Giorgio Vittadini

Giorgio Vittadini
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca | UNIMIB · Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods

Full professor

About

128
Publications
23,500
Reads
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1,476
Citations
Citations since 2017
27 Research Items
867 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
His research interests concern Latent Variables, Structural Equation Models, Mixture Model, Stochastic Frontier Analysis, Causal inference, Human Capital, Health Econometrics
Additional affiliations
May 2014 - present
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
Position
  • Phd Director
November 2000 - present
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
Position
  • Professor (Full)
November 1999 - October 2000
University of Milan
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Methodological Statistics
Education
October 1983 - July 1986
Università degli Studi di Trento
Field of study
  • Statistics
November 1974 - September 1979

Publications

Publications (128)
Article
Background Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is a lung-resident protein that has emerged as a potential biomarker for COVID-19. Previous investigations on acute respiratory distress syndrome patients demonstrated a significant increment of SP-D serum levels in pathological conditions. Since SP-D is not physiologically permeable to alveoli-capillary membr...
Article
Full-text available
The analysis of what human capital (HC) is has a long history and culminates in the acknowledgment that HC and its growth are very important for both cognitive education (cognitive skills (CSs)) and personal life (noncognitive skills (NCSs)) and that CSs and NCSs have a strong reciprocal relationship, as studies by Heckman demonstrated. The present...
Chapter
This chapter aims to provide suggestive evidence on how the Lombardy region dealt with the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and discuss future challenges for the Lombardy healthcare system. After an introduction to the wide spread of the virus inside the region, we describe the Lombardy health system so the reader may understand the context in which the v...
Article
We study inter‐regional migration flows due to hospital admissions and focus on the impact of migration beaten paths. We estimate a gravity model applied to Italian data for the period 2010–2016. We find that beaten paths have a positive effect on inter‐regional patient flows, with estimated elasticity equal to +0.32%. Therefore, family and social...
Article
Education is a crucial factor for sustainable economic growth. Therefore, public expenditures on education are of great interest to both researchers and policy makers. The channels through which education affects economic growth differ according to the level of development of the country. This study aims to measure the impact of public expenditure...
Chapter
This chapter gives an account of some recent debates on subsidiarity and social sustainability, maintaining that in complex and entangled societies, adaptivity to emergence is key to sustainability and that subsidiarity is the driving principle for generating and adaptively promoting well-being and contrasting social issues. The starting point is t...
Article
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The aim of this discussion paper is to raise awareness of the conceptual and practical limits of mainstream practices in social measurement and to suggest possible directions for social indicator construction, in view of effectively supporting policies for social sustainability and well-being promotion. We start with a review of the epistemological...
Book
Full-text available
Questo report presenta i risultati del progetto triennale intitolato “Lo sviluppo delle competenze non cognitive negli studenti trentini”, promosso da Dipartimento Istruzione e Cultura della Provincia autonoma di Trento e IPRASE1 in collaborazione con il CRISP2 dell’Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca. Il progetto, avviato nel 2017, si propone...
Article
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Background The first Covid-19 epidemic outbreak has enormously impacted the delivery of clinical healthcare and hospital management practices in most of the hospitals around the world. In this context, it is important to assess whether the clinical management of non-Covid patients has not been compromised. Among non-Covid cases, patients with Acute...
Chapter
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Subsidiarity; Adaptive governance.
Preprint
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Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has enormously impacted the delivery of clinical healthcare and hospital management practices in most of the hospitals around the world for both Covid and no-Covid patients. In this context, it is extremely important to assess whether the clinical management of no-Covid cases has not seriously been compromised duri...
Book
Full-text available
The book addresses the issue of knowledge and learning in the school and work environment, considered as a process that involves not only cognitive skills, such as remembering, speaking, understanding, establishing connections, deducing, evaluating, but also involves transversal qualities, personality dispositions called character skills, such as o...
Article
We propose a new approach with which to measure school efficiency by including student Non-Cognitive Skills in the analysis. In classical analysis, efficiency is measured separately from effectiveness. In our framework, we jointly consider efficiency and effectiveness, including both Cognitive Skills and Non-Cognitive Skills. We call our approach “...
Article
Full-text available
Sintesi Presentiamo i risultati della ricerca "Lo sviluppo delle competenze non cognitive negli studenti trentini", effettuata su studenti delle scuole secondarie di primo grado della Provincia Autonoma di Trento. Lo scopo è verificare se le competenze non cognitive determinano un miglioramento delle competenze cognitive, misurate dai risultati sco...
Article
Full-text available
In order to investigate and correctly measure the monetary benefits obtained when human capital migrates, we have to control for individuals’ characteristics and as many aspects of their “life history” as possible, regardless of the selected statistical approach. Individuals’ backgrounds and experiences will affect their propensity to migrate; as s...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue of “Statistica Applicata-Italian Journal of Applied Statistics” is dedicated to two particularly relevant aspects in today’s socio-economic debate regarding higher education. A first group of papers investigates the effects of Human Capital (HC) and non-cognitive skills (NCS) on graduate knowledge and employability. A second grou...
Article
We investigate whether public and private providers differ in quality in Lombardy, a large Italian region. This region has adopted an “internal market” model where public and private providers are paid by DRG and compete for publicly-funded patients for both elective and emergency treatments. Using a large administrative sample in 2012–14, we measu...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter will analyse the evolution of achievement gaps in Italy, as students move from primary to secondary schooling. Our chapter will thereby primarily address research question one, particularly the aspect of how social and migration-related gaps in educational achievement develop over time. Tackling these questions, we make use of populati...
Chapter
The goal of this contribution is to shed light on the benefits for research in health care coming from the use of administrative data, especially in terms of measuring hospitals’ outcomes. The main approaches to health outcome evaluation are reviewed and the possible improvements deriving from the use of administrative data are highlighted. Adminis...
Article
In this paper, we extend the 4-random-component closed skew-normal stochastic frontier model by including exogenous determinants of hospital persistent (long-run) and transient (short-run) inefficiency, separated from unobserved heterogeneity. We apply this new model to a dataset composed by 133 Italian hospitals during the period 2008–2013. We sho...
Chapter
Full-text available
La valutazione degli esiti per specialità di dimissione con la metodologia CRISP-MeS a cura di Paolo Berta, Giuseppe D'Orio, Tommaso Grillo Ruggieri e Giorgio Vittadini In combinazione ai bersagli, anche nel report di quest'anno sono presentate le griglie di valutazione degli esiti per specialità di dimissione per l'anno 2016, elaborate secondo la...
Article
Full-text available
Psychiatric disorders and in particular depression have increased during the “Great Recession”. The aim of this study was to investigate the consumption of psychotropic drugs in people who lost their permanent employment, using administrative data. The study considered all of the subjects domiciled in Lombardy, Northern Italy, who lost a permanent...
Book
Full-text available
La valutazione delle università ha iniziato a mettere radici anche nel nostro paese. Ogni anno le università trasmettono al Comitato nazionale per la valutazione del sistema universitario (Cnvsu) i dati sulle risorse impiegate e i risultati conseguiti nelle proprie attività di insegnamento e ricerca; e da tempo operano nei singoli atenei i nuclei d...
Book
Full-text available
Il mondo cambia molto in fretta e il sistema scolastico si ritrova nella necessità, affascinante e insidiosa,di adeguarsi. Ma come? Secondo quali criteri? Con quali premesse di fondo? Il volume affronta queste domande partendo da una tematiche: la tendenza sempre più spiccata a trasformare i sistemi scolastici in pratiche meccaniche e formali, oltr...
Book
Full-text available
La valutazione della qualità nel sistema sanitario. Analisi dell'efficacia ospedaliera in Lombardia: La misurazione dell'efficacia delle prestazioni sanitarie è un aspetto cruciale per la valutazione della qualità nel sistema sanitario, perché permette di analizzare i risultati ottenuti dalle strutture eroganti rispetto a una serie di indicatori di...
Book
Full-text available
Come valutare il livello, la qualità, l'efficacia e l'efficienza dei servizi alla persona offerti nei settori dell'istruzione e della sanità? Quali sono gli strumenti di misurazione delle prestazioni? E quali invece quelli di incentivazione? Come coniugare qualità di servizio ed efficienza economica? A queste domande rispondono medici, statistici,...
Book
Full-text available
Asimmetrie informative caratterizzano in Italia il settore della sanità: non sempre, infatti, è data all'utente la possibilità di conoscere completamente le caratteristiche dei servizi di cui egli sta per usufruire. Introdurre criteri e meccanismi di valutazione, fornire all'utente i risultati elaborati significherebbe invece mettere a sua disposiz...
Book
Full-text available
Per le università il contesto territoriale in cui sono inserite riveste una rilevanza non secondaria, così come il territorio trae beneficio dalla presenza delle università. L'istruzione superiore, infatti, è un fattore fondamentale per lo sviluppo del capitale umano e, di conseguenza, per lo sviluppo economico e sociale. Attraverso i contributi e...
Book
Full-text available
risultati della ricerca presentati in questo volume offrono un quadro d'insieme del sistema scolastico lombardo integrando diverse fonti di dati, al fine di coniugare informazioni su composizione, caratteristiche, risorse disponibili e risultati delle scuole. Dal punto di vista metodologico, il lavoro costituisce un prezioso patrimonio informativo,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
In recent years, increasing attention has been directed toward problems inherent to quality control in healthcare services. In particular, it is necessary to measure effectiveness with respect to improving healthcare outcomes of diagnostic procedures or specific treatment episodes. The performance of hospitals is usually evaluated by multilevel mod...
Article
Full-text available
We study the effect of competition on adverse hospital health outcomes in a context in which information about hospital quality is not publicly available. We use data on patients who were admitted to hospitals in the Lombardy region of Italy. Although risk-adjusted hospital rankings are estimated yearly in this region, such rankings are provided to...
Article
We extend to the longitudinal setting a latent class approach that was recently introduced by Lanza, Coffman, and Xu to estimate the causal effect of a treatment. The proposed approach enables an evaluation of multiple treatment effects on subpopulations of individuals from a dynamic perspective, as it relies on a latent Markov (LM) model that is e...
Article
Full-text available
Although there has been a sizeable empirical literature measuring the effect of job precariousness on the mental health of workers the debate is still open, and understanding the true nature of such relationship has important policy implications. In this paper, we investigate the impact of precarious employment on mental health using a unique, very...
Article
Full-text available
Cluster-weighted models (CWMs) are a flexible family of mixture models for fitting the joint distribution of a random vector composed of a response variable and a set of covariates. CWMs act as a convex combination of the products of the marginal distribution of the covariates and the conditional distribution of the response given the covariates. I...
Article
Full-text available
Al fine di realizzare questo numero di Atlantide, agli inizi del mese di ottobre ci siamo rivolti ad un certo numero di studiosi ed esperti con diversa esperienza, collocazione e genere, selezionati sulla base dell’attenzione professionale da essi dedicata negli anni allo studio dei diversi temi di analisi applicata dei mercati del lavoro. Differen...
Article
Over years, there has been an increase in the prescription of psychotropic drugs (PDs), particularly antidepressants (ADs). The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumption of PDs in adult employees in a productive area of Italy and the possible changes induced by the "economic crisis". The study is a retrospective survey in all adult employees...
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers the estimation of Kumbhakar et al. (J Prod Anal. doi:10.1007/s11123-012-0303-1, 2012) (KLH) four random components stochastic frontier (SF) model using MLE techniques. We derive the log-likelihood function of the model using results from the closed-skew normal distribution. Our Monte Carlo analysis shows that MLE is more effici...
Article
A recent method to specify and fit structural equation modelling in the Redundancy Analysis framework based on so-called Extended Redundancy Analysis has been proposed in the literature. In this approach, the relationships between the observed exogenous variables and the observed endogenous variables are moderated by the presence of unobservable co...
Article
We study the presence and the magnitudes of trade-offs between health outcomes and hospitals’ efficiency using a data set from Lombardy, Italy, for the period 2008–2011. Our goal is to analyze whether the pressures for cost containment may affect hospital performance in terms of population health status. Unlike previous work in this area, we analyz...
Article
Cluster-weighted models (CWMs) are a flexible family of mixture models for fitting the joint distribution of a random vector composed of a response variable and a set of covariates. CWMs act as a convex combination of the products of the marginal distribution of the covariates and the conditional distribution of the response given the covariates. I...
Technical Report
Full-text available
An extension of the latent Markov Rasch model is described for the analysis of binary longitudinal data with covariates when subjects are collected in clusters, e.g. students clustered in classes. For each subject, the latent process is used to represent the characteristic of interest (e.g. ability) conditional on the effect of the cluster to which...
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare utilisation databases, and other secondary data sources, have been used with growing frequency to assess health outcomes and healthcare interventions worldwide. Their increased popularity as a research tool is due to their timely availability, the large patient populations covered, low cost, and applicability for studying real-world clin...
Article
In recent years, governments and other stakeholders have increasingly used administrative data for measuring healthcare outcomes and building rankings of health care providers. However, the accuracy of such data sources has often been questioned. Starting in 2002, the Lombardy (Italy) regional administration began monitoring hospital care effective...
Chapter
Full-text available
A new approach to structural equation modelling based on so-called Extended Redundancy Analysis has been recently proposed in literature, enhanced with the added characteristic of generalizing Redundancy Analysis and Reduced-Rank Regression models for more than two blocks. However, in presence of direct effects linking exogenous and endogenous vari...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a model for longitudinal data with a suitable parameterization based on global logits to account for the ordinal response variable which incorporates observed covariates and time-varying latent unit specific effects. As an example we consider a derived ordinal variable by using the total revenues and discharges of the hospitals. For exam...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cluster-Weighted Modeling (CWM) is a flexible mixture approach for modeling the joint probability of data coming from a heterogeneous population as a weighted sum of the products of marginal distributions and conditional distributions. In this paper, we introduce a wide family of Cluster Weighted models in which the conditional distributions are as...
Article
Full-text available
Cluster-weighted modeling (CWM) is a mixture approach to modeling the joint probability of data coming from a heterogeneous population. Under Gaussian assumptions, we investigate statistical properties of CWM from both theoretical and numerical points of view; in particular, we show that Gaussian CWM includes mixtures of distributions and mixtures...
Article
When data sets are multilevel (group nesting or repeated measures), different sources of variations must be identified. In the framework of unsupervised analyses, multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA) has recently been proposed as the most satisfactory option for analyzing multilevel data. MSCA estimates submodels for the different leve...
Article
Full-text available
We use a statistical (multilevel) approach to study the relationship between Math Scores and individual-level and school-level factors. The sample contains data about 21,336 students sorted into 163 schools. Our results show that students attending schools in Northern Italy outperform their counterparts in the South. Moreover, the between-schools v...
Article
Full-text available
Policy makers have made several attempts to limit hospitals’ upcoding. We investigate the impact of a law introducing a minimum length of stay for discharges with complications. We analyze its effects on the probability of a discharge with complications, on its length of stay and on its reimbursement. We show that the policy has been effective in l...
Article
  We study the influence of social interaction on patients’ choice of hospital and its relationship with the quality that is delivered by hospitals, using Italian data. We explore the effect on individual choices of a set of variables such as travel distance and individual- and hospital-specific characteristics, as well as a variable capturing the...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical conceptualization of the balanced scorecard (BSC) to describe the mechanism producing creation of monetary value for hospitals in the territorial context of Lombardy region (Italy). Design/methodology/approach The authors propose a model‐building strategy that assigns key indicators to ke...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to show evidence of possible inconsistencies of PLS-PM as a statistical tool to estimate structural equation models with formative - reflective schemes. We pursue this goal, discussing a real - data example where PLS -PM fails to identify existing causal links between the variables concerned. We also suggest a possible forma...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a new least-squares based procedure to extract exogenous and endogenous latent variables in structural equation models with formative-reflective schemes. The procedure is a valuable alternative to PLS-PM and Lisrel; it is fully consistent with the causal structure of formative-reflective schemes and extracts both the struc...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a new least-squares based procedure to extract exogenous and endogenous latent variables in formative-reflective structural equation models. The procedure is a valuable alternative to PLS-PM and Lisrel; it is fully consistent with the causal structure of formative-reflective schemes and extracts both the structural paramet...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to show evidence of possible inconsistencies of PLS-PM as a statistical tool to estimate structural equation models with formative-reflective schemes. We pursue this goal, discussing a real-data example where PLS-PM fails to identify existing causal links between the variables concerned. We also suggest a possible formal int...
Article
Full-text available
Policy makers have made several attempts to limit hospitals upcoding. We investigate the impact on discharges with and without complications of a law introducing a minimum length of stay to discharges with complications. We implement a DID econometric model to assess the impact of the law and a logistic multilevel model to estimate whether hospital...
Article
Full-text available
An extension of the latent Markov Rasch model is described for the analysis of binary longitudinal data with covariates when subjects are collected in clusters, e.g. students clustered in classes. For each subject, the latent process is used to represent the characteristic of interest (e.g. ability) conditional on the effect of the cluster to which...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new stochastic frontier model for panel data. The model takes into account firm unobservable heterogeneity and short-run and long-run sources of inefficiency. Each of these features is modeled by a specific random effect. In this way, firms’ latent heterogeneity is not wrongly modeled as inefficiency, and it is possible to dis...
Presentation
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Workshop of the Interuniversity Research Centre on Public Services University of Milano-Bicocca, December 1st, 2010
Chapter
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We propose a general methodology for evaluating the quality of public sector activities such as education, health and social services. The traditional instrument used in comparisons of institutional performance is Multilevel Modeling (Goldstein, H., Multilevel statistical models, Arnold, London, 1995). However, rankings based on confidence interval...
Article
In this paper we analyze the effects of some distortions induced by the prospective payment system, i.e. upcoding, cream skimming and readmissions, on hospitals' technical efficiency. We estimate a production function using a population-based dataset composed by all active hospitals in an Italian region during the period 1998–2007. We show that cre...
Article
After a short history of the concept of human capital (henceforth HC) in economic thought ( Section 1 ), this study presents the two main methods for estimating the value of the stock of HC - the retrospective and prospective one - with a review of the models proposed ( Section 2 ). These methods are linked both to the theory of HC investment as a...
Book
Full-text available
Over the past three legislative periods, the Lombardy government has based much of its action on the affirmation of subsidiarity. This has been translated into policies having different forms and solutions, affected both by the degree of innovation of the concept - largely unknown in the Italian and international political panorama in the early nin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We investigate statistical properties of Cluster-Weighted Modeling, which is a framework for supervised learning originally developed in order to recreate a digital violin with traditional inputs and realistic sound. The analysis is carried out in comparison with Finite Mixtures of Regression models. Based on some geometrical arguments, we highligh...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose an exploratory method for assessing individual treatment effectiveness over repeated measures, when the number of measurement occasions depends on whether subjects fulfil or not certain conditions. We address this situation with the concept of “structurally missing occasions”. Our method involves three main steps. Firstly,...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of community Mental Health Departments in Lombardy (Italy), and analyse the eventual differences in outcome produced by different packages of care. The survey was conducted in 2000 on 4,712 patients treated in ten Mental Health Departments. Patients were assessed at least twice in a year with H...