Giovanni Caudullo

Giovanni Caudullo
European Commission | ec · Joint Research Centre (JRC)

M.Sc. in Forestry and Environmental Science
Spatial data analyst for European Commission Joint Research Centre

About

129
Publications
171,267
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Introduction
After a Master degree in Forestry and Environmental Science hold from the Università degli Studi di Padova, I have worked for six years as a freelance environmental and GIS consultant for private companies and public authorities. I'm currently working at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre as senior GIS analyst, operating with spatial and temporal indicators from local to Europe-wide scale and developing procedures for automatic data processing.
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - present
European Commission
Position
  • Senior spatial analyst
Education
September 1993 - March 2002
University of Padova
Field of study
  • Environmental assessment

Publications

Publications (129)
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document summarizes the design process, definitions, and algorithmic implementation conducted by the Joint Research Centre to support the development and implementation of a European-wide analysis of forest connectivity. The analysis scheme and data products were designed for the indicator Forest Connectivity in the Regional Yearbook 2022 repo...
Article
Full-text available
We present “EU-Trees4F”, a dataset of current and future potential distributions of 67 tree species in Europe at 10 km spatial resolution. We provide both climatically suitable future areas of occupancy and the future distribution expected under a scenario of natural dispersal for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and three time steps (2...
Article
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The alpine tundra is the highest elevation belt of high mountains. This zone is an important reservoir of freshwater and provides habitat to unique species. This study assesses projected changes in the areal extent of the alpine tundra climate zone in three warming levels in European mountains. The alpine tundra was delineated using the Köppen-Geig...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The JRC PESETA IV study shows that ecosystems, people and economies in the EU will face major impacts from climate change if we do not urgently mitigate greenhouse gas emissions or adapt to climate change. The burden of climate change shows a clear north-south divide, with southern regions in Europe much more impacted, through the effects of extrem...
Data
The alpine tundra domain occurs at altitude in the high mountains in Europe. It is an important reservoir of freshwater and provides habitat to unique species. The natural climatic treeline is projected to gradually advance vertically upward with global warming and the domain would shrink by 84% of its present size in a 3°C warming scenario. Limiti...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The alpine tundra domain occurs in the high elevation zones of some of Europe’s mountain ranges. It is an important reservoir of freshwater and provides habitat to unique species. Almost 20% of the domain falls within Natura 2000 sites. The treeline, which is below the domain, represents the forest limit. Despite the importance of high mountains li...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document summarizes the design process, definitions, and algorithmic implementation conducted by the Joint Research Centre to support the development and implementation of FAO’s global forest analysis for the thematic topics Accounting and Fragmentation. The analysis scheme and data products were designed to support the indicator Forest Fragme...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes the maps on tree species distribution routinely produced at Joint Research Centre, and the data sets used to produce them. Its aim is to help those searching for information on forest tree species distribution in Europe and to identify which of the maps might fit their needs, what their strengths and weaknesses are, and what d...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming is altering climate patterns and the frequency and magnitude of heat and drought events affecting ecosystems worldwide. One of the effects of these changes is tree mortality driven by heat and drought, which have effects in forest ecosystem functions, services and biodiversity. Therefore, systematic observations and georeferenced dat...
Chapter
The Mediterranean basin is the richest biodiversity region in Europe and a global hotspot of biological diversity. In spite of that, anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious concerns for nature conservation in this region. One of the climatic threats is represented by shifts of the Mediterranean climate and expansion of the arid clim...
Book
Full-text available
The study assesses how climate change could affect Europe in eleven impact areas. Under a high warming scenario, several climate impacts show a clear geographical northsouth divide. Most of the welfare losses, assessed for six impact areas, would be greatly reduced under a 2ᵒC scenario. ► How to cite: ◄ Ciscar Martinez, J.-C., Ibarreta Ruiz, D.,...
Article
Full-text available
The Mediterranean basin is the richest biodiversity region in Europe and a global hotspot of biological diversity. In spite of that, anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious concerns for nature conservation in this region. One of the climatic threats is represented by shifts of the Mediterranean climate and expansion of the arid clim...
Chapter
The Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) is a deciduous conifer, which has its natural range restricted to mountainous areas of central Honshu Island in Japan. This tree is particularly appreciated for timber production, as it is a frugal and fast-growing species, producing a durable wood of good quality. For these reasons Japanese larch has been plant...
Article
Full-text available
A novel chorological data compilation for the main European tree and shrub species is presented. This dataset was produced by combining numerous and heterogeneous data collected from 20th century atlas monographs providing complete species distribution maps, and from more recent national to regional atlases, occurrence geodatabases and scientific l...
Data
The data are organized as a set of ESRI shapefiles (*.shp, *.shx, *.dbf, *.prj files) mapping the distribution ranges of the main European tree and shrub species. For each species, and in some cases subspecies, one or more shapefiles have been created containing: a) polygon features (name suffix “plg”), which define continuous areas of occupancy of...
Book
Full-text available
𝗛𝗘𝗔𝗗𝗟𝗜𝗡𝗘 A modelling approach to estimate the 𝘮𝘢𝘹𝘪𝘮𝘶𝘮 extent of the bioclimatic habitat suitability (HS) of tree species (and long-lived perennial plants in general). Underlying the maps in the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species, the approach is linked to the bioclimatic conditions characterising the habitats under which the taxon is suitable to...
Research
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https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cupressus_sempervirens_range.svg Distribution comprising synanthropic areas. Probable natural range in the Mediterranean Basin. Residual natural stands.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Enhancing Connectivity, Improving Green Infrastructure This pilot study over Lombardy addresses the cost-effective spatial development of a well-connected Green Infrastructure (GI) relevant to the integration of forest, agri-environment and regional development policies. The structural continuity and functional connectivity of semi-natural vegetati...
Article
Full-text available
The Mediterranean basin is a global hotspot of biological diversity and the most rich biodiversity region in Europe. Nevertheless, climate-driven habitat loss is one of the most serious concerns for biodiversity conservation in this region. We assess Mediterranean habitat loss and conversion into arid habitat under scenarios of climate change and e...
Chapter
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Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) is a large conifer that can be found in central Europe and some parts of Southern and Eastern Europe. It is one of the tallest tree species of the genus Abies in Europe. This tree is considered an important ecological and functional balancer of European forests and a fundamental species for maintaining high biodiversit...
Chapter
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[From the introduction] In Europe, 33 % of the total land area (215 million ha) is covered by forests, with a positive trend of increase for the forested areas. Other wooded lands cover an additional area of 36 million ha. 113 million ha are covered by coniferous forests, 90 million ha by broadleaved ones and 48 million ha by mixed forests. Forest...
Chapter
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[𝗘𝘅𝗰𝗲𝗿𝗽𝘁] The European Commission has recently published a Forest Strategy for the European Union [...], explicitly calling for “advanced research and modelling tools to fill data and knowledge gaps to better understand the complex issues around social, economic and environmental changes related to forests”. The global change in its environmental (...
Chapter
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Quercus ilex L., known as holm oak or evergreen oak, is a broadleaved tree or shrub, which can grow up to 25 m. It is characterised by coriaceous dark green leaves with a woolly lower side, and small acorns. It is native to the centralwestern Mediterranean basin, where it represents the dominating species in woodlands and maquis vegetation. It is a...
Chapter
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Quercus pubescens Willd., the downy or pubescent oak, is a middle-sized deciduous or semi-deciduous tree. Frequent hybridisation with other oaks, the complex sequence of survival and migration events during Pleistocene glaciations and the fragmentation of its populations due to long-lasting human impact are responsible for the remarkable variabilit...
Chapter
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Quercus robur L., (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., (sessile oak) are common broadleaved tree species in Europe, found from Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula. The two species are quite similar in appearance and have a broadly overlapping range. Oak trees have cultural significance for people throughout Europe and the trees or...
Chapter
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Robinia pseudoacacia L., commonly known as black locust, is a tree native to North America and is one of the most important and widespread broadleaved alien trees in Europe. It is a medium-sized, deciduous, fast-growing thorny tree with high suckering capacity. It has been extensively planted in Europe and now it is naturalised in practically the w...
Chapter
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Salix caprea L., commonly known as goat willow, is a pioneer and a fast-growing plant, which has a wide distributional area across Europe and Asia in the boreal and temperate zones. The scientific name caprea means goat, which probably derives from the fact that its leaves were used as goat fodder. Due to its wide distribution range and its high ec...
Chapter
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Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz or common whitebeam (syn. Aria nivea) is a medium sized deciduous tree or shrub, characterised by white small flowers arranged in inflorescences, which develop lenticel-speckled reddish pomes. It is a mountain species of southern, western and central Europe, occurring mainly in openings and at the edges of European limestone...
Chapter
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The wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) is a fast-growing, light-demanding, clonally resprouting forest tree of disturbed forest patches and forest edges. It is widely distributed in southern, western and central Europe, but is a weak competitor that rarely dominates forests and never occurs in pure stands. The wild service tree is ab...
Chapter
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Tilia cordata Mill., known as small-leaved lime, and Tilia platyphyllos Scop., known as large-leaved lime, are very similar trees, both native to Europe and preferring warmer climates. Growing into large trees, they occur from southern Finland to southern Italy, and from the Caucasus to north-west Spain and Wales. Limes prefer lowlands to higher el...
Chapter
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Among elm tree species, prevalently concentrated in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, three species are present in Europe with a wide range and native to most countries: the European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) which has a more southern range, the wych elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.) which has a more northern range, and the field elm (U...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Forests are rich in biodiversity and valuable for recreation, water regulation and soil protection. As well as for providing timber and other non-wood forest products, forests are important for mitigating climate change and for the renewable energy sector. Forest ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental, economic and social pressures that...
Book
Full-text available
The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaborat...
Chapter
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Cornus mas L., commonly named as cornelian cherry, is a bushy shrub or small tree producing olive-shaped red fruits which are fleshy and edible. It is native of temperate zones, from central to southern Europe and eastwards to Asia Minor. It is light-demanding and occurs in warm and dry sites at forest edges and open areas as an element of sub-Medi...
Chapter
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Ecosystems may be classified into a variety of groups or zones according to their homogeneity. An Ecological Zone may be defined as an area with broad yet relatively homogeneous natural vegetation formations that are similar, although not necessarily identical. Several key aspects of forest resources are influenced at the global and continental sc...
Chapter
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Among the coniferous species, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is one of the most important trees in Europe both for economic and ecological aspects, with a long tradition of cultivation. It can be a big tree, reaching 50-60 m in height with a straight and regular trunk, particularly used for timber constructions, pulpwood for paper and furn...
Chapter
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Taxus baccata L., known as European or English yew, is a conifer native to Europe. It is an unusual conifer in that it does not actually bear cones, but berries. Unlike other conifers it is also non-resinous and is tolerant to repeated pruning. It has a very large environmental tolerance but is susceptible to waterlogging. Extremely long lived but...
Chapter
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Pinus mugo Turra, the dwarf mountain pine, is a small tree, or, more typically, a shrub with many spreading stems, and dense, two-needled shoots. Among European pines, it is the most tolerant to cold climates and to bedrock lithology, adapted to any rocky habitat in the high-altitude mountains of Central and Eastern Europe, while merging with the c...
Chapter
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Picea omorika (Pančić) Purk., the Serbian spruce, is a living fossil tree restricted to a small area at the boundary of Serbia and Bosnia Herzegovina. It grows in cool temperate mixed forests on mountain slopes but also withstands poorly aerated soils. Poor regeneration, fire impact in the 19th century and forest tree competition together with clim...
Chapter
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Most European firs occur predominantly in small to medium-sized populations in the Mediterranean region, sometimes with fragmented and limited distributions, except for silver fir (Abies alba). They all are genetically closely related and can easily hybridise, perhaps as a consequence of late speciation during the late Quaternary. Circum-Mediterran...
Chapter
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Field maple (Acer campestre L.) is a medium-sized tree commonly growing in most of Europe and extending its range eastwards to the Caspian Sea. It is a mesophile species, forming part of temperate mixed deciduous forests as a subdominant tree. Together with elms, this maple has been planted traditionally in rural areas as living props for grapevine...
Chapter
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Acer platanoides L., commonly known as Norway maple, is a large tree that is widespread in central Europe and reaching eastwards the Ural Mountains. It is a fast-growing species, able to grow in a wide range of soils and habitat conditions. In natural stands it occurs in fresh and humid sites in temperate mixed forests, both with conifers and broad...
Chapter
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Aesculus hippocastanum L., the European horse-chestnut, is a mesophytic broad-leaved tree native to a few mountain ranges in the Balkan Peninsula, but widespread in the urban landscape of moist, warm-temperate Europe. The morphology and ecology of its large seeds are very distinctive, and they are also known for their medicinal properties. Natural...
Chapter
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Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, known as tree of heaven, is native to China, but it can be found in several countries across Europe and North America. Tree-of-Heaven is known as an invasive species that can rapidly spread onto disturbed sites or fragmented landscapes.
Chapter
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The Italian alder (Alnus cordata (Loisel.) Duby) is a medium-sized pioneer tree, native of the hill and mountain areas in southern Italy. It is also present in Corsica and western Albania. This tree is a fast-growing species, able to colonise different kinds of soils in borders and open areas, so that it has been used widely for soil protection and...
Chapter
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Common or black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) is a short-lived, rather small but fast growing broadleaved tree that can be found over most of Europe. It needs a high availability of moisture to grow well, and can often be found along river banks, lake shores and in marshy locations. It is able to fix nitrogen in symbiotic root nodules making...
Chapter
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Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) are short-lived, relatively small broadleaved trees that occur throughout most of Europe, particularly in northern regions. In southern Europe, birch trees are confined to mountainous areas, as they do not tolerate prolonged summer drought. Birch has a light canopy of small...
Chapter
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The grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) is a relatively small short-lived deciduous tree that can be found across the Northern Hemisphere. Normally associated with riparian areas, it is extremely frost tolerant and can be found up to the tree line in parts of northern Europe. Like the common alder (Alnus glutinosa), it is a fast-growing pioneer a...
Chapter
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Alnus viridis (Chaix.) D.C., known as green alder, is a native deciduous shrub or small tree that grows up to 6 m, occasionally taller, distributed widely across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere, from north-west America to Japan through Central Europe. It is a light-demanding, fast-growing shrub that grows well on poorer soils. The speci...
Chapter
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The common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) is a small-medium deciduous tree which usually grows 20-25 m in height, rarely exceeding 30 m. In winter it is recognisable for its brown leaves which stay attached, dropping only in spring when the new green leaves are starting to come out. Its natural range extends from the Pyrenees to southern Sweden and...
Chapter
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The prickly juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus L.) is a thermophile shrub or small tree native across the Mediterranean region, around the Black Sea and Middle East. It grows in dry areas on the coasts and lowlands under Mediterranean climate conditions, but it is also found in higher elevations in wetter forests with a more continental environment. It i...
Chapter
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Carpinus orientalis Mill., commonly known as oriental hornbeam, is a small tree or shrub commonly found on dry and rocky slopes of low elevation mountains in South-East Europe. Its wide distribution range reaches through the Black Sea to the Caucasus region. It is a frugal and drought-resistant species, which prefers calcareous soils and is frequen...
Chapter
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The common, or red, dogwood (Cornus sanguinea L.) is a deciduous shrub of cool temperate climates. It is commonly present in most of Europe and West Asia in broadleaved forests as an understorey shrub or in fringes and glades. It grows in different types of soils and conditions, reproducing by seed and also propagating by adventitious roots. Thanks...
Chapter
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The sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is the only native species of the genus in Europe. The broad diffusion and active management by man resulted in the establishment of the species at the limits of its potential ecological range, which makes it difficult to trace its original natural area. The present distribution ranges from North-Western A...
Chapter
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Celtis australis L., commonly known as southern nettle tree or European hackberry, is native in South Europe from the Mediterranean Basin to Asia Minor. It prefers sunny exposures in thermophile mixed deciduous forests, well adapted to rocky soils lacking in humus, where it is able to crush rocks entering their fissures with its strong roots. Thank...
Chapter
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The conifer Lawson cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) is native to a small area in North America. Variable in form, there are over 200 cultivars selected for horticultural purposes. It has been planted in many countries in Europe, usually as an ornamental, although the timber is also of good quality. It has been severely affected...
Chapter
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Cupressus sempervirens L., known as Mediterranean or common cypress, is a medium-sized evergreen coniferous tree characterised by a very variable crown shape, from columnar to spread, dark green foliage and small ovoid brown cones. Its natural habitats are the semi-arid mountains around the eastern Mediterranean basin and Middle East. However, as i...
Chapter
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Corylus avellana L. (European hazel or common hazel) is a monoecious and wind-pollinated broadleaf species. It is usually an understory shrub, very common in naturally regenerated mixed-hardwood stands. It can be found throughout Europe, from Norway to the Iberian Peninsula and east as far as the Urals. This species is very appreciated for its nuts...
Chapter
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The Eucalyptus globulus Labill., commonly named as Tasmanian blue gum, is an evergreen broadleaf tree native to south-eastern Australia. In Europe it is mainly cultivated in the Iberian Peninsula for paper pulp production, managed as short rotation coppice stands. It is appreciated for its adaptation and fast-growing aptitude. Rapid environmental c...
Chapter
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Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, narrowed-leaved ash, is a medium-sized tree with a wide range, which covers central-southern Europe and northwest Africa, up to the Caucasus. The northern part of its distribution overlaps with that of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), with which it can naturally hybridise, developing plants with intermediate trait forms....
Chapter
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Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with large compound leaves that develop relatively late in spring. It flowers before leaf-buds burst and trees can carry male, female, or hermaphrodite flowers, or different combinations of the flower types. It grows throughout the European temperate zone, but is absent from the dr...
Chapter
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Fraxinus ornus L., commonly known as manna ash, is a small-medium deciduous tree, producing abundant large and scented inflorescences which attract several pollinating insects. Its range covers southern-western Europe with isolated population in South Turkey, western Syria and Lebanon, occurring typically in Mediterranean temperate hill and mountai...
Chapter
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Fagus sylvatica L., or European beech, is one of the most important and widespread broadleaved trees in Europe. It is a large deciduous tree that can maintain its high growth rate until late maturity. Its natural range extends from southern Scandinavia to Sicily, from Spain in the west to northwest Turkey in the east. Though not demanding of soil t...
Chapter
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Euonymus europaeus L., known as spindle, is a shrub or small tree, appreciated for its numerous, capsular pink and red fruits and the attractive autumn colouring foliage. It has a wide distribution in temperate regions, generally at low to middle elevations. It is present in Central and Eastern Europe up to the Caucasus as an understorey shrub prin...
Chapter
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Alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill.) is a shrub or small tree of 4-5 m, characterised by fleshy fruits. Its wide distribution covers most of the temperate forest zone of Europe up to the Urals and Caucasus, occurring even in the southern Boreal and cool Mediterranean forests. It is a light-demanding pioneer species, thriving on forest edges and f...
Chapter
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Juglans regia L., commonly known as common, English or Persian walnut, is an economically very important tree species, prized both for its nuts and for its attractive high-quality timber. It is the most widespread nut tree worldwide.
Chapter
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Juniperus communis L., known as juniper or common juniper, is the most widespread of the European conifers worldwide. It is one of the main species within the genus Juniperus, which comprises a large number of species. Common juniper is the only one of them that occurs in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
Chapter
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Juniperus phoenicea L., commonly known as Phoenician juniper, is a shrub or small evergreen tree, characterised by scaled leaves and berry-like fleshy fruits red to brown in colour. It occurs in patchy and often isolated populations over the whole Mediterranean region, included Morocco and Portugal, Canary and Madeira Islands, Sinai Peninsula and S...
Chapter
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The Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera L.) is a small coniferous evergreen tree that forms open woodlands on poor soils with Mediterranean continental climate. Its natural range is the western part of the Mediterranean basin, mainly Spain, where is currently colonising new areas due to abandonment of arable lands. The Spanish juniper woodlands ar...
Chapter
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Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., known as European hop-hornbeam, is a small to medium-sized broadleaved deciduous tree. The flowers are catkins which are produced in spring along with bud-burst; the fruit forms in pendulous clusters and the seed is a small nut. The native range of this species includes Middle Europe, Southern Europe and the Balkan area,...
Chapter
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The European holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) is an evergreen small tree or shrub, with characteristic coriaceous dark green leaves with spines and red berry fruits. Holly grows in Western Europe, Western Balkans and North Turkey up to the Caucasus, preferring Atlantic climates. It adapts to different soil conditions, occurring mainly as understorey vege...
Chapter
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The European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) is a pioneer, very long-lived, fast-growing coniferous tree, which occurs in the central and eastern mountains of Europe, forming open forests or pasture woods at the upper tree limits. Larch is the only deciduous conifer in Europe as an adaptation to continental alpine climates. In fact, it is able to toler...
Chapter
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The olive (Olea europaea L.) is a small evergreen tree which grows slowly and is able to live over 1,000 years. It has been cultivated for millennia throughout the Mediterranean basin probably domesticating the oleaster, its wild form. This species is a typical tree of the Mediterranean vegetation, well adapted to drought and poor soils, and also r...
Chapter
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Arolla or Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) is a slow-growing, long lived conifer that grows at high altitudes (up to the tree line) with continental climate and is able to resist to very low winter temperature. It has large edible seeds which are dispersed principally by the European nutcracker. The timber is strong and of good quality but it is...
Chapter
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Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, known as European black pine or black pine, is a fast-growing conifer with a wide but fragmented distribution across Europe and Asia Minor, predominantly in mountain areas. It has also become naturalised in some areas in North America. It is subdivided into several distinct subspecies and its taxonomic status is still a sub...
Chapter
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Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a pioneer deciduous wind-pollinated tree species, widely distributed across Europe, Asia and northern Africa. In Europe it is considered as an important species of floodplain forests, but it is currently close to extinction in several parts of its range.