Gilberto U L Braga

Gilberto U L Braga
University of São Paulo | USP · Ribeirão Preto School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (FCFRP)

PhD

About

84
Publications
17,529
Reads
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3,075
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
1942 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
May 2003 - present
University of São Paulo
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1999 - August 2001
Utah State University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
The unbridled dissemination of multidrug‐resistant pathogens is a major threat to global health and urgently demands novel therapeutic alternatives. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been developed as a promising approach to treat localized infections regardless of drug resistance profile or taxonomy. Even though this technique has been...
Article
Classical approaches for controlling plant pathogens may be impaired by the development of pathogen resistance to chemical pesticides and by limited availability of effective antimicrobial agents. Recent increases in consumer awareness of and/or legislation regarding environmental and human health, and the urgent need to improve food security, are...
Article
The fast-emerging and multidrug-resistant Candida auris is the first fungal pathogen to be considered a threat to global public health. Thus, there is a high unmet medical need to develop new therapeutic strategies to control this species. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) is a promising alternative that simultaneously targets and damages n...
Article
The emergence of opportunistic pathogens and the selection of resistant strains have created a grim scenario for conventional antimicrobials. Consequently, there is an ongoing search for alternative techniques to control these microorganisms. One such technique is antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), which combines photosensitizers, light, an...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to assess the ultrapure cannabidiol (CBD) antibacterial activity and to investigate the antibacterial activity of the combination CBD + polymyxin B (PB) against Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, including PB-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). We used the standard broth microdilution method, checkerboard assay, and time-kill assay. C...
Article
Metarhizium fungi are soil-inhabiting ascomycetes which are saprotrophs, symbionts of plants, pathogens of insects, and participate in other trophic/ecological interactions, thereby performing multiple essential ecosystem services. Metarhizium species are used to control insect pests of crop plants and insects that act as vectors of human and anima...
Article
The widespread use of conventional chemical antifungal agents has led to worldwide concern regarding the selection of resistant isolates. In this scenario, antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) has emerged as a promising alternative to overcome this issue. The technique is based on the use of a photosensitizer (PS) and light in the presence o...
Article
Metarhizium is an important genus of soil-inhabiting fungi that are used for the biological control of insects. The efficiency of biocontrol is dependent on the maintenance of inoculum viability under adverse field conditions such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Therefore, increasing tolerance of Metarhizium to UV radiation is necessary. It wa...
Article
Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (aPDT) is a light-based method developed for the inactivation of microorganisms. With the emergence of antifungal- and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, aPDT has been suggested as a promising microbial control strategy. The treatment is based on a combination of visible light, a photosensitizer (PS), and mole...
Article
Neospora caninum causes heavy losses related to abortions in bovine cattle. This parasite developed a complex defense redox system, composed of enzymes as glutathione reductase (GR). Methylene blue (MB) impairs the activity of recombinant form of Plasmodium GR and inhibits the parasite proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Likewise, MB and its deriva...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) bacteria are a major worldwide public health problem. In the last decades, resistance to last-resort antibiotics such as polymyxin B (PB) have been increasingly observed among these superbugs, compromising the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The present study aimed (i) to assess...
Article
Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (aPDT) is a promising alternative to conventional thermal inactivation methods. This study aimed to evaluate Bacillus cereus vegetative cells' inactivation and spores by aPDT with new methylene blue (NMB) as photosensitizer (PS) using red light. The efficacy of aPDT was determined initially by minimal inhibitory...
Article
Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a cause of major concern for the orange juice industry due to its thermal and chemical resistance, as well as its spoilage potential. A. acidoterrestris spoilage of orange juice is due to off-flavor taints from guaiacol production and some halophenols. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of anti...
Article
Photodynamic inactivation of bacterial and fungal pathogens is a promising alternative to the extensive use of conventional single-target antibiotics and antifungal agents. The combination of photosensitizers and adjuvants can improve the photodynamic inactivation efficiency. In this regard, it has been shown that the use of potassium iodide (KI) a...
Article
Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) has emerged as an effective therapy against pathogenic fungi with both acquired and intrinsic resistance to commonly used antifungal agents. Success of APDT depends on the availability of effective photosensitizers capable of acting on different fungal structures and species. Among the phenothiazinium dye...
Article
Stress is a normal part of life for fungi, which can survive in environments considered inhospitable or hostile for other organisms. Due to the ability of fungi to respond to, survive in, and transform the environment, even under severe stresses, many researchers are exploring the mechanisms that enable fungi to adapt to stress. The International S...
Article
Full-text available
Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexan parasite related to important losses in livestock, causing abortions and decreased fertility in affected cows. Several chemotherapeutic strategies have been developed for disease control; however, no commercial treatment is available. Among the candidate drugs against neosporosis, phenothiazinium dyes, offer a lo...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of riboflavin supplementation of culture medium on conidial UV-A tolerance of M. acridum (Driver & Milner) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and M. robertsii (Bischoff, Rehner & Humber) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These fungi were produced on culture medium supplemented, or not supplemented, with ri...
Article
The in vitro susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis to Antimicrobial Photodynamic Treatment with aluminum phthalocyanine chloride in nanoemulsion (ClAlPc/NE) were investigated. PS concentration- and fluence-dependent cell survival after APDT were compared before and after unbound extracellular PS had been washed out. The PS upt...
Article
Full-text available
Light is an important stimulus for fungi as it regulates many diverse and important biological processes. Metarhizium acridum is an entomopathogenic fungus currently used for the biological control of insect pests. The success of this approach is heavily dependent on tolerance to environmental stresses. It was previously reported that light exposur...
Article
Full-text available
Chagas disease is a tropical illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi . The disease affects populations of the Americas and has been spread to other continents due to the migration process. The disease is partially controlled by two drugs, Benznidazole and Nifurtimox. These molecules are active in the acute phase of the infection but are u...
Article
Fungi sense light and utilize it as a source of environmental information to prepare against many stressful conditions in nature. In this study, Metarhizium robertsii was grown on: 1) potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) in the dark (control); 2) under nutritive stress in the dark; and 3) PDA under continuous (A) white light; (B) blue light lower irra...
Article
Fusarium keratoplasticum and Fusarium moniliforme are filamentous fungi common in the environment and cause mycosis in both animals and plants. Human infections include mycetoma, keratitis and onychomycosis, while deeper mycosis occurs in immunocompromised patients. Most of the Fusarium spp. are frequently resistant to treatment with currently used...
Article
The variability in spore survival during spray drying of 12 Bacillus cereus strains was evaluated. B. cereus spores were inoculated on whole milk (7.2 ± 0.2 log10 spores/g dry weight) and processed in a spray-dryer. Twelve independent experiments were carried out in triplicate. The spore count was determined before and after each drying process, ba...
Article
Background: Fungal secondary metabolites are important sources for the discovery of new pharmaceuticals, as exemplified by penicillin, lovastatin and cyclosporine. Searching for secondary metabolites of the fungi Metarhizium ssp., we previously identified tyrosine betaine as a major constituent. Methods: Because of the structural similarity with...
Article
Rice grains are a significant source of inorganic arsenic (i-As) in population's diet. Regulations for maximum limits and mitigation are in development by the Codex/FAO. Fungi from rice's rhizosphere are a potential tool for As-mitigation. Two fungi genera (Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp.) were applied in soils (background -Bkg- and spiked with...
Article
Survival of entomopathogenic fungi under solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is paramount to the success of biological control of insect pests and disease vectors. The mutagenic compound 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) is often used to mimic the biological effects of UV radiation on organisms. Therefore, we asked whether tolerance to 4-NQO could pred...
Article
The low survival of insect-pathogenic fungi when used for insect control in agriculture is mainly due to the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation and heat from solar irradiation. In this study, conidia of 15 species of entomopathogenic fungi were exposed to simulated full-spectrum solar radiation emitted by a Xenon Test Chamber Q-SUN XE-3-H...
Article
Metarhizium acridum is an entomopathogen currently used against acridids. We have previously reported that exposing mycelium to visible light increases M. acridum tolerance to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. Here we evaluated if light could also increase tolerance to ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation. We observed that, as opposed to UV-B radiation, li...
Article
Full-text available
Species of the Metarhizium anisopliae complex are globally ubiquitous soil-inhabiting and predominantly insect-pathogenic fungi. The Metarhizium genus contains species ranging from specialists, such as Metarhizium acridum that only infects acridids, to generalists, such as M. anisopliae, Metarhizium brunneum, and Metarhizium robertsii that infect a...
Article
Light conditions during fungal growth are well known to cause several physiological adaptations in the conidia produced. In this study, conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium robertsii were produced on: 1) potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium in the dark; 2) PDA medium under white light (4.98 W m⁻²); 3) PDA medium under blue light (4.8 W m⁻...
Article
The topic of ‘fungal stress’ is central to a myriad of important disciplines, including medical mycology, chronobiology, plant and insect pathology, industrial microbiology, material sciences, and astrobiology. The International Symposium on Fungal Stress (ISFUS) brought together researchers, who study fungal stress in a variety of fields. The seco...
Article
Neoscytalidium spp. are ascomycetous fungi consisting of pigmented and hyaline varieties both able to cause skin and nail infection. Their colour-based identification is inaccurate and may compromise the outcome of the studies with these fungi. The aim of this study was to genotype 32 isolates morphologically identified as Neoscytalidium dimidiatum...
Article
Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light based approach to control diseases caused by plant-pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of APDT with the phenothiazinium photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) under solar radiation on the germination and viability of conidia of the pathogenic fungus Colletotr...
Article
Candida albicans is a human pathogenic fungus mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. Resistance to the commonly used fungicides can lead to poor treatment of mucosal infections which, in turn, can result in life-threatening systemic candidiasis. In this scenario, antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (PDT) has emerged as an effective alternati...
Article
On November 5th, 2015, Samarco's iron mine dam – called Fundão – spilled 50–60 million m3 of mud into Gualaxo do Norte, a river that belongs to Rio Doce Basin. Approximately 15 km2 were flooded along the rivers Gualaxo do Norte, Carmo and Doce, reaching the Atlantic Ocean on November 22nd, 2015. Six days after, our group collected mud, soil and wat...
Article
The increasing tolerance to currently used fungicides and the need for environmentally friendly antimicrobial approaches have stimulated the development of novel strategies to control plant-pathogenic fungi such as antimicrobial phototreatment (APT). We investigated the in vitro APT of the plant-pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum with furoco...
Article
Metarhizium acridum is an entomopathogenic fungus commonly used as a bioinsecticide. The conidium is the fungal stage normally employed as field inoculum in biological control programs and must survive under field conditions such as high ultraviolet-B exposure. Light, which is an important stimulus for many fungi, has been shown to induce the produ...
Article
There is currently an urgent need to increase global food security, reverse the trends of increasing cancer rates, protect environmental health, and mitigate climate change. Toward these ends, it is imperative to improve soil health and crop productivity, reduce food spoilage, reduce pesticide usage by increasing the use of biological control, opti...
Article
Fungi play central roles in many biological processes, influencing soil fertility, decomposition, cycling of minerals, and organic matter, plant health, and nutrition. They produce a wide spectrum of molecules, which are exploited in a range of industrial processes to manufacture foods, food preservatives, flavoring agents, and other useful biologi...
Article
Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight is probably the most detrimental environmental factor affecting the viability of entomopathogenic fungi applied to solar-exposed sites (e.g., leaves) for pest control. Most entomopathogenic fungi are sensitive to UV radiation, but there is great inter- and intraspecies variability in susceptibility to UV. This va...
Article
Conidia are specialized structures produced at the end of the asexual life cycle of most filamentous fungi. They are responsible for fungal dispersal and environmental persistence. In pathogenic species, they are also involved in host recognition and infection. Conidial production, survival, dispersal, germination, pathogenicity and virulence can b...
Article
Full-text available
The virulence to insects and tolerance to heat and UV-B radiation of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi are greatly influenced by physical, chemical, and nutritional conditions during mycelial growth. This is evidenced, for example, by the stress phenotypes of Metarhizium robertsii produced on various substrates. Conidia from minimal medium (Czapek'...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms on systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and on nitrite levels in plasma (NitP) in a population coexposed to methylhemoglobin (MeHg) and lead (Pb) in the Amazonian region, Brazil. Plasmatic levels of hemoglobin Hg (HgP...
Article
Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, while others can kill the conidia reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant-pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produc...
Article
Entomopathogenic fungi are predisposed to ROS induced by heat and UV-A radiation when outside the insect host. When inside the host, they are subject to phagocytic cells that generate ROS to eliminate invading pathogens. The oxidative stress tolerance of the entomopathogenic fungi Aschersonia aleyrodis (ARSEF 430 and 10276), Aschersonia placenta (A...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in glutathione (GSH-) related genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GCLM, and GCLC) in the distribution of Hg in the blood compartments in humans exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Subjects (n = 88), exposed to MeHg from fish consumption, were enrolled in the study. Hg species in the plasma compartment w...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing tolerance to currently used fungicides in both clinical and agricultural areas is of great concern. The nonconventional light-based approach of antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising alternative to conventional fungicides. We evaluated the effects of APDT with four phenothiazinium derivatives (methylene blue [MB],...
Article
In the present study, the in vitro susceptibilities of five Candida spp. to photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with four phenothiazinium derivatives, methylene blue (MB), new methylene blue N (NMBN), toluidine blue O (TBO) and the novel pentacyclic phenothiazinium photosensitiser S137, in combination with red light were investigated. Th...
Article
Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a promising alternative to conventional chemotherapy that can be used to treat localized mycosis. The development of PACT depends on identifying effective and selective PS for the different pathogenic species. The in vitro susceptibilities of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum micro...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decades, the presence of methylmercury (MeHg) in the Amazon region of Brazil and its adverse human health effects have given rise to much concern. The biotransformation of MeHg occurs mainly through glutathione (GSH) in the bile mediated by conjugation with glutathione S-transferases (GST). Epidemiological evidence has shown that gene...
Article
Full-text available
The selection of fungi resistant to currently used fungicides and the emergence of new pathogenic species make the development of alternative fungus-control techniques highly desirable. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a promising method which combines a nontoxic photosensitizer (PS) with visible light to cause selective killing of...
Article
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator with multiple protective effects involved in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms and environmental factors, such as mercury (Hg) exposure, may influence NO levels and increase the risk of cardiovascular damage. The aim of this study was to determine...
Article
Light conditions during mycelial growth are known to influence fungi in many ways. The effect of visible-light exposure during mycelial growth was investigated on conidial tolerance to UVB irradiation and wet heat of Metarhizium robertsii, an insect-pathogenic fungus. Two nutrient media and two light regimens were compared. Conidia were produced on...
Article
Conidia are responsible for reproduction, dispersal, environmental persistence and host infection of many fungal species. One of the main environmental factors that can kill and/or damage conidia is solar UV radiation. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) are the major DNA photoproducts induced by UVB. We examined the conidial germination kinetics a...
Article
Metarhizium spp. is an important worldwide group of entomopathogenic fungi used as an interesting alternative to chemical insecticides in programs of agricultural pest and disease vector control. Metarhizium conidia are important in fungal propagation and also are responsible for host infection. Despite their importance, several aspects of conidial...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (PDT) is a promising method that can be used to control localized mycoses or kill fungi in the environment. A major objective of the current study was to compare the conidial photosensitization of two fungal species (Metarhizium anisopliae and Aspergillus nidulans) with methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB...
Article
Fungi, including the entomopathogenic deuteromycete Metarhizium anisopliae, produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites that either can be secreted or stored in specific developmental structures, e.g., conidia. Some secondary metabolites, such as pigments, polyols and mycosporines, are associated with pathogenicity and/or fungal tolerance to...
Article
Solar radiation is one of the major factors responsible for the control of fungus populations in the environment. Inactivation by UVA and UVB radiation is especially important for the control of fungi that disperse infective units through the air, including fungi such as Cryptococcus spp. that infect their vertebrate hosts by inhalation. Cryptococc...
Article
Conidial pigmentation is involved in protection against heat and UV radiation in several fungal species. In this study, we compare the tolerance of 17 color mutants of wild-type ARSEF 23 plus 13 color mutants of wild-type ARSEF 2575 of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae to wet-heat and UV-B or simulated-solar radiation. The stress tolerance of...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of conidial pigmentation to solar UV radiation tolerance in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, was estimated by comparing the effects of exposure to simulated solar UV radiation on the wild-type parent strain U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Collection of Entom...
Article
We previously reported wide variability in UV-B tolerance among different Metarhizium anisopliae isolates [Braga, G.U.L., Flint, S.D., Miller, C.D., Anderson, A.J., Roberts, D.W., 2001a. Variability in response to UV-B among species and strains of Metarhizium isolated from sites at latitudes from 61 degrees N to 54 degrees S. J. Invertebr. Pathol....
Article
Notable variability in thermotolerance was found among conidia of 16 isolates of the insect-pathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and one M. anisopliae var. acridum isolated from latitudes 61 degrees N to 54 degrees S. Conidial suspensions were exposed to 40 or 45 degrees C for 2, 4, 8, and 12 h. Most of the isolates tolerated 40...
Article
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-A and UV-B) is a major factor in failure of programs using the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent. Studies were conducted to determine if growth conditions, viz. artificial (agar media or rice grain) or natural (infected insects) substrates for conidial production affect two...
Article
Full-text available
Metarhizium anisopliae isolates have a wide insect host range, but an impediment to their commercial use as a biocontrol agent of above-ground insects is the high susceptibility of spores to the near-UV present in solar irradiation. To understand stress responses in M. anisopliae, we initiated studies of enzymes that protect against oxidative stres...
Article
We evaluated the effects of exposure to doses supplied at an environmentally realistic intensity of UV-B radiation (800 mW m⁻² weighted irradiance) on the culturability and germination of selected strains of the entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes Verticillium lecanii and Aphanocladium album. Increased UV-B exposure decreased relative percent culturabili...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effects of exposure to doses supplied at an environmentally realistic intensity of UV-B radiation (800 mW m(-2) weighted irradiance) on the culturability and germination of selected strains of the entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes Verticillium lecanii and Aphanocladium album. Increased UV-B exposure decreased relative percent culturabi...
Article
The entomopathogenic hyphomycete Metarhizium anisopliae has been used in programs of agricultural pest and disease vector control in several countries. Exposure to simulated solar radiation for a few hours can completely inactivate the conidia of the fungus. In the present study we determined the effect of exposures to full-spectrum sunlight and to...
Article
The near-UV component of sunlight decreased culturability of the leaf epiphyte and plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Exposure of the wild-type cells for 4 h to UV-A and UV-B in sunlight was ten fold more detrimental than exposure to sunlight with just UV-A. Sensitivity to UV-A especially increased in a mutant of P. syringae lacking the global re...
Article
The effects of irradiances of 920 and 1200 mW m−2 (biologically effective weighted irradiance) were examined in 2 Metarhizium album strains, 26 M. anisopliae strains, 1 M. flavoviride strain, and 1 M. taii strain isolated from sites located at latitudes from 61°N to 54°S. Conidia were exposed to UV-B from 1 to 6 h and subsequently examined for rela...
Article
The effects of two uv irradiances (920 and 1200 mW m−2 weighted irradiance) on the conidia and germlings of the ARSEF 2575 and ARSEF 23 strains of M. anisopliae were studied. Conidia were exposed to the two irradiance levels for 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 h. The 30% increase (from 920 to 1200 mW m−2) in uv irradiance caused a significant decrease in cultu...
Article
We tested the effects of irradiances of 920 and 1200 mW m-2 (weighted irradiance) on the conidia and germinants of the entomopathogenic Hyphomycete Metarhizium anisopliae. The conidia were exposed to the two irradiances for 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 or 8 h. Increased exposure decreased relative percent culturability. The inactivation provoked by the irradiance...
Article
We tested the effects of irradiances of 920 and 1200 mW m−2 (weighted irradiance) on the conidia and germinants of the entomopathogenic Hyphomycete Metarhizium anisopliae. The conidia were exposed to the two irradiances for 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 or 8 h. Increased exposure decreased relative percent culturability. The inactivation provoked by the irradiance...
Article
Respirometry was used to monitor the germination and growth of the entomopathogenic deuteromycete Metarhizium anisopliae on media containing carbon sources of different kinds (monosaccharides, polysaccharides, amino acids, and proteins). As also observed in several other species of fungi, M. anisopliae germination was found to be marked by a signif...