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Giovanni S Leonardi

Giovanni S Leonardi
UK Health Security Agency, Directorate for Radiation Chemical and Environmental Hazards

MD MSc

About

232
Publications
22,067
Reads
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3,221
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2021 - present
UK Health Security Agency
Position
  • Head Environmental Epidemiology
April 2013 - September 2021
Public Health England
Position
  • Head Epidemiology Dpt then Head Environmental Epidemiology Group
Description
  • Environmental epidemiology and environmental public health, including environmental public health surveillance
April 2003 - March 2013
Health Protection Agency
Position
  • Consultant
Description
  • Environmental epidemiology and environmental public health, including environmental public health surveillance
Education
April 1997 - September 2001
Faculty of Public Health
Field of study
  • Public Health, leading to Membership (2001) then Fellowship (2006) of the Faculty of Public Health
October 1993 - September 1994
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Field of study
  • Environmental Epidemiology and Policy
January 1989 - July 1989
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Public Health

Publications

Publications (232)
Article
Full-text available
Tap water from 497 properties using private water supplies, in an area of metalliferous and arsenic mineralisation (Cornwall, UK), was measured to assess the extent of compliance with chemical drinking water quality standards, and how this is influenced by householder water treatment decisions. The proportion of analyses exceeding water quality sta...
Article
Full-text available
Unintentional non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to cause fatalities. The narrative verdicts from coroners concerning fatal UNFR CO poisoning in England and Wales, 1998–2019, were collated by the Office for National Statistics. Search terms related to CO exposure were used to obtain information regarding the circumstan...
Article
There are important questions surrounding the potential contribution of outdoor and indoor air quality in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and perpetuation of COVID-19 epidemic waves. Environmental health may be a critical component of COVID-19 prevention. The public health community and health agencies should consider the evolving evidence in their...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, reports of lead contamination have dramatically increased in Georgia. Given concerns about the exposure of children to lead (Pb), the National Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS-2018) included a blood sampling component. The results showed that 41% of the children that participated had blood Pb levels (BLL) ≥ 5 µg/dL and that...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a major public health issue worldwide. People are exposed to CO in their daily lives, with one of the common sources of CO being cigarette smoking. Inhalation of CO leads to elevated carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in the blood and also in exhaled CO concentration. Several factors have been shown to affect COHb co...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may be immunotoxic, evidence for this in humans is scarce. We studied the association between 4 PFASs (perfluorohexane sulfonate [PFHxS], perfluorooctanoic acid [PFOA], perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS] and perfluorononanoic acid [PFNA]) and circulating levels of several types of immune cells. M...
Technical Report
Full-text available
World Health Organisation Manual for investigating suspected outbreaks of illnesses of possible chemical etiology. Guidance for investigation and control Available at link: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240021754
Article
Full-text available
Climate change (CC) is the most challenging environmental health (EH) concern. Air pollution is closely linked to CC. However, many CC-health-related conditions (i.e., allergic diseases, asthma, hypertension, fluid and electrolyte disorders, child and adult obesity, type 2 diabetes, vector-borne diseases) are not usually counted, either because the...
Article
Full-text available
In the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has become clear that primary healthcare systems play a critical role in clinical care, such as patient screening, triage, physical and psychological support and also in promoting good community advice and awareness in coordination with secondary healthcare and preventive care. Because of the role of socia...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document is the product of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional working group called “Environment and Health Synergies”, set up within the National Environment and Health Task Force of the Italian Ministry of Health, with the aim of identifying organizational and operational priorities to promote/realize synergies between the two sector...
Article
Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between exposure to outdoor and indoor solid fuel combustion and adverse health effects. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence from Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand on the association between outdoor and indoor exposure to solid fuel combustion and respiratory outcomes in...
Article
The national response for reducing lead (Pb) exposure in Georgia is coordinated by the National Centre for Disease Control and Public Health (NCDC&PH) and implemented as a multi-agency (CDC, UNICEF, WHO, University of Emory) response. Given concerns about the extent of Pb exposure, in 2018 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) of representative...
Article
To address the complex relationship between environment and health, public-health professionals have recognized the benefits of building enduring interdisciplinary partnerships and of developing innovative Environmental and Public Health Tracking (EPHT) systems. In specific, EPHT can increase understanding of environmental health threats; improve c...
Article
Full-text available
Both climate change and migration present key concerns for global health progress. Despite this, a transparent method for identifying and understanding the relationship between climate change, migration and other contextual factors remains a knowledge gap. Existing conceptual models are useful in understanding the complexities of climate migration,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Public health monitoring of Community Water Fluoridation (CWF) schemes requires estimates of exposure to fluoride in public water supplies (PWS). We aimed to use routine data to estimate population exposure to PWS-fluoride in England and to determine whether PWS-fluoride exposure from 2005-2015 could be used as a proxy for exposure for...
Article
Full-text available
The Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0 (RIF) is a new user-friendly and open-access tool, developed by the UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU), to facilitate environment public health tracking (EPHT) or surveillance (EPHS). The RIF is designed to help public health professionals and academics to rapidly perform exploratory investigations of health...
Article
Full-text available
Unintentional non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data on UNFR CO poisoning can help monitor changes in the magnitude of this burden, particularly through comparisons of multiple countries, and to identify vulnerable sub-groups of the population which may be more...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Flooding is expected to increase due to climate change, population growth and urban development. The longer-term mental health impacts of flooding are not well understood. In 2015, the English National Study of Flooding and Health was established to improve understanding of the impact of flooding on health and inform future public heal...
Article
Full-text available
Global environmental change has degraded ecosystems. Challenges such as climate change, resource depletion (with its huge implications for human health and wellbeing), and persistent social inequalities in health have been identified as global public health issues with implications for both communicable and noncommunicable diseases. This contribute...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is an important public health issue around the world. Research indicates that many factors may be related to the rate of CO uptake and elimination in the human body. However, some factors related to CO uptake and elimination are considered controversial. Relatively little attention has been devoted to rev...
Chapter
Full-text available
Contents 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Section 1: Climate change, the main challenge of the ecological public health approach 10.2.1 The concept of the “ecological public health” model 10.2.2 Societal systems and their transitions 10.2.3 Why is the ecological public health approach the way to address climate change? 10.3 Section 2: Social impacts of...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To identify the risk factors related to the prognosis of carbon monoxide (CO)-poisoned patients in the hospital. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Tri-Service General Hospital, Taiwan. Methods We conducted a review of the medical records of 669 CO-poisoned patients, who were admitted to the Department of Emergency, Tri...
Poster
Full-text available
Total Blood CO (TBCO) as biomarker for CO poisonings provides more valid results and is more stable even under different storage conditions compared to carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). It can be used to predict COHb even when sample degradation hinders optical measurements. A correction formula is provided to be used in laboratories or circumstances where...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Children incur lead toxicity even at low blood-lead concentrations (BLCs), and testing in England is opportunistic. We described epidemiology of cases notified to a passive laboratory-based surveillance system (SS), the Lead Poisoning in Children (LPIC) SS to inform opportunities to prevent lead exposure in children in England. Method...
Article
Full-text available
Floods are a significant public health problem linked with increased psychological morbidity. We aimed to investigate the effect of insurance-related factors on the association between flooding and probable mental health outcomes. We performed a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data from the English National Study of Flooding and Health...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Industrially contaminated sites represent a major environmental health issue, as they embrace exposure to many environmental hazardous pollutants from multiple sources affecting air, water, soil and food chain. COST Action on Industrially Contaminated Sites and Health Network (ICSHNet) since 2015 has been greatly contributing to consolidate the awa...
Article
Objectives: migration has become a key concern all over the worlds. It is necessary to identify and understand the relationship between climate change, migration and contextual factors: social, economic, political, demographic and environmental. Methods: this paper attempts to address these very complex issues by identifying the drivers of migrati...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY Objectives: migration has become a key concern all over the world. It is necessary to identify and understand the relationship between climate change, migration and contextual factors: social, economic, political, demographic and environmental. Methods: this paper attempts to address these very complex issues by identifying the drivers of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Clusters of diseases may be identified and reported to Local Authorities or Public Health England (PHE) by concerned citizens or health care professionals. Potential clusters may be groups of people or cases with apparent similar infections (eg flu, measles) or non-infectious diseases such as cancers, chronic diseases, congenital anomalies or unusu...
Article
Full-text available
Health effects due to the environment are among the most challenging concerns faced by our future. In particular global climate changes. However, the connection between the environment and human health as part of clinician's activities is rather undeveloped. We performed a literature review, finding that many Sentinel Physician Networks have been d...
Article
Full-text available
DISCUSSION: our revision identified an overall lack of national surveillance programmes of ICSs, rather than gaps in individual dimensions of surveillance. The epidemiological approaches reviewed provided methods, some of which could be adopted for an EPHT in ICSs. However, a large proportion of examples suffers from poor exposure characterization,...
Presentation
Full-text available
Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most abundant toxic air pollutants in the atmosphere and the cause of numerous hospital admissions and fatalities after domestic accidents in many countries worldwide. However, CO poisonings are often misdiagnosed and therefore missing in the reported statistics, undermining the real danger CO poses. One of the un...
Poster
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas produced by incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon-based materials. Due to its lack of taste, odor and color, CO is difficult to detect by humans, hence leading cause of accidental deaths in many countries. Current biomarker carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) is mainly determined through optical methods. During dela...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly, the potential short and long-term impacts of climate change on human health and wellbeing are being demonstrated. However, other environmental change factors, particularly relating to the natural environment, need to be taken into account to understand the totality of these interactions and impacts. This paper provides an overview of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The longer term impact of flooding on health is poorly understood. In 2015, following widespread flooding in the UK during winter 2013/14, Public Health England launched the English National Study of Flooding and Health. The study identified a higher prevalence of probable psychological morbidity one year after exposure to flooding. We...
Conference Paper
Background/aim Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the leading causes of domestic deaths. Exposure occurs in- and outdoors, in occupational or accidental (e.g. fires) settings, or by smoking. Current biomarker COHb has poor correlation with symptoms of CO poisoning, which are unspecific. Thus, this study aims to evaluate alternative methods for estimati...
Conference Paper
Background/aim Climate change can both directly and indirectly drive human migration. Despite this, strong understanding of the system of determinants of migration and their interactions, remains a knowledge gap resulting in large uncertainties and ill-informed interventions. Objectives To create a new conceptual model for the identification of dr...
Article
Full-text available
Dust elemental levels can be expressed as concentrations (bulk samples) or surface loadings (wipe samples). Wipe sampling has not been widely adopted for elements other than lead (Pb). In this study, 433 wipe samples from 130 households in south west England– a region of widespread, natural and anthropogenic arsenic contamination linked with previo...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately one million people in the UK are served by private water supplies (PWS) where main municipal water supply system connection is not practical or where PWS is the preferred option. Chronic exposure to contaminants in PWS may have adverse effects on health. South West England is an area with elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the primary cause for access to emergency department (ED) services for more than 50,000 persons in Europe and the USA every year. CO poisoning diagnosis is based on multiple factors and is usually confirmed by high carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in the blood. We conducted a systematic evaluation of literature to i...
Chapter
Full-text available
Big data refers to large, complex, potentially linkable data from diverse sources, ranging from the genome and social media, to individual health information and the contributions of citizen science monitoring, to large-scale long-term oceanographic and climate modeling and its processing in innovative and integrated “data mashups.” Over the past f...
Article
Full-text available
Background Extensive flooding occurred during the winter of 2013–14 in England. Previous studies have shown that flooding affects mental health. Using data from the 2013–14 Public Health England National Study of Flooding and Health, we compared the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder between participan...