Gina M Wimp

Gina M Wimp
Georgetown University | GU · Department of Biology

Ph.D Biology

About

67
Publications
7,694
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3,732
Citations
Citations since 2016
26 Research Items
1347 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (67)
Article
Full-text available
Litter decomposition is a central ecosystem function because dead plant biomass plays a critical role in carbon storage, the nitrogen (N) cycle, and as food/habitat for animals and microorganisms. In the face of global change, interactions between organisms that participate in litter decomposition are likely to change due to species loss and N poll...
Article
Salt marshes are coastal wetlands that cover 2-3% of land surface area.1 These habitats carry out several essential functions such as providing habitats for many species, acting as a buffer between terrestrial land and ocean waters, and most importantly, acting as a major carbon (C) storage pool. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) symbionts are ke...
Article
Full-text available
ContextHistorically, habitat edges were thought to increase diversity by combining communities from two habitats, but empirical results are mixed. Variation in edge responses may be driven by lumping specialists and generalists with divergent responses.Objectives We examined arthropod communities associated with a habitat edge in an intertidal salt...
Article
Full-text available
Salix nigra (black willow) is a widespread tree that hosts many species of polylectic hymenopterans and oligolectic bees of the genus Andrena. The early flowering of S. nigra makes it an important nutritive resource for arthropods emerging from hibernation. However, since S. nigra is dioecious, not all insect visits will lead to successful pollinat...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing host plant quality affects higher trophic level predators, but whether such changes are simply a result of prey density or are also affected by changes in prey quality remain uncertain. Moreover, whether changes in prey quality affect measures of predator performance is understudied. Using a combination of field and greenhouse mesocosm e...
Article
Full-text available
Salt marsh and mangrove coastal ecosystems provide critical ecosystem services, but are being lost at an alarming rate. Insect communities in these ecosystems are threatened by human impacts, including sea level rise, habitat loss, external inputs including nutrients, metals, and hydrocarbons, as well as weather events, such as hurricanes. While so...
Article
Full-text available
Context Habitat fragmentation is known to be one of the leading causes of species extinctions, however few studies have explored how habitat fragmentation impacts ecosystem functioning and carbon cycling, especially in wetland ecosystems. Objectives We aimed to determine how habitat fragmentation, defined by habitat area and distance from habitat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Salix nigra (black willow) is a widespread tree that hosts many species of polylectic hymenopterans and oligolectic bees of the genus Andrena. The early flowering time of S. nigra makes it an important nutritive resource for arthropods emerging from hibernation. However, since S. nigra is dioecious, not all insect visits will lead to successful pol...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have found that predators can suppress prey densities and thereby impact important ecosystem processes such as plant productivity and decomposition. However, prey suppression by spiders can be highly variable. Unlike predators that feed on prey within a single energy channel, spiders often consume prey from asynchronous energy chan...
Article
Full-text available
A vast body of research demonstrates that many ecological and evolutionary processes can only be understood from a tri‐trophic viewpoint, that is, one that moves beyond the pairwise interactions of neighbouring trophic levels to consider the emergent features of interactions among multiple trophic levels. Despite its unifying potential, tri‐trophic...
Article
As part of the long‐term fusion of evolutionary biology and ecology (Ford, 1964), the field of community genetics has made tremendous progress in describing the impacts of plant genetic variation on community and ecosystem processes. In the “genes‐to‐ecosystems” framework (Whitham et al., 2003), genetically based traits of plant species have ecolog...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs into native ecosystems cause fluctuations in resources that normally limit plant growth, which has important consequences for associated foodwebs. Such inputs from agricultural and urban habitats into nearby natural systems are increasing globally and can be highly variable. Despite the global increase in anthropogenic...
Article
Generalist predators are thought to be less vulnerable to habitat fragmentation because they use diverse resources across larger spatial scales than specialist predators. Thus, it has been suggested that generalist predators may respond positively to habitat edges or demonstrate no edge response, because they can potentially use prey resources equa...
Article
Full-text available
Although hybridization in plants has been recognized as an important pathway in plant speciation, it may also affect the ecology and evolution of associated communities. Cottonwood species (Populus angustifolia and P. fremontii) and their naturally occurring hybrids are known to support different plant, animal, and microbial communities, but no stu...
Article
Full-text available
Edge effects are one of the most extensively studied ecological phenomena of the past 100 years. Despite the still-common perception that edge effects are overly complex and idiosyncratic, we do know a lot about the mechanisms that underlie them. A major review from 2004 described four fundamental mechanisms that cause most edge patterns. In genera...
Article
Full-text available
Urban forests provide many ecosystem services. The urban heat island effect can alter these services, in part by increasing arthropod herbivore abundance. Natural enemies, such as predators and parasitoid wasps, play a crucial role in controlling street tree herbivores, but their responses to urban warming are almost completely unknown. In this 2-y...
Article
Numerous studies have demonstrated biodiversity-productivity relationships in plant communities, and analogous genetic diversity-productivity studies using genotype mixtures of single species may show similar patterns. Alternatively, competing individuals among genotypes within a species are less likely to exhibit resource-use complementarity, even...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Anthropogenic nutrient inputs into native ecosystems cause fluctuations in resources that normally limit plant growth, which has important consequences for associated foodwebs. Such inputs from agricultural and urban habitats into nearby natural systems are increasing globally and can be highly variable, spanning the r...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Salt marshes provide important ecosystem services that may be impacted by anthropogenic activity. Because they are nitrogen-limited, salt marshes readily take up nitrogen from agricultural and land developmental runoff. The salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora grows in natural monocultures and responds to such inputs...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods: One of the main generalizations that has emerged from the fragmentation literature is that generalists tend to increase in fragmented habitat, while specialists decline. This response is associated with access to resources, which are often more widely separated for generalists. In a previous study of the arthropod com...
Article
Full-text available
While numerous studies have examined the effects of increased primary production on higher trophic levels, most studies have focused primarily on the grazing food web and have not considered the importance of alternate prey channels. This has happened despite the fact that fertilization not only increases grazing herbivore abundance, but other type...
Article
Full-text available
Using herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to attract specific natural enemies in the field has proven challenging, partly because of a poor understanding of: (i) which compound(s) to manipulate to attract specific taxa, and (ii) the ecological conditions over which HIPVs are effective. To address these issues, we quantified the response of a...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs into native ecosystems cause fluctuations in resources that normally limit plant growth, which has important consequences for associated food webs. Such inputs from agricultural and urban habitats into nearby natural systems are increasing globally and can be highly variable, spanning the range from sporadic to continu...
Data
Effects of press and pulse treatments on additional herbivores and algivores not included in Figure 1. Effects for press (solid line) and pulse (dashed line) treatments are displayed for Cape Hatteras National Seashore, NC (panels on left), and Tuckerton, NJ (panels on right). Error bars indicate standard errors of the means. Effect means within gr...
Data
Effects of press and pulse treatments on additional omnivore and predator densities not included in Figure 1. Effects for press (solid line) and pulse (dashed line) treatments are displayed for Cape Hatteras National Seashore, NC (panels on left), and Tuckerton, NJ (panels on right). Error bars indicate standard errors of the means. Effect means wi...
Data
Effects of press and pulse treatments on additional Spartina characteristics not included in Figure 1. Effects for press (solid line) and pulse (dashed line) treatments are displayed for Cape Hatteras National Seashore, NC (panels on left), and Tuckerton, NJ (panels on right). Error bars indicate standard errors of the means. Effect means within gr...
Data
Compilation of dates that experimental manipulations were initiated or maintained and that plant and arthropod samples were collected. At both of our field sites (Tuckerton, NJ [TUCK] and Cape Hatteras National Seashore, NC [CHNS]), fertilization treatments were initiated in 2005 and maintained from 2006–2008. Below we list the dates that we fertil...
Data
Effects of fertilization treatment on degree of herbivore damage to Spartina plants at CHNS. A) Fraction of leaf with damage caused by katydids (Conocephalus spartinae and Orchelimum fidicinium). B) Fraction of leaf with damage caused by the herbivorous mirid Trigonotylus uhleri. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Multichannel omnivory by generalist predators, especially the use of both grazing and epigeic prey, has the potential to increase predator abundance and decrease herbivore populations. However, predator use of the epigeic web (soil surface detritus/microbe/algae consumers) varies considerably for reasons that are poorly understood. We therefore use...
Article
Understanding the factors that affect community composition is essential for community ecology. The genetic similarity rule (GSR) identifies 3 variables (host genetic composition, phytochemistry, and the environment) that could affect community composition. Few studies have determined the relative influence of these variables on community compositi...
Article
Despite nearly 100 years of edge studies, there has been little effort to document how edge responses 'cascade' to impact multi-trophic food webs. We examined changes within two, four-tiered food webs located on opposite sides of a habitat edge. Based on a 'bottom-up' resource-based model, we predicted plant resources would decline near edges, caus...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Ecological theory predicts that multi-channel omnivory, the consumption of resources from multiple food webs by a consumer, has the potential to stabilize consumer and resource populations. However, this prediction is based on an assumption that all consumer individuals are ecologically equivalent, and it may not hold i...
Article
Full-text available
This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes dete...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have examined relationships between primary production and biodiversity at higher trophic levels. However, altered production in plant communities is often tightly linked with concomitant shifts in diversity and composition, and most studies have not disentangled the direct effects of production on consumers. Furthermore, when stud...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Although many studies have described species responses to habitat edges, experimental studies to elucidate the mechanisms that drive trophic responses to habitat edges are rare. We studied the effects of a habitat edge between two dominant grass species found in an intertidal salt marsh, Spartina alterniflora (SA) and...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Conservation biological control seeks to suppress insect pests by encouraging resident natural enemy populations. The use of non-crop ‘refuge’ areas is one such approach: the refuge is meant to provide food and shelter for predators when farm fields are unfavorable (e.g. winter) and then to supply those predators to cr...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods While trophic cascades are relatively rare in most terrestrial ecosystems, theory predicts that where trophic cascades occur, predators are likely to be subsidized by sources external to the focal food chain. Previous studies in an intertidal salt marsh dominated by the grass Spartina alterniflora have found that the in...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the local and regional patterns of species distributions has been a major goal of ecological and evolutionary research. The notion that these patterns can be understood through simple quantitative rules is attractive, but while numerous scaling laws exist (e.g., metabolic, fractals), we are aware of no studies that have placed individ...
Article
With the emerging field of community genetics, it is important to quantify the key mechanisms that link genetics and community structure. We studied cottonwoods in common gardens and in natural stands and examined the potential for plant chemistry to be a primary mechanism linking plant genetics and arthropod communities. If plant chemistry drives...
Article
Introduction Much of the emphasis in studying mutualisms has been placed on defining the strength of these associations and the conditions that cause their collapse (Bronstein 1994, 1998). Yet, very few studies of aphid-ant mutualisms have linked the importance of host plant traits with the establishment and persistence of these mutualisms. Aphid p...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that leaf modifying arthropod communities are correlated with cottonwood host plant genetic variation from local to regional scales. Although recent studies found that host plant genetic composition can structure local dependent herbivore communities, the abiotic environment is a stronger factor than the genetic effect at i...
Article
Full-text available
Can heritable traits in a single species affect an entire ecosystem? Recent studies show that such traits in a common tree have predictable effects on community structure and ecosystem processes. Because these 'community and ecosystem phenotypes' have a genetic basis and are heritable, we can begin to apply the principles of population and quantita...
Article
Full-text available
The evolutionary analysis of community organization is considered a major frontier in biology. Nevertheless, current explanations for community structure exclude the effects of genes and selection at levels above the individual. Here, we demonstrate a genetic basis for community structure, arising from the fitness consequences of genetic interactio...
Article
Full-text available
We define a genetic similarity rule that predicts how genetic variation in a dominant plant affects the structure of an arthropod community. This rule applies to hybridizing cottonwood species where plant genetic variation determines plant-animal interactions and structures a dependent community of leaf-modifying arthropods. Because the associated...
Article
We examined how plant genetic variation and a common herbivore (the leaf-galling aphid, Pemphigus betae) influenced leaf litter quality, decomposition, and nutrient dynamics in a dominant riparian tree (Populus spp.). Based on both observational studies and a herbivore exclusion experiment using trees of known genotype, we found four major patterns...
Article
We argue that the genetic diversity of a dominant plant is important to the associated dependent community because dependent species such as herbivores are restricted to a subset of genotypes in the host-plant population. For plants that function as habitat, we predicted that greater genetic diversity in the plant population would be associated wit...
Article
To test the hypothesis that genes have extended phenotypes on the community, we quantified how genetic differences among cottonwoods affect the diversity, abundance, and composition of the dependent arthropod community. Over two years, five major patterns were observed in both field and common-garden studies that focused on two species of cottonwoo...
Article
While population genetic diversity has broad application in species conservation, no studies have examined the community-level consequences of this diversity. We show that population genetic diversity (generated by interspecific hybridization) in a dominant riparian tree affects an arthropod community composed of 207 species. In an experimental gar...
Article
Full-text available
We present evidence that the heritable genetic variation within individual species, especially dominant and keystone species, has community and ecosystem consequences. These consequences represent extended phenotypes, i.e., the effects of genes at levels higher than the population. Using diverse examples from microbes to vertebrates, we demonstrate...
Article
We examined the hypothesis that mutualists, predators, and host plant quality act in concert to determine the distribution and abundance of a common herbivore. The aphid, Chaitophorus populicola, is found only in association with ants, which provide tending services and protection from predators. As a consequence, aphid abundance declined by 88% on...
Article
We examined the potential of a common herbivore to indirectly influence other diverse community members by providing habitat. Larvae of the leafroller Anacampsis niveopulvella commonly construct shelters by rolling leaves of cottonwood trees. These leaf rolls are later colonized by other arthropods. We first documented 4 times greater species richn...

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