Gino Casassa

Gino Casassa
General Water Directorate (DGA) and University of Magallanes (UMAG) · Unit of Glaciology and Snow (UGN-DGA) and Gaia Antarctica Research Centre (CIGA-UMAG)

Dr

About

291
Publications
56,423
Reads
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10,793
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2001 - July 2012
Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECs)
March 1994 - January 2001
University of Magallanes
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 1989 - June 1993
The Ohio State University
Field of study
  • Glaciology
April 1986 - June 1989
Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University
Field of study
  • Glaciology

Publications

Publications (291)
Poster
Full-text available
The catastrophic detachment of Aparejo Glacier, central Chile, which took place on March 1st 1980, resulted in the removal of an ice volume of 7.2 Mm3, 85% of the total volume of the glacier. The event obliterated most of the glacier and caused geomorphological changes down valley. 35 years after the event, new evidence shows the existence of a sma...
Article
Full-text available
The Patagonia Icefields (PIF) are the largest non-polar ice mass in the southern hemisphere. The icefields cover an area of approximately 16,500 km ² and are divided into the northern and southern icefields, which are ~ 4000 km ² and ~ 12,500 km ² , respectively. While both icefields have been losing mass rapidly, their responsiveness to various cl...
Article
Full-text available
The Andes span more than 7,000 km along western South America and its snowpack is an important source of water for many communities. As other snow-covered regions around the world, the Andes are sensitive to Black Carbon (BC) deposition from fossil fuel and biomass combustion. BC darkens the snow surface, reduces the albedo, and accelerates melting...
Article
Ice core records provide a robust tool for reconstructing past climate variability and for improving our understanding of the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere. In particular, heavy metal pollution from anthropogenic emissions poses a significant health and environmental risk. We present a sub-annuall...
Article
Full-text available
Black carbon (BC) from fossil fuel and biomass combustion darkens the snow and makes it melt sooner. The BC footprint of research activities and tourism in Antarctica has likely increased as human presence in the continent has surged in recent decades. Here, we report on measurements of the BC concentration in snow samples from 28 sites across a tr...
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition of snow provides insights on atmospheric transport of anthropogenic contaminants at different spatial scales. In this study, we assess how human activities influence the concentration of elements in the Andean mountain snow along a latitudinal transect throughout Chile. The concentration of seven elements (Al, Cu, Fe, Li, M...
Article
Full-text available
In the western Antarctic Peninsula one of the areas the highest warming in the southern hemisphere has been identified. To characterize this tendency, we selected the Lange Glacier (LG) on King George Island, to evaluate: 1) LG surface temperature and dynamics using stakes with temperature data loggers; 2) LG submerged thickness and sea parameters...
Article
Full-text available
Cordillera Darwin in Tierra del Fuego (Chile) remains one of the least studied glaciated regions in the world. However, this region being one of very few terrestrial sites at this latitude in the Southern Hemisphere has the potential to provide key information on the effect of climate variability and climate change on the cryosphere at sub-polar mi...
Chapter
The Andes Cordillera strongly determines Chile’s biophysical conditions. Spanning the entire length of the country, this mountain range’s interaction with the atmosphere dominates regional hydroclimates, from the high-plateau fed groundwater systems in the country’s arid north, through the snow-dominated catchments in the Mediterranean central regi...
Article
Full-text available
The Cordillera Darwin Icefield loses mass at a similar rate as the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields, showing contrasting individual glacier responses, particularly between the north-facing and south-facing glaciers, which are subject to changing climate conditions. Detailed investigations of climatic mass balance processes on recent glaci...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabalho investiga o conteúdo iônico dos 28,73 m superiores do testemunho BR-IC-2 (88°01'21,3"S; 82°04'21,7"W), coletado durante a travessia antártica chileno-brasileira no verão austral de 2004/05. As concentrações dos íons majoritários Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3- e SO42- e do ácido orgânico H3CSO3- (metanosulfonato - MS-) foram determinad...
Preprint
Full-text available
The chemical composition of snow provides insights on atmospheric transport of anthropogenic contaminants at different spatial scales. In this study, we assess how human activities influence the concentration of elements in the Andean mountain snow along a latitudinal transect throughout Chile. The concentration of seven elements (Al, Cu, Fe, Li, M...
Article
Full-text available
A network consisting of six cameras was set up on both sides of Lange Glacier on King George Island, Antarctica, for a period of two years to monitor changes in the glacier’s motion behaviour. The cameras were observing spatio-temporal glacier surface velocity vector fields as well as the position of the glacier front. Velocity field information wa...
Article
Full-text available
We present calving flux, calving rate, frontal retreat and volume change rate results in Lange Glacier from 2015 to 2017, including also velocity calculations in 2015, 2017 and 2018. The peak velocities at glacier front were between 1.0 and 1.5 [md-1] near the center line with a maximum frontal retreat of 100 [m]. The glacier presents almost no vol...
Article
Full-text available
To determine the biological and physical mechanisms between Lange glacier and its pro-glacier marine system located in Almirantazgo bay, King George Island, Antarctica, specific variables were determined through remote sensing approaches shown in this work. These preliminary results will allow relating the dynamics of both systems, the glacier, and...
Article
Full-text available
O testemunho de firn IC-02 (88°01’21,3"S e 82°04’21,7"W), atingindo 41,82 m de profundidade, foi coletado no manto de gelo da Antártica Oriental, durante uma travessia científica chileno-brasileira no verão austral de 2004/2005. Este estudo visou à determinação da variabilidade sazonal das razões isotópicas de oxigênio e hidrogênio (ẟ18O e ẟD) e da...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cordillera Darwin in Tierra del Fuego (Chile) remains one of the least studied glaciated regions in the world. However, this region being one of very few terrestrial sites at this latitude in the Southern Hemisphere has the potential to provide key information on the effect of climate variability and climate change on the cryosphere at sub-polar mi...
Article
Full-text available
Using an ensemble of close- and long-range remote sensing, lake bathymetry and regional meteorological data, we present a detailed assessment of the geometric changes of El Morado Glacier in the Central Andes of Chile and its adjacent proglacial lake between 1932 and 2019. Overall, the results revealed a period of marked glacier down wasting, with...
Article
Full-text available
The surface energy fluxes of glaciers determine surface melt, and their adequate parametrization is one of the keys to a successful prediction of future glacier mass balance and freshwater discharge. Chile hosts glaciers in a large range of latitudes under contrasting climatic settings: from 18∘ S in the Atacama Desert to 55∘ S on Tierra del Fuego....
Article
Full-text available
The Cordillera Darwin Icefield loses mass at a similar rate as the Northern and Southern Patagonian Icefields, showing contrasting individual glacier responses, particularly between the north-facing and south-facing glaciers, which are subject to changing climate conditions. Detailed investigations of climatic mass balance processes on recent glaci...
Article
Full-text available
Glaciers in the central Andes of Chile are fundamental freshwater sources for ecosystems and communities. Overall, glaciers in this region have shown continuous recession and down-wasting, but long-term glacier mass balance studies providing precise estimates of these changes are scarce. Here, we present the first long-term (1955–2013/2015), region...
Preprint
Full-text available
A network consisting of six cameras was set up on both sides of Lange Glacier on King George Island, Antarctica, for a period of two years to monitor changes in the glacier's motion behaviour. The cameras were observing spatio-temporal glacier surface velocity vector fields as well as the position of the glacier front. Velocity field information wa...
Article
Full-text available
Editorial on the Research Topic "Climate Impacts on Glaciers and Biosphere in Fuego-Patagonia".
Article
Full-text available
Most glaciers in South America and on the Antarctic Peninsula are retreating and thinning. They are considered strong contributors to global sea level rise. However, there is a lack of glacier mass balance studies in other areas of the Southern Hemisphere, such as the surrounding Antarctic Islands. Here, we present a detailed quantification of the...
Conference Paper
A network consisting of six cameras was set up on both sides of Lange Glacier on King George Island, Antarctica, for a period of two years to monitor changes in the glacier’s motion behaviour. The cameras were observing spatio-temporal glacier surface velocity vector fields as well as the position of the glacier front. Velocity field information wa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
On March 1 st , 1980, a catastrophic slide resulted in the sudden removal of an ice volume of 7.2 Mm 3 of Aparejo Glacier, located 60 km east of Santiago de Chile, which was 1.2 km long and 200 m wide in average, with an area of 15 ha. The slide affected 85% of the total volume of the glacier. The event caused the sudden mobilization of the sliding...
Article
Full-text available
The Andean snowpack is the primary source of water for many communities in South America. We have used Landsat imagery over the period 1986–2018 in order to assess the changes in the snow cover extent across a north-south transect of approximately 2,500 km (18°–40°S). Despite the significant interannual variability, here we show that the dry-season...
Article
Full-text available
Interannual variability and trends of the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) in the Andes mountains can be modeled using an empirical relationship between the annual average of the 0 • C isotherm altitude (ZIA) and the annual precipitation accumulated in mountain areas. Based on updated daily radiosonde profiles, and multiple sources of precipitation...
Presentation
Full-text available
Future projections of hydroclimatic variables, such as precipitation, temperature and streamflow, are key tools for decision-making under a climate change scenario. Runoff estimations can be obtained by calibrating and validating the open-source hydrological model “airGR GR2M”, forced by monthly potential evapotranspiration and precipitation times...
Poster
Full-text available
We identified for each degree of latitude on the west-central Andes, between 30°S to 38°S, the following features: i) Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA), ii) Zero degree isotherm altitude (ZIA), iii) precipitation in the Andes (ppAndes), iv) mean, maximum and minimum altitude of the glaciers, v) glaciated area and vi) mean altitude of the Andes (AltAn...
Article
Full-text available
The surface energy fluxes of glaciers determine surface melt and their adequate parameterization is one of the keys for a successful prediction of future glacier mass balance and freshwater discharge. Chile hosts glaciers in a large range of latitudes under contrasting climatic settings: from 18° S in the Atacama Desert to 55° S on Tierra del Fuego...
Article
Full-text available
The snowpack is an important source of water for many Andean communities. Because of its importance, elemental and mineralogical composition analysis of the Andean snow is a worthwhile effort. In this study, we conducted a chemical composition analysis (major and trace elements, mineralogy, and chemical enrichment) of surface snow sampled at 21 sit...
Conference Paper
This article is a review of the science goals and activities initiated within the framework of the Pollution and its Impacts on the South American Cryosphere (PISAC) initiative. Air pollution associated with biomass burning and urban emissions affects extensive areas of South America. We focus on black carbon (BC) aerosol and its impacts on air qua...
Article
Full-text available
Vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing impurities were measured in seasonal snow and permanent snowfields in the Chilean Andes during Austral winters 2015 and 2016, at 22 sites between latitudes 18°S and 41°S. The samples were analyzed for spectrally-resolved visible light absorption. For surface snow, the average mass mix...
Article
Full-text available
Excluding the large ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, glaciers in South America are large contributors to sea-level rise. Their rates of mass loss, however, are poorly known. Here, using repeat bi-static synthetic aperture radar interferometry over the years 2000 to 2011/2015, we compute continent-wide, glacier-specific elevation and mass cha...
Article
Full-text available
The Echaurren Norte Glacier is a reference glacier for the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) network and has the longest time series of glacier mass balance data in the Southern Hemisphere. The data has been obtained by the direct glaciological method since 1975. In this study, we calculated glacier area changes using satellite images and his...
Article
Full-text available
Snow cover changes are assessed for the Brunswick Peninsula in southern Patagonia (52.9ºS to 53.5ºS), located on the transition between the wet Pacific Ocean area and the drier leeward side of the Andes. We use the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and a new index which we call SnowPower, combining the NDSI and the Melt Area Detection Index (...
Article
Full-text available
We simulate the ice dynamics of the San Rafael Glacier (SRG) in the Northern Patagonia Icefield (46.7°S, 73.5°W), using glacier geometry obtained by airborne gravity measurements. The full-Stokes ice flow model (Elmer/Ice) is initialized using an inverse method to infer the basal friction coefficient from a satellite-derived surface velocity mosaic...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed modeled river runoff variations west of the Andes Cordillera's continental divide for 1979/80-2013/14 (35 years). Our foci were annual runoff conditions, runoff origins (rain, snowmelt, and glacier ice), and runoff spatiotemporal variability. Low and high runoff conditions were defined as occurrences that fall outside the 10th (low valu...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we demonstrate how energy and mass fluxes vary in space and time for Grey and Tyndall glaciers at the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI). Despite the overall glacier retreat of most Patagonian glaciers, a recent increase in mass loss has been observed, but individual glaciers respond differently in terms of spatial and temporal changes...
Article
Full-text available
Com o objetivo de interpretar a variabilidade no conteúdo iônico da neve e do firn entre Patriot Hills (80º18’S, 81º21’W) e o Polo Sul Geográfico, foram determinadas as concentrações dos íons majoritários e as razões isotópicas das 200 primeiras frações de cinco testemunhos de neve e firn (com profundidades de até 46 m), durante a travessia chileno...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution to sea level rise from Patagonian icefields is one of the largest mass losses outside the large ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland. However, only a few studies have provided large-scale assessments in a spatially detailed way to address the reaction of individual glaciers in Patagonia and hence to better understand and explain...
Article
Different methods are available for measuring wind distribution in the atmosphere [1]. The earliest accurate method is the Pilot weather BALloon (PIBAL) theodolite which has been used for determining vertical profiles of wind speed and direction for the last 150 years since balloon flights have been deployed. With a theodolite set up at a ground le...
Poster
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in understanding how the current climate changes will affect the Earth system. In this regard numerical modelling of the atmosphere and climate system is a powerful tool to forecast future conditions. The low resolution of General Circulation Models (GCMs), makes them unsuitable for the specific case of Chile, a long and...
Poster
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in understanding how the current climate changes will affect the Earth system. In this regard numerical modelling of the atmosphere and climate system is a powerful tool to forecast future conditions. The low resolution of General Circulation Models (GCMs), makes them unsuitable for the specific case of Chile, a long and...
Conference Paper
Different methods are available for measuring wind distribution in the atmosphere [1]. The earliest accurate method is the Pilot weather BALloon (PIBAL) theodolite which has being used for determining vertical profiles of wind speed and direction for the last 150 years, since balloon flights have been deployed. With a theodolite setup at ground lev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present ice thickness changes at Aparejo Glacier after its catastrophic slide in the Yeso River valley, central Chile (S 33° 33,62’/W 70° 00,11’), which took place on March 1st, 1980. The glacier has subsequently recovered partially by natural regeneration. Using available ALOS PALSAR and SRTM data, an estimation of thickness changes on the glac...
Article
Full-text available
We present climate data, direct surface mass balance (SMB) observations and model results for Mocho Glacier in the Chilean Lake District. Mean annual temperature on a nunatak of Mocho Glacier at an elevation of ~2000 m was +2.6°C in 2006–15 and mean annual precipitation in Puerto Fuy (13 km from the glacier, at an elevation of 600 m) was 4000 mm fo...
Article
Geodetic GNSS observations at 43 sites well distributed over the Southern Patagonian Icefield region yield site velocities with a mean accuracy of 1 mm/a and 6 mm/a for the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. These velocities are analyzed to reveal the magnitudes and patterns of vertical and horizontal present-day crustal deformation...
Article
Full-text available
In order to interpret the ionic variability in snow and firn from Patriot Hills (80º18'S, 81º21'W) to the South Pole, we determined the major ions concentrations and isotopic ratios of five snow and firn cores (less than 46 m deep) for the 200 first fractions, collected during the 2004–2005 Chilean-Brazilian traverse. After cleaning the samples (in...