Gijsbert Dirk Adrianus Werner

Gijsbert Dirk Adrianus Werner
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Zoology

Dr.

About

23
Publications
18,139
Reads
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1,526
Citations
Introduction
I am interested in the evolution and maintenance of biological cooperation. My research uses biological market theory to study mutualistic interactions as exchanges between partners in a common market place. I use experimental approaches to study mutualistic exchanges under various ecological conditions, as well as phylogenetic reconstructions of the evolutionary history of mutualisms. The models I currently focus on are plant-microbe mutualisms like mycorrhizal fungi and N2-fixing bacteria.
Additional affiliations
February 2016 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Newton International Fellow (Postdoctoral Fellow)
April 2014 - July 2014
University of Oxford
Position
  • Academic Visitor
November 2011 - February 2016
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Position
  • PhD
Education
August 2010 - September 2011
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Department of Zoology
September 2006 - June 2010
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (23)
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the origins and evolutionary trajectories of symbiotic partnerships remains a major challenge. Why are some symbioses lost over evolutionary time whereas others become crucial for survival? Here, we use a quantitative trait reconstruction method to characterize different evolutionary stages in the ancient symbiosis between legumes (Fa...
Article
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that differen...
Article
Priority effects – the impact of a species' arrival on subsequent community development – have been shown to influence species composition in many organisms. Whether priority effects among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) structure fungal root communities is not well understood. Here, we investigated whether priority effects influence the success...
Article
Full-text available
Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous...
Article
Full-text available
Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological mar...
Article
Full-text available
Biological market theory provides a conceptual framework to analyze trade strategies in symbiotic partnerships. A key prediction of biological market theory is that individuals can influence resource value ‐ meaning the amount a partner is willing to pay for it ‐ by mediating where and when it is traded. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, charac...
Article
Full-text available
Across the tree of life, hosts have evolved mechanisms to control and mediate interactions with symbiotic partners. We suggest that the evolution of physical structures that allow hosts to spatially separate symbionts, termed compartmentalization, is a common mechanism used by hosts. Such compartmentalization allows hosts to: (i) isolate symbionts...
Article
Full-text available
Plant traits—the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants—determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research sp...
Article
Full-text available
Graphical Abstract Highlights d Quantum-dot technology can be used to track trading strategies of mycorrhizal fungi d Increasing exposure to inequality stimulates trade and resource movement d Fungal trade strategies are not uniform across the symbiotic network d Fungi can capitalize on trade by first moving resources to areas of high demand In Bri...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperative interactions among species, termed mutualisms, have played a crucial role in the evolution of life on Earth. However, despite key potential benefits to partners, there are many cases in which two species cease to cooperate and mutualisms break down. What factors drive the evolutionary breakdown of mutualism? We examined the pathways tow...
Article
Full-text available
1.Biological conclusions drawn from phylogenetic comparative methods can be sensitive to uncertainty in species sampling, phylogeny and data. To be confident about our conclusions, we need to quantify their robustness to such uncertainty. 2.We present sensiPhy, an R-package to easily and rapidly perform sensitivity analysis for phylogenetic compar...
Article
Full-text available
The symbiosis between plants and root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most ecologically important examples of interspecific cooperation in the world. AM fungi provide benefits to plants; in return plants allocate carbon resources to fungi, preferentially allocating more resources to higher-quality fungi. However, preferen...
Article
To the Editor — The symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been described as a biological market based on evidence that plants supply more carbohydrates to fungal partners that provide more soil nutrients, and vice versa 1–4 .
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi exchange soil nutrients for carbon from plant hosts. Empirical works suggests that hosts may selectively provide resources to different fungal species, ultimately affecting fungal competition. However, fungal competition may also be mediated by colonization strategies of the fungi themselves. To test whether host qualit...
Article
Full-text available
The gastropod Patella vulgata is abundant on rocky shores in Northern Europe and a significant grazer of intertidal algae. Here we report the application of Illumina sequencing to develop a transcriptome from the adult mantle tissue of P. vulgata. We obtained 47,237,104 paired-end reads of 51 bp, trialled de novo assembly methods and settled on the...
Article
Full-text available
![Figure][1] Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.CREDIT: JAN JANSA Although fungi are a greater threat to crops and forests than ever before (“Attack of the clones,” K. Kupferschmidt, News Focus, 10 August, p. [636][2]), we should not expel them completely. Mycorrhizal fungi are ancient and
Article
Full-text available
Deze rapportage is het resultaat van het eerste onderdeel van het onderzoek van de USBO (Universiteit Utrecht) naar e-participatie van expats. In dit deelonderzoek is het aanbod van e-participatie initiatieven in kaart gebracht. In totaal zijn 139 websites geanalyseerd en beoordeeld op diverse criteria. E-participatie van expats is grofweg in te de...
Article
Full-text available
Het doel van dit document is om de relaties tussen verschillende vormen van participatie en overheidsdienstverlening te verkennen om zo gericht keuzen te kunnen maken over de bijdrage van e-participatie aan geïntegreerde, persoonsgerichte dienstverlening. Achtereenvolgens wordt ingegaan op de volgende vragen: • Welke vormen van participatie in de o...

Projects

Project (1)
Project
An implementation of sensitivity analysis for phylogenetic comparative methods. The package is an umbrella of statistical and graphical methods that estimate and report different types of uncertainty in PCM: (i) Species Sampling uncertainty (sample size; influential species and clades). (ii) Phylogenetic uncertainty (different topologies and/or branch lengths). (iii) Data uncertainty (intraspecific variation and measurement error). The package is an open platform and will be constantly updated to include new functionalities. sensiPhy can be installed from the oficial CRAN repository and the development version is hosted at Github (https://github.com/paternogbc/sensiPhy). Quick Tutorial, visit our wiki page: https://github.com/paternogbc/sensiPhy/wiki How to contribute with sensiPhy: https://github.com/paternogbc/sensiPhy/wiki/How-to-support-sensiPhy