Gina Riley

Gina Riley
City University of New York - Hunter College | Hunter CUNY · Department of Special Education

Ph.D.

About

25
Publications
26,789
Reads
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175
Citations

Publications

Publications (25)
Article
Full-text available
A sample of 75 adults, who had been unschooled for at least the years that would have been their last two years of high school, answered questions about their subsequent pursuits of higher education and careers. Eighty-three percent of them had gone on to some form of formal higher education and 44 percent had either completed or were currently in...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the theories of Self-Determination, Cognitive Evaluation, and Intrinsic Motivation as it applies to home education. According to Self-Determination Theory, intrinsic motivation is innate. However, the maintenance and enhancement of intrinsic motivation depends upon the social and environmental conditions surrounding the indivi...
Article
Full-text available
Seventy-five adults, who had been unschooled for at least the years that would have been their last two years of high school, responded to a survey about their experiences. Their responses indicated that their parents generally played supportive, not directive roles in their education and played bigger supportive roles for those who started their u...
Article
Full-text available
Unschooling families (families that don't send their children to school and don't school them at home) were invited to participate in a survey about their unschooling practices. Two hundred and thirty two self-identified unschooling families, with at least one child over five years old, completed and returned the questionnaire. Qualitative analyses...
Article
Full-text available
Reported here is a survey of former students of a radically alternative school, the Hudson Valley Sudbury School (HVSS). Like other Sudbury model schools, HVSS is a democratically administered primary and secondary day school, governed by the students and staff together, that has no academic requirements but supports students' self-directed activit...
Book
This book explores the history of the unschooling movement and the forces shaping the trajectory of the movement in current times. As an increasing number of families choose to unschool, it becomes important to further study this philosophical and educational movement. It is also essential to ascribe theory to the movement, to gain greater understa...
Chapter
Homeschooling has grown exponentially in the past decade. Researchers estimate that almost two million students in the United States are home educated, accounting for over 3% of the school-aged population. Around 10–20% of those who homeschool define their philosophy of homeschooling as unschooling, and that number seems to be growing every day. Th...
Chapter
This chapter provides an in-depth description of the history of the unschooling movement, including elements of Rousseau, Dewey, and Neill’s work. A large part of the chapter is dedicated to exploring the work of Ivan Illich and John Holt. Holt defined unschooling and the unschooling movement through his books How Children Learn and How Children Fa...
Chapter
This chapter provides an answer to the question “What happens to unschoolers when they grow up?” Research focused on unschooled adults’ feelings about the unschooling experience is considered. Unschooled adult outcomes regarding higher education, careers, financial independence, and future plans are reviewed. The chapter concludes with an in-depth...
Chapter
In this chapter, the basic definition and core philosophy of unschooling is explained. The spectrum of unschooling is introduced, and the three main classifications of unschooling are considered. These classifications have been termed Relaxed Homeschooling, Unschooling, and Radical Unschooling. The growth of unschooling and how that has affected th...
Chapter
As the unschooling movement has grown over the past two decades, different branches of unschooling have evolved. Worldschooling, or unschooling away from home (by traveling to different places) is discussed in this chapter. Hackschooling, freeschooling, unschooling cooperatives, and self-directed learning centers such as North Star and Princeton Le...
Chapter
In the final chapter, the future of unschooling is explored, using school-based examples such as the Independence Project at Monument Mountain Regional High School in Massachusetts, High Tech High School in California, and Hudson Valley Sudbury School in New York. Will unschooling one day serve as a model for more traditional schools in the future?...
Chapter
In this chapter, the challenges and benefits of unschooling according to research are discussed. Challenges include feelings of social pressure regarding the decision to unschool, practical considerations for parents including time, career, and income factors, the perceived socialization issue, and legal issues associated with unschooling. Benefits...
Chapter
Although it is John Holt who devised the term unschooling in the 60s, and Ivan Illich who called to de-establish schools in the 1970s, many newer educational and psychological theories support the enhancement and utilization of self-directed, intrinsically motivated, multifaceted learning, and reinforce ideas inherent within the philosophy of unsch...
Chapter
One of the most common questions asked of unschooling families is “How do children learn if there is no set curriculum?” In this chapter, subject-based learning in unschooling is reviewed. A large portion of the chapter is dedicated to how unschoolers learn to read and do math. Additional parts of the chapter concentrate on how unschoolers learn sc...
Chapter
Within this chapter, research related to why families choose unschooling is discussed. It is clear that in some cases, parents choose unschooling after a period of formal schooling, wanting a break from the rigidity and structure of the traditional school. Other parents move from a period of homeschooling to a more casual unschooling style. Still o...
Article
Full-text available
Unschooling is a form of homeschooling where learning occurs not through the following of a set curricula, but instead through real life experiences. Unschooling parents do not try to replicate school or school-like activities at home. Instead, children are in charge of their own education, and that education usually naturally fits with their own i...
Article
Full-text available
Unschooling is a variation of homeschooling where, instead of following a set curriculum, children learn through everyday life experiences. As an increasing number of families are choosing to unschool, it becomes important to further study the workings of this philosophical and educational choice. It is estimated that approximately 12% of families...
Article
Full-text available
This grounded theory study focuses on the experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) students who have homeschooled or unschooled. Although some research has been done regarding the experiences of LGBTQ students attending public or private schools, this research is the first of its kind exploring the experiences of LGBTQ...
Article
Full-text available
Worldschooling is a form of home education, where travel takes the place of school. Worldschooling can be done alone, with family and friends, or more formally through a program called Project World School. The mission of Project World School is to provide learning retreats for adolescents and young adults with a strong emphasis on cooperative lear...
Article
Full-text available
Although homeschooling, and more recently, unschooling, is slowly gaining acceptance in the United States; unschooling in Hong Kong is rare and considered risky. The Educational Bureau of Hong Kong (EDB) tends to discourage alternative forms of education, believing that traditional schooling is the best way to educate students. This case study focu...
Article
Each year the American Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) pays over 10 billion dollars for graduate medical education in the USA.¹ Up until now there has been lack of evidence based research on the effectiveness of how American osteopathic trainees learn and are taught. An outcomes based delivery system has proven to be an important tool for m...

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