prevalence of acute alcoholic hallucinosis ranks second among alcohol-related psychoses after alcohol...
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Background: bipolar depression accounts for most of the disease duration in type I and type II bipolar disorder (BD), with few treatment options, often poorly tolerated. Many individuals do not respond to first-line therapeutic options, resulting in treatment-resistant bipolar depression (B-TRD). Esketamine, the S-enantiomer of ketamine, has recent...
Article
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) use has increased substantially over the past decade outside of its indigenous regions, especially for the self-treatment of psychiatric conditions. An anonymous, cross-sectional, online survey was completed by 4,945 people who use kratom (PWUK) between July 2019 and July 2020. A total of 2,296 respondents complet...
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Background Deficits in social cognition (SC) are significantly related to community functioning in schizophrenia (SZ). Few studies investigated longitudinal changes in SC and its impact on recovery. In the present study, we aimed: (a) to estimate the magnitude and clinical significance of SC change in outpatients with stable SZ who were assessed at...
Article
Introduction Lithium treatment is considered the gold standard for the long-term management of bipolar disorder and recurrent unipolar depression. It is also extremely effective in other psychiatric conditions characterized by impulsivity and aggression, and for the prevention of suicidal behviours. Areas covered This paper provides a review and e...
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Background: Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia. Recently, lurasidone was also extended FDA approval for adults with major depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (bipolar depression), as either a monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate. The...
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Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are often used for the long-term management also of bipolar disorder (BD). Nonetheless, evidence on their effect on pragmatic outcomes such as hospitalization risk in BD is inconsistent. We carried out a mirror-image study comparing rates and number of days of hospitalization, one year before and after th...
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Recreational drug intake may be associated with a range of medical untoward consequences, including male infertility. However, as the related evidence is still limited, the main outcome of this review is to provide a better understanding of the existence of any association between recreational drug misuse and male fertility levels’ decline. Whilst...
Article
Despite multiple available treatments for bipolar depression (BD), many patients face sub-optimal responses. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been advocated in the management of different conditions, including BD, especially in treatment-resistant cases. The optimal dose and timing of tDCS, the mutual influence with other concurre...
Article
Aims The Craving Typology Questionnaire (CTQ) is a psychometric instrument used to assess alcohol craving in normal controls and subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD). It allows a dimensional self-rating assessment of craving according to a three-pathway psychobiological model of craving distinguishing craving into a reward, relief and obsessive...
Article
Background Ibogaine and noribogaine are psychedelic substances with dissociative properties naturally occurring in plants of the Apocynaceae family. Research has shown their efficacy in treating substance use disorders (SUD), particularly in opiate detoxification, but their efficacy and toxicity are still unclear. Objective This review aims to ass...
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Background: Facebook represents a new dimension for global information sharing. Suicidal behaviours and attempts are increasingly reported on Facebook. This scoping review explores the various aspects of suicidal behaviours associated with Facebook, discussing the challenges and preventive measures. Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus we...
Article
Although psychotherapy is the first-line treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD), psychopharmacological agents have not been approved yet. Modulating brain functions with noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) interventions, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), may...
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Climate change can have various psychopathological manifestations which have been more actively addressed by scientific research only in recent years. Indeed, extreme weather events and environmental changes have been shown to be associated with a range of mental health problems. Following the destruction of ecosystems, biodiversity loss can cause...
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Background : Following Covid-19 pandemic, lockdown strategies have been adopted by many Governments worldwide to stop the spread of the virus. Twelve-step programs for people with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) as Narcotics Anonymous (NA) experienced forced interruption as well, in some cases organizing online meetings to continue their activities....
Article
Background Treatment-resistant Depression (TRD) represents a widespread disorder with significant direct and indirect healthcare costs. esketamine, the S-enantiomer of ketamine, has been recently approved for TRD, but real-world studies are needed to prove its efficacy in naturalistic settings. Objectives Evaluate the effectiveness and safety of e...
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Background Symptoms of depression are transdiagnostic heterogenous features frequently assessed in psychiatric disorders, that impact the response to first-line treatment and are associated with higher suicide risk. This study assessed whether severe mental pain could characterize a specific phenotype of severely depressed high-risk psychiatric pat...
Article
Objective Psychoactive substances use (including alcohol) can affect risk perception, leading to accidents and deaths. There is little detailed or up-to-date information on the role of drugs in United Kingdom (UK) drownings. This Scottish case-study aimed to fill this knowledge-gap. Methods Anonymised data for individual drug-poisoning related dro...
Preprint
Kratom ( Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) use has increased substantially over the past decade outside of its indigenous regions, especially for the self-treatment of psychiatric conditions. An anonymous, cross-sectional, online survey was completed by 4,945 people who use kratom (PWUK) between July 2019 and July 2020. A total of 2,296 respondents comple...
Article
Full-text available
Background The benzodiazepine drug alprazolam, a fast-acting tranquiliser, cannot be prescribed on the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. Illicit alprazolam supply and consumption have increased. Concern about increasing numbers of alprazolam-related fatalities started circulating in 2018. However, statistics on this issue are very limi...
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Global concern about problematic usage of the internet (PUI), and its public health and societal costs, continues to grow, sharpened in focus under the privations of the COVID-19 pandemic. This narrative review reports the expert opinions of members of the largest international network of researchers on PUI in the framework of the European Cooperat...
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Background: Obesity is a condition that affects humans both physically and mentally. Moreover, many psychopathological conditions can be observed in obese patients that may threaten the positive outcomes of bariatric surgery. Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the main psychopathological correlates of obese candidates for bariatric s...
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This cross-sectional study aimed to explore specific online behaviours and their association with a range of underlying psychological and other behavioural factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eight countries (Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, Lithuania, Portugal, Japan, Hungary, and Brazil) participated in an international investigation involving...
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Background Cognitive remediation (CR) is a promising technique in the treatment of the cognitive dimension of depression. The present study evaluated the potential of CR in treating depressive symptoms and provides practical information about its usefulness in clinical settings. Methods We performed two meta‐analyses of published randomized (and n...
Article
Introduction Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its precursor proBDNF contribute to brain plasticity and neuronal remodeling. Recently, the ratio between proBDNF and BDNF (RpB) has been proposed as a possible marker in major psychiatric disorders. Convergent lines of evidence suggest neurotrophins alterations could be involved into the pa...
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The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in women has recently received considerable attention, as research has shown an underestimation of the disorder in females, due to a difference in presentation compared to males: females have a higher risk of having ADHD, without those "disruptive" symptoms that determine the request for help. The...
Article
Background Concurrent disorder or dual diagnosis refers to a combination of substance use disorders and mental disorders that occur in the same patient simultaneously. These conditions pose significant clinical and healthcare impacts and are often underdiagnosed, undertreated, and complex to manage. Objective We assessed the quality of current pha...
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Introduction: Information on the off-label use of Long-Acting Injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in the real world is lacking. In this study, we aimed to identify the sociodemographic and clinical features of patients treated with on- vs off-label LAIs and predictors of off-label First- or Second-Generation Antipsychotic (FGA vs. SGA) LAI choice in e...
Preprint
Background. We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report was investigated. Methods. This retrospec...
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Abstract: In the past twenty years, the consumption of opioid medications has reached significant proportions, leading to a rise in drug misuse and abuse and increased opioid dependence and related fatalities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there are pharmacovigilance signals of abuse, misuse, and dependence and their natu...
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Purpose: The current study was designed to examine the relationship between health anxiety, cyberchondria (its constructs), and metacognitive beliefs. In addition, it also evaluated the moderating role of metacognitive beliefs in this relationship. Design and method: The present study used the purposive sampling technique to acquire a sample of...
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Despite increasing reports, antidepressant (AD) misuse and dependence remain underestimated issues, possibly due to limited epidemiological and pharmacovigilance evidence. Thus, here we aimed to determine available pharmacovigilance misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal signals relating to the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) citalopram,...
Article
Introduction Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are prescribed to people with severe psychiatric disorders who show poor adherence to oral medication. The present paper examined factors potentially associated with medication adherence to LAI treatment. Methods The STAR (Servizi Territoriali Associati per la Ricerca) Network Depot Study was...
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Severe restrictive measures were implemented globally to limit the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic leading to significant lifestyle changes and impacting on both the physical and the mental health of citizens. Caught by the fear of getting sick, some individuals have adopted behaviors which favored the development of exercise addiction (EA). Our ai...
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Background. Major Depressive Disorder represents a global burden disease with highly heterogenous clinical features. Approximately 30-50% of patients do not respond to first-line therapies, experimenting treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Recently Esketamine, an innovative and rapidly-acting agent, has been approved for the management of TRD. Es...
Article
Background Major depressive disorders represent a significant burden to the society, and it is recommended that antidepressant therapy should last at least 6 months. In Italy, antidepressant use in clinical practice was reported to increase by 1.7% in 2020 compared to 2019, but only 40% of new prescriptions are characterized by a treatment duration...
Article
Background: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) use outside of Southeast Asia has increased over the past decade. Objectives: This investigation clarifies kratom's role in perceived well-being, overall health, and temporal correlation with drug use to understand kratom's role in the self-treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). Methods: Bet...
Research
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Il presene contributo di ricerca si è posto l'obiettivo generale di valutare l'impatto psicologico nel periodo di quarantena dovuto all'emergenza nazionale e mondiale della pandemia per Coronavirus. Lo studio ha voluto indagare nello specifico gli aspetti dissociativi e alessitimici che si possono verificare in situazioni di forte stress correlato...
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The Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which first appeared in Wuhan, China, and was later declared a pandemic, has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Numerous efforts have been made worldwide to understand the disease's physical manifestation. However, less emphasis has been placed on the pandemic's mental health challenges for...
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(1) Background: Over the last decade, misuse and diversion of medications has appeared to be increasingly concerning phenomena, including a range of different molecules. As current knowledge on the abuse of centrally acting anticholinergics is limited, the aim of the present study is to review the relevant published data, focusing on the following...
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With the global COVID-19 pandemic, governments from many countries in the world implemented various restrictions to prevent the SARS-Cov-2 virus's spread, including social distancing measures, quarantine, in-home lockdown, and the closure of services and public spaces. This led to an increased use of social media platforms to make people feel more...
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Background Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a chronic and relapsing brain disorder with no approved treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promising results in open label and single-blind studies, reducing cocaine craving and consumption. Although, large randomized, double-blind, controlled trials are still missing....
Article
Introduction: Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is a mental disorder that involves one or more physical symptoms (e.g. palpitations, dizziness, diarrhoea, limb weakness, pain, and pseudo neurological symptoms) accompanied by one or more thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviours related to the somatic symptom(s) resulting in significant distress and/or dys...
Article
In this prospective study, we assessed the effectiveness and acceptability of paliperidone palmitate 1-month (PP1M) and aripiprazole monohydrate (AM) over 1-year follow-up. We included 195 subjects (117 treated with PP1M and 78 with AM) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders from real-world settings. We estimated no differences in hospitalization (O...
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This study aims to determine prevalence and frequency of use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and to identify the factors associated with NPS use in an Italian sample of patients diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). Prevalence and correlates of NPS knowledge and use were assessed in 185 patients with SUD in three addiction services (P...
Article
Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) is one of the diseases with the greatest social and health impact, due to the high cost of rehabilitation management and the high risk of dangerous behavior and relapse. This pathology frequently leads to unsuccessful attempts to interrupt the consumption, resulting in relapses and a vicious circle binge/intoxication, wit...
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With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the accelerated spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus came jurisdictional limitations on mobility of citizens and distinct alterations in their daily routines. Confined to their homes, many people increased their overall internet use, with problematic use of the internet (PUI) becoming a potential reason for inc...
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Schizophrenia is a major psychotic disorder affecting nearly 23.6 million people globally and greatly impacting the cognitive and social functioning of individuals. Multiple risk factors, including genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors have been identified. However, the exact mechanism by which some factors aid in the development of schizo...
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Early detection and prompt treatment of psychosis is of the utmost importance. The great variability in clinical onset, illness course, and response to pharmacological and psychosocial treatment is in great part gender-related. Our aim has been to review narratively the literature focusing on gender related differences in the psychoses, i.e., schiz...
Article
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Background: Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are efficacious in managing psychotic symptoms in people affected by severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The present study aimed to investigate whether attitude toward treatment and treatment adherence represent predictors of symptoms changes over time. Methods...
Article
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COVID-19 represents a significant stress factor for all people worldwide due to several factors, including quarantine, lockdowns, fear of contagion, deaths, and other traumatic events. However, the healthcare workers (HCWs) have paid the higher price of this pandemic in terms of fatalities, contagions, and psychological well-being. Studies suggest...
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Background: The Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) is the time between the first-episode psychosis (FEP) and the initiation of antipsychotic treatment. It is an important predictor of several disease-related outcomes in psychotic disorders. The aim of this manuscript is investigating the influence of cannabis on the DUP and its clinical correla...
Article
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In this study, we aimed to identify the current trend of novel psychoactive substance (NPS) consumption in Italy and the level of knowledge about NPS in the general population and to explore the presence of risk factors for a lifetime NPS misuse. We conducted an anonymous online survey, administered to a large sample of people of any age living in...
Article
Objective : Opioid abuse is a worrying reality especially in the US. The increase in the prescription of opioids in Europe poses the risk of a possible increase in the number of abusers also in Italy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the abuse of opioids in the youth population and to evaluate possible correlations with some psychopathological a...
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Background: Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) exhibit an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Objective: The aim is to investigate whether a previous diagnosis of BSDs influences the phenotype of PD. Methods: Of 2660 PD patients followed for at least 6 years (6-27), 250 (BSD-PD) had BSDs, 6-20 years before PD diagnosis; 48...
Article
Background: Nowadays there is an increasing use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) both in neurological and psychiatric fields. After Food and Drug Administration approval of TMS for the therapy of treatment-resistant depression, TMS has been widely used in the context of mood disorders (MD). However, growing reports regarding the possibil...
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Factitious disorder is classified as one of the five aspects of somatic symptom disorders. The fundamental element of factitious disorder is deception, i.e., pretending to have a medical or psychiatric disorder, but the enactment of deception is considered unconscious. Indeed, volition, i.e., the perception of deliberate deception, is blurred in pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: the aim of the study is the identification of the main psychopathological correlates of obese candidates for bariatric surgery, with particular attention to the relation between them and gender. Methods: 273 candidates for bariatric surgery for obesity underwent a psychiatric evaluation with compilation of psychometric scales: Revised Symp...
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IntroductionAlthough recent data show that SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to affect the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about the neuropsychiatric effects resulting from this condition. In addition to the well-known neurotrophism of coronaviruses, recent evidence shows also that the “cytokine storm” induced by the infection is at the basi...
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The pursuit of pleasure among clubbers and disco-goers often involves drug use. However, whether substance use may represent a relevant risk factor contributing to the development of psychiatric symptoms and of mental illness remains debated. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the percentage of subjects who developed long-lasting psychiatr...
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The obsessive–compulsive spectrum refers to disorders drawn from several diagnostic categories that share core features related to obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), such as obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors and anxiety. Disorders that include these features can be grouped according to the focus of the symptoms, e.g., bodily preoccupation...
Book
Full-text available
Psychiatry Trainees’ Attitudes, Knowledge, and Training in Addiction Psychiatry—A European Survey
Article
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Background and Objectives: Over the past twenty years a large number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered and modified the recreational drug scene. Their intake has been associated with health-related risks, especially so for vulnerable populations such as people with severe mental illness, who might be at higher risk of suicidality or...
Article
Background Suicide is a major public health problem on a global scale with about 800.000 deaths every year. In particular, it represents one of the main causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged between 15 and 29 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) describes suicide as “an act of deliberate killing,” which is placed at the extr...
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Background: Over the past 20 years or so, the drug misuse scenario has seen the emergence of both prescription-only and over-the-counter (OTC) medications being reported as ingested for recreational purposes. OTC drugs such as antihistamines, cough/cold medications, and decongestants are reportedly the most popular in being diverted and misused. Ob...
Article
Background: Schizophrenia is frequently complicated by the occurrence of depressive symptoms, anhedonia, obsessions and compulsions, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse, that causes exacerbations and remissions and, in several cases, sustained morbidity and disability. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of paliperidone palmit...