Giovanni Carbone

Giovanni Carbone
University of Milan | UNIMI · Dipartimento di Scienze sociali e politiche

Doctor of Philosophy

About

24
Publications
30,532
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549
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
270 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202301020304050

Publications

Publications (24)
Book
Cambridge Core - African History - Political Leadership in Africa - by Giovanni Carbone
Article
Full-text available
African politics long revolved around ‘personal rulers’ who either overstayed in office or were quickly ousted by coups. The multiparty reforms of the 1990s were meant to change and regularise the way in which African rulers access and are removed from office. There is, however, a dearth of systematic data through which the evolution and implicatio...
Article
This paper investigates whether and how multiparty elections, introduced in many African countries since the early 1990s, affect a government’s commitment to welfare policies. We hypothesise that contested multiparty elections and turnovers between different leaders and political forces in government – even when democratic standards are not met – p...
Article
Elections do not always advance democratisation, yet they can. We outline a democratisation-by-elections model according to which the opportunities for political change opened up by each electoral round build on previous election-related democratic progress. We focus on Nigeria, interpret the recent executive turnover in light of previous elections...
Chapter
Africa’s political landscape has changed profoundly over the past two decades. The crisis of many military and single-party regimes led to the widespread adoption of reforms that, in many countries, stopped short of full democratization but opened the way to the institutionalization of limited forms of political competition. While it is now evident...
Article
Full-text available
Africa’s political landscape has changed profoundly over the past two decades. The crisis of many military and single-party regimes led to the widespread adoption of reforms that, in many countries, stopped short of full democratization but opened the way to the institutionalization of limited forms of political competition. While it is now evident...
Article
If we look back at the past two decades, timing seems to point to a close connection between democratic reforms and economic growth in sub-Saharan states. Most countries in the area introduced multiparty politics and made dramatic - if incomplete - democratic progress between 1990 and 1994. Quite strikingly, it is exactly from 1994 to 1995 (and par...
Article
The established view in political science is that a sound and functioning state has to be in place before democracy can be introduced. State first, and then democracy. While acknowledging the existence of a basic state infrastructure as a necessary starting point, we examine the possibility that democratization itself may play an important role in...
Article
This review article explores the connection between two key terms in the current international development agenda, namely democratisation and state building. It does so not by looking at the establishment of well-functioning states as a necessary condition for the introduction of democracy, but rather by examining the idea that democratisation may...
Article
Full-text available
Democratic reform processes often go hand in hand with expectations of social welfare improvements. While the connection between the emergence of democracy and the development of welfare states in the West has been the object of several studies, however, there is a scant empirical literature on the effects of recent democratization processes on wel...
Article
Full-text available
It is commonly assumed that the advent of democracy tends to bring about social welfare improvements. Few studies, however, have examined empirically the impact of third-wave democratisation processes on social policies in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Through a diachronic comparison, this paper examines the effects of G...
Article
Full-text available
For the past few decades, scholars have been focusing on the causes of democratization. It is now time to devote systematic attention to analyzing the costs and benefits that democracy brings.
Article
The latter part of the twentieth century was a period of rapid democratisation on a global scale. From the moment democratic reforms were undertaken, the attention of political science scholars mostly focused on three main lines of research: the causes of the political changes taking place, the modes of regime transitions, and the characteristics o...
Article
Full-text available
The last decade of the twentieth century was characterised by a resurgence of multipartism in Africa. The return of political parties produced a discontinuity not only in the continent's political life, but also in the study of African politics. A number of new researches were carried out that were largely based on existing theories and concepts in...
Article
Understanding parties and party systems in Africa The introduction of democratic reforms in the 1990s sparked a resurgence of multipartism in Africa, which entailed a discontinuity in both the continent’s politics and in its study. A wave of new analyses was produced that were largely based on established political science. What results and advance...
Article
Full-text available
Post-conflict elections in Mozambique, held in 1994, 1999 and 2004, established a formally competitive and pluralistic system. This paper examines the country's emerging two-party system as an essential feature affecting prospects for democratic deepening and consolidation. The condition for political parties to actually help the establishment of d...
Article
In the mid-1980s, the National Resistance Movement (NRM) established in Uganda what it claimed was a new type of electoral politics, which soon came to be known as 'movement' or 'no-party' democracy. While party activities became subject to strict limitations, the NRM tried not to exacerbate political opposition by letting parties 'exist' as indepe...
Article
The two institutional solutions adopted for transition by South Africa and Uganda are the result of diverse power (im)balances among internal political forces. A situation of quasi-monopolistic control by the NRM on the Ugandan constitution- making exercise is reflected in a political system that leaves very little room for other political organisa...
Thesis
Yoweri Museveni's National Resistance Movement took power in Uganda in 1986 and established what it called 'movement' or 'no-party' democracy. Reacting to a history of ethnic conflict-prone parties, the NRM aimed at transforming electoral politics into individual rather than organisational competition. Party activities became subject to strict limi...
Article
Full-text available
Post-conflict elections in Mozambique, held in 1994, 1999 and 2004, established a formally competitive and pluralistic system. This paper examines the country's emerging two-party system as an essential feature affecting prospects for demo-cratic deepening and consolidation. The condition for political parties to actually help the establishment of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines new forms of leadership that have developed in the latter part of the twentieth century with the rise of 'anti-political' or 'neo-populist' leaders, most visibly in Latin America. The paper considers whether these forms of leadership can be observed in Africa, with particular reference to the rule of Yoweri Museveni in Uganda si...
Article
Full-text available
Through the notion of party system institutionalisation, this paper examines the historical roots, the social bases, the organisational development and the electoral performances of political parties to understand how democratic practices have evolved, since their formal introduction in the early 1990s, in a country where a single party regime was...
Article
Full-text available
In 1992, the Mozambican civil war was brought to a close, marking the beginning of a 'pacted' and fundamentally successful process of democratic change. Despite the extreme poverty of the country, Mozambique has managed to introduce a formally competitive electoral regime, in which movements that were formerly in violent opposition to one another h...

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Projects (2)
Project
We investigate whether and how multiparty elections, introduced in many African countries since the early 1990s, affect a government’s commitment to welfare policies. We hypothesise that contested multiparty elections and turnovers between different leaders and political forces in government – even when democratic standards are not met – positively impact the promotion of social welfare. We test these hypotheses through a cross-sectional and time-series research design, making use of our new, comprehensive ‘Africa Leadership Change’ (ALC) dataset. Empirical results confirm that leaders elected through multiparty elections and countries that experience political alternations in government are associated with higher levels of social welfare.