Gil Rilov

Gil Rilov
Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Institute (IOLR) · Marine Biology

Professor

About

147
Publications
69,225
Reads
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4,328
Citations
Introduction
I studied the ecology of coastal communities (coral reefs, rocky shores) in many regions (Mediterranean, Red Sea, Pacific, Atlantic). I developed and manage the National Monitoring Program on Mediterranean rocky shore biodiversity in Israel, and investigates the ecology of Mediterranean coastal communities, and the effects of bioinvasions, climate change (warming, acidification, sea level rise and extreme events) and marine protected areas on these communities and their functions.
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - present
University of Haifa
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
February 2009 - present
Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Institute (IOLR)
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • I am a senior researcher at the Marine Biology Department and head of the Marine Community Ecology Lab
October 2008 - August 2012
Ruppin Academic Center
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
September 1987 - June 2000
Tel Aviv University
Field of study
  • Biology, Marine Ecology

Publications

Publications (147)
Article
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Habitat structural complexity is often considered beneficial for prey species because it reduces the foraging efficiency of predators. However, for site-attached, territorial prey, such as many damselfishes, structural complexity at specific scales may be detrimental. Since the location of territorial prey could be highly predictable to predators,...
Article
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We examine fish invasions in the south-eastern Mediterranean as a model system for the invasibility of open coasts and provide perspectives through a review of global marine fish invasions. South-eastern Mediterranean (Levant Sea). We compare historical (1990–1994) and modern (2008–2011) trawl surveys from the Mediterranean continental shelf and up...
Chapter
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Predator-prey interactions are among the most fundamental processes shaping the structure and function of ecological communities, particularly in marine systems. In the past several decades, it has become clear that humans are interfering considerably with these interactions in many marine systems, mainly by removing top predators via harvesting (M...
Article
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The supply of larvae to the shore is important for population replenishment and intertidal community dynamics but its variability at most scales is not well understood. We tested the relationship between nearshore mussel larval abundance and intertidal settlement rates over several years at multiple spatiotemporal scales in Oregon and New Zealand....
Article
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Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a...
Article
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Ocean warming threatens the stability and survival of marine ecosystems, exposing species to lethal and sub-lethal effects. This is true particularly at their warm distributional edge, and more so, in extreme and highly variable environments like the intertidal zone where they can be often exposed to temperatures close or beyond their thermal limit...
Article
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Diet and body mass are inextricably linked in vertebrates: while herbivores and carnivores have converged on much larger sizes, invertivores and omnivores are, on average, much smaller, leading to a roughly U-shaped relationship between body size and trophic guild. Although this U-shaped trophic-size structure is well documented in extant terrestri...
Article
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Direct and indirect impacts by invasive animals on plants and other animals through predation and competition have been evidenced in many ecosystems. For instance, the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus, originating from the Red Sea, is now the most abundant species in costal habitats of South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea where it overgrazes algae. However,...
Article
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Local, regional and global targets have been set to halt marine biodiversity loss. Europe has set its own policy targets to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine ecosystems by implementing the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) across member states. We combined an extensive dataset across five Mediterranean ecoregions including...
Article
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To predict global warming impacts on parasitism, we should describe the thermal tolerance of all players in host–parasite systems. Complex life-cycle parasites such as trematodes are of particular interest since they can drive complex ecological changes. This study evaluates the net response to temperature of the infective larval stage of Himasthla...
Article
Seaweeds provide important ecosystem functions in shallow temperate rocky reefs including carbon uptake. The macroalgae communities in shallow reefs off the south-eastern Mediterranean shores have shifted dramatically due to bioinvasions and possibly ocean warming over the past few decades. These changes have likely caused and will continue to shif...
Article
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Microplastics are ubiquitous in the marine environment and studies on their effects on benthic filter feeders at least partly revealed a negative influence. However, it is still unclear whether the effects of microplastics differ from those of natural suspended microparticles, which constitute a common stressor in many coastal environments. We pres...
Article
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Global change impacts marine organisms and communities mainly through ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and changes in nutrient inputs and water circulation. To assess the ecological impacts of global change, the effects of multiple interacting environmental drivers, including their fluctuations, should be tested at different levels of b...
Article
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Global change is striking harder and faster in the Mediterranean Sea than elsewhere, where high levels of human pressure and proneness to climate change interact in modifying the structure and disrupting regulative mechanisms of marine ecosystems. Rocky reefs are particularly exposed to such environmental changes with ongoing trends of degradation...
Article
Climate change threatens the resilience of species, especially at their warm distributional edge in extreme environments. We investigated the thermal vulnerability of the tidepool shrimp, Palaemon elegans in the fast-warming southeastern Mediterranean, its warm distributional edge. Tidepool organisms experience strong and fast thermal fluctuations....
Article
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Marine spatial planning that addresses ocean climate-driven change (‘climate-smart MSP’) is a global aspiration to support economic growth, food security and ecosystem sustainability. Ocean climate change (‘CC’) modelling may become a key decision-support tool for MSP, but traditional modelling analysis and communication challenges prevent their br...
Article
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Invasive species are one of many anthropogenic challenges to maintaining a healthy marine ecosystem. Two rabbitfish species (Siganus rivulatus and Siganus luridus) are among the more successful migrants from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, where their intense foraging has caused damage to the algae community, thus reducing primary production and...
Article
Sea level rise (SLR), driven by anthropogenic climate change, can be a major threat to coastal ecosystems. Among the most biologically diverse but SLR-threatened coastal ecosystems are rocky shores, especially in regions with a small tidal range. Nonetheless, the impacts of SLR on rocky shore biodiversity, community structure and ecosystem function...
Article
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The rapid, global spread of COVID-19, and the measures intended to limit or slow its propagation , are having major impacts on diverse sectors of society. Notably, these impacts are occurring in the context of other anthropogenic-driven threats including global climate change. Both anthropogenic stressors and the COVID-19 pandemic represent signifi...
Article
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The rapid, global spread of COVID-19, and the measures intended to limit or slow its propagation, are having major impacts on diverse sectors of society. Notably, these impacts are occurring in the context of other anthropogenic-driven threats including global climate change. Both anthropogenic stressors and the COVID-19 pandemic represent signific...
Article
Large-scale coastal monitoring programs that focus on long-term inter-annual and seasonal community variability are rare mostly because they are costly, logistically complex and require coordination by groups of dedicated scientists. The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is currently developing a regional collaboration throughout the A...
Chapter
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This Chapter 2, “Drivers”, focuses on the physical, bio-chemical and human drivers of climate and environmental changes, distinguishing between climate, pollution, land/sea use and management, and invasive species.
Article
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Global warming causes the poleward shift of the trailing edges of marine ectotherm species distributions. In the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, continental masses and oceanographic barriers do not allow natural connectivity with thermophilic species pools: as trailing edges retreat, a net diversity loss occurs. We quantify this loss on the Israel...
Chapter
Nonindigenous species are increasingly transported around the world through multiple pathways by a diversity of vectors. Invasive species are a subset of those that are introduced into the receptor community, where they establish and increase their population to a size where they impact the native system. Marine invasive species can therefore inter...
Article
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Mesophotic assemblages are the next frontier of marine exploration in the Mediterranean Sea. Located below recreational scuba diving depths, they are difficult to access but host a diverse array of habitats structured by large invertebrate species. The Eastern Mediterranean has been much less explored than the western part of the basin and its meso...
Article
Seagrass meadows are globally recognized as important coastal habitats due to the various ecological functions and ecosystem services they provide. Substantial global decline of seagrass habitats has been recorded over the last decades, underlining the need for extensive studies, including monitoring and mapping these habitats across their distribu...
Article
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Like most ocean regions today, the European and contiguous seas experience cumulative impacts from local human activities and global pressures. They are largely in poor environmental condition with deteriorating trends. Despite several success stories, European policies for marine conservation fall short of being effective. Acknowledging the challe...
Article
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Climate change (CC) is a key, global driver of change of marine ecosystems. At local and regional scales, other local human stressors (LS) can interact with CC and modify its effects on marine ecosystems. Understanding the response of the marine environment to the combined effects of CC and LS is crucial to inform marine ecosystem-based management...
Article
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Cystoseira sensu lato (Ochrophyta) forests are important habitat formers in the Mediterranean Sea, but they have mostly been studied in the western basin where many species are under decline. Int he eastern basin, where fewer species occur, Cystoseira rayssiae Ramon was described in the year2000 as an endemic species based on morphological characte...
Article
The endemic Mediterranean reef building vermetid gastropods Dendropoma petraeum complex (Dendropoma spp) and Vermetus triquetrus develop bio-constructions (rims) on rocky shorelines at about Mean Sea Level (MSL) and are therefore commonly used as relative sea-level (RSL) markers. In this study, we use elevations and age data of vermetid reefs to (1...
Article
Coralline algae, a major calcifying component of coastal shallow water communities, have been shown to be one of the more vulnerable taxonomic groups to ocean acidification (OA). Under OA, the interaction between corallines and epiphytes was previously described as both positive and negative. We hypothesized that the photosynthetic activity and the...
Article
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The Mediterranean Sea is subject to multiple human pressures increasingly threatening its unique biodiversity. Spatially explicit information on the ecological status of marine ecosystems is therefore key to an effective maritime spatial planning and management, and to help the achievement of environmental targets. Here, we summarized scientific da...
Article
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The Red Sea intertidal gastropod Nerita sanguinolenta is reported here for the first time from the Northern Mediterranean coast of Israel, where it was found at the landward face of a vermetid reef on 11 November 2019, and identified morphologically and by using molecular barcoding. Possible vectors for its introduction primarily include ship balla...
Article
Mediterranean coastal ecosystems experience many local and global stressors and require long-term monitoring to detect and follow trends in community structure. Between 2009 and 2017, we seasonally and annually monitored the spatiotemporal community dynamics at 11 sites on the rocky shores of the southeastern Mediterranean, focusing on the understu...
Article
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Halophila stipulacea is a small tropical seagrass, native to the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and the Indian Ocean. It invaded the Mediterranean Sea 150 years ago as a Lessepsian migrant, but so far has remained in insulated, small populations across this basin. Surprisingly, in 2002 it was reported in the Caribbean Sea, where within less than two decade...
Article
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Species distribution models (SDMs) correlate species occurrences with environmental predictors, and can be used to forecast distributions under future climates. SDMs have been criticized for not explicitly including the physiological processes underlying the species response to the environment. Recently, new methods have been suggested to combine S...
Article
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Macroalgal forests are one of the most productive and valuable marine ecosystems, but yet strongly exposed to fragmentation and loss. Detailed large-scale information on their distribution is largely lacking, hindering conservation initiatives. In this study, a systematic effort to combine spatial data on Cystoseira C. Agardh canopies (Fucales, Pha...
Article
1. Global warming mediates and maintains the tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems. Recent studies have demonstrated that this process causes shifts from algal forests to denuded non‐canopy states in temperate reefs. It has been suggested that these changes would incur significant consequences to ecosystem functioning. 2. In this study, we...
Article
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Anthropogenic climate change, and global warming in particular, has strong and increasing impacts on marine ecosystems (Poloczanska et al., 2013; Halpern et al., 2015; Smale et al., 2019). The Mediterranean Sea is considered a marine biodiversity hotspot contributing to more than 7% of world’s marine biodiversity including a high percentage of ende...
Article
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The plea for using more "realistic," community-level, investigations to assess the ecological impacts of global change has recently intensified. Such experiments are typically more complex, longer, more expensive, and harder to interpret than simple organism-level benchtop experiments. Are they worth the extra effort? Using outdoor mesocosms, we in...
Article
Two experiments were executed to assess the feasibility of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) transfer to fish tissues via MPs as a vector. PCBs that occur in the marine environment were tested for their adsorption to four different MP types. PCB congeners showed the highest adsorption levels to Polypropylene homo-polymer. The uptake of PCBs through...
Article
Climate change and bioinvasions are two facets of global change that can act in tandem to impact native species and ecosystems. However, their combined effects on key species have rarely been studied. The Mediterranean Sea is a hotspot of both ocean warming and bioinvasions, where their impact can be tested together. In recent years, the population...
Conference Paper
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Knowledge on the status and trends in marine biodiversity, and associated drivers of biodiversity change across the Americas is sparse and geographically uneven. International cooperation is needed to fill observational gaps at these geographic scales and provide information to satisfy policy targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development a...
Article
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In the Anthropocene, marine ecosystems are rapidly shifting to new ecological states. Achieving effective conservation of marine biodiversity has become a fast‐moving target because of both global climate change and continuous shifts in marine policies. How prepared are we to deal with this crisis? We examined EU Member States Programs of Measures...
Article
This manuscript reports the first sightings and collection of the swimming crab Cronius ruber (Lamarck, 1818) on the coast of Madeira Island, Portugal. After the recent record in the Canary Islands, this represents a further step northward on this species' expansion in distribution in the eastern Atlantic. The crab was first spotted during underwat...
Article
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The rocky intertidal zone is a highly dynamic and thermally variable ecosystem, where the combined influences of solar radiation, air temperature and topography can lead to differences greater than 15°C over the scale of centimetres during aerial exposure at low tide. For most intertidal organisms this small-scale heterogeneity in microclimates can...
Article
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This is the second collective paper issued in 2019, currently amalgamates new knowledge on the Mediterranean geographic distributions of 17 species from five phyla (six aliens, three cosmopolitans, two east Atlantic records and six natives). The acknowledged species were reported from ten countries, mentioned here from west to east: Spain: first re...
Article
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Managing invasive alien species is particularly challenging in the ocean mainly because marine ecosystems are highly connected across broad spatial scales. Eradication of marine invasive species has only been achieved when species were detected early, and management responded rapidly. Generalized approaches, transferable across marine regions, for...
Article
Considerable shifts in the composition and structure of ecological communities resulting from global warming are already evident and predicted to worsen in the Mediterranean Sea. Few thermophilic species are expected to benefit from those changes. In this study, we tested the impact of ocean warming on the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana by exposing...
Article
Marine protected areas (MPAs) represent the main tool for halting the loss of marine biodiversity. However, there is increasing evidence concerning their limited capacity to reduce or eliminate some threats even within their own boundaries. Here, we analysed a Europe-wide dataset comprising 31,579 threats recorded in 1692 sites of the European Unio...