Gijsbert Erkens

Gijsbert Erkens
Utrecht University | UU · Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences

About

170
Publications
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3,923
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Publications

Publications (170)
Article
People increasingly collaborate with others across cultures and distances with the help of technology. Bridging individuals via technology does not, however, ensure that the cultures of the individuals involved are similarly bridged. This study introduced an interculturally enriched collaboration script (IECS) to foster collaboration and to bridge...
Article
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This study investigated how university students (n = 28) coordinated their collaborative online writing and what kinds of coordination profiles were found among the students. Further, the study examined the quality of the essays produced by groups of students varying in their combinations of coordination profiles. Students’ written comments on thei...
Article
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Teacher orchestration of the classroom is a demanding task because of the multitude of activities and the rapid pace at which these activities occur. Teachers must constantly be aware of the activities students engage in and the progress students are making, in order to be able to make informed decisions. Recent years have seen the development of l...
Article
Deze PowerPoint gaat over oefenend leren en programma's voor het oefenen van kennis en vaardigheden.
Article
Deze powerpoint gaat over multiple representatie en instructietheorie.
Article
Deze PowerPoint gaat over oefenend leren en programma's voor het oefenen van kennis en vaardigheden.
Article
Deze powerpoint gaat over multiple representatie en instructietheorie.
Article
Teachers regulating groups of students during computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) face the challenge of orchestrating their guidance at student, group, and class level. During CSCL, teachers can monitor all student activity and interact with multiple groups at the same time. Not much is known about the way teachers diagnose student pro...
Article
By collaboratively solving a task, students are challenged to share ideas, express their thoughts, and engage in discussion. Collaborating groups of students may encounter problems concerning cognitive activities (such as a misunderstanding of the task material). If these problems are not addressed and resolved in time, the collaborative process is...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of teacher supporting tools that present summaries, visualizations, and analyses of student participation and discussion on the way teachers guide collaborating groups of students in a digital learning environment. An experimental set-up was used in which authentic student data was converted to simul...
Article
This study investigated whether design guidelines for computer-based learning can be applied to computer-based testing (CBT). Twenty-two students completed a CBT exam with half of the questions presented in a split-screen format that was analogous to the original paper-and-pencil version and half in an integrated format. Results show that students...
Article
Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments facilitate collaboration between students. There is a growing interest in studying the role of the teacher during CSCL. This study aims to contribute to the conceptualization of teacher interventions during CSCL. A teacher and his class worked in a CSCL environment for 8 lessons. Focus a...
Article
This study examined whether inspecting and constructing different part-task-specific visualizations differentially affects learning. To this end, a complex business-economics problem was structured into three phase-related part-tasks: (1) determining core concepts, (2) proposing multiple solutions, and (3) coming to a single solution. Each phase wa...
Article
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Although collaborative learning, often supported by computer networks (widely called computer-supported collaborative learning, or CSCL) is currently being implemented at all levels of education, it has not always proven to be the wonder-tool that educators envisioned and has often not lived up to the high expectations that educators had for it. In...
Article
Situated in the field of computer-supported collaborative learning, the aim of this study is to present a multi-dimensional approach for the examination of teacher behavior. Two dimensions were used for coding: focus (what the intervention is aimed at) and means (how the teacher intervenes). Teacher behavior was studied for a period of several week...
Article
This study examined the effects of combining causal and mathematical representations on learners' collaborative performance of a complex business-economics problem-task. In total 34 teams (learner-triads) carried the problem-task out in a predefined order, namely (1) defining the problem and proposing two solutions (problem-solution phase) and (2)...
Article
This study examined the effects of scripting learners’ use of two types of representational tools (i.e., causal and simulation) on their online collaborative problem-solving. Scripting sequenced the phase-related part-task demands and made them explicit. This entailed (1) defining the problem and proposing multiple solutions (i.e., problem-solution...
Article
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This study investigated whether and how scripting learners' use of representational tools in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL)-environment fostered their collaborative performance on a complex business-economics task. Scripting the problem-solving process sequenced and made its phase-related part-task demands explicit, namely defin...
Article
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This study investigated how students collaborate in a CSCL environment and how this collaboration affects group performance. To answer these questions, the collaborative process of 101 groups of secondary education students when working on a historical inquiry task was analyzed. Our analyses show that group members devote most of their efforts to r...
Article
There is a gap in our knowledge about what cognitions play a role while teachers scaffold students in CSCL. A case study was performed that investigated a history teacher's behavior and cognitions. The quantitative results fit with what is known about teacher behavior, and the qualitative data adds an explanation of why the teacher acted the way he...
Article
A peer feedback tool (Radar) and a reflection tool (Reflector) were used to enhance group performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Radar allows group members to assess themselves and their fellow group members on six traits related to social and cognitive behavior. Reflector stimulates group members to reflect on thei...
Article
Learning teams in higher education executing a collaborative assignment are not always effective. To remedy this, there is a need to determine and understand the variables that influence team effectiveness. This study aimed at developing a conceptual framework, based on research in various contexts on team effectiveness and specifically team and ta...
Article
This study examined the effect of using a group awareness tool on online collaboration. Furthermore, we examined whether the effect of using a group awareness tool on online collaboration is mediated by group awareness (i.e., students’ awareness of their group members’ levels of participation). To answer these questions, we determined how often and...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of this chapter is to explain why multilevel analysis (MLA) is often necessary to correctly answer the questions CSCL researchers address. Although CSCL researchers continue to use statistical techniques such as ­analysis of variance or regression analysis, their datasets are often not suited for these ­techniques. The first reason is that...
Book
Analyzing Collaborative Interactions in CSCL Methods, Approaches, and Issues Sadhana Puntambekar, Gijsbert Erkens, and Cindy Hmelo-Silver, editors In more than two decades of research in CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning), researchers have used several methods to understand how individuals learn in groups and how groups of learners co...
Article
This study investigated whether scripting student use of computer supported representational tools fostered students’ collaborative performance of a complex business-economics problem. Scripting the problem-solving process sequenced and made its phase-related part-task demands explicit, namely (1) determining core concepts, (2) proposing multiple s...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of representational scripting on non-expert student learning while collaboratively carrying out complex learning-tasks. The premise underlying this research is that effective cognitive activities would be evoked when complex learning-tasks are structured into phase-related part-tasks and are supported by providin...
Article
This study investigated the effects of representational scripting on students’ collaborative performance of a complex business-economics problem. The scripting structured the learning-task into three part-tasks, namely (1) determining core concepts and relating them to the problem, (2) proposing multiple solutions to the problem, and (3) coming to...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigates the role of representational guidance by comparing the effects of two different representational tools. We used a design with two different groups defined by the type of argumentative diagram students co-constructed while working in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. The Graphical Debate-tool...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Slof, B., Erkens, G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, July). Matching representational tools’ ontology to part-task demands to foster problem-solving in business economics. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Learning in the Disciplines: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS 2010) Volume 2 (pp. 16-18). Ch...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional research on collaborative learning employs a “black box” approach that makes it difficult to gain a deeper understanding of the differential effects of collaborative learning. To make the black box transparent, researchers have studied the process of collaboration, in order to establish which interaction features are likely to make lear...
Article
Full-text available
Slof, B., Erkens, G., Kirschner, P. A. (2010, June). Ondersteuning van gezamenlijk probleemoplossen door gefaseerd construeren van domeinspecifieke representaties [Supporting collaborative problem-solving through constructing phase-related domain-specific representations]. Proceedings van de 37e Onderwijs Research Dagen 2010, Enschede, Nederland.
Article
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This article reports on a qualitative study of the construct of shared epistemic agency, investigated in the context of collaborative instructional design activities of university students. The aim of the study is to shed light on the notion of shared epistemic agency and to create empirical grounding for its theoretical description. The current st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigated whether structuring an online collaborative problem-solving task into part-tasks and providing part-task congruent representations supports students establishing and maintaining a shared understanding of the concepts, principles and procedures in the knowledge domain and negotiating about them. This better coordination of st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of representational scripting on student learning while online collaboratively solving a complex problem. The premise here is that effective student interaction would be evoked when the problem-solving task is structured into part-tasks that are supported by providing part-task congruent representations (i.e., re...
Article
Full-text available
A workshop held at the National Academies in the United States in 2007 highlighted five broad categories of skills that appear valuable across a range of jobs for people working in modern global economies. Engaging students in scientific argumentation can support the development of these 21st century skills. Unfortunately, opportunities are rare in...
Article
This symposium centers on the concern about the acquisition and application of conceptual knowledge in the domain of business and economics, both important and yet demanding educational goals. The contributions are aimed at studying whether concept mapping can be helpful in reaching these goals. Moreover, we intend to provide preliminary guidelines...
Article
Full-text available
Erkens, G., Kirschner, P. A., & Janssen, J. (2010). Visualization of argumentation as shared activity. In L. Verschaffel, E. de Corte, T. de Jong, & J. Elen (Eds.), Use of external representations in reasoning and problem solving (pp. 242-260). EARLI book series New Perspectives on Learning and Instruction. New York: Routledge.
Article
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Slof, B., Erkens, G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Leren bedrijfseconomische problemen op te lossen door het maken van vakspecifieke schema’s [Learning to solve business-economics problems through constructing domainspecific diagrams]. Tijdschrift voor het Economisch Onderwijs (TEO), 110(4), 226–230.
Article
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This study investigated the effects of group member familiarity during computer-supported collaborative learning. Familiarity may have an impact on online collaboration, because it may help group members to progress more quickly through the stages of group development, and may lead to higher group cohesion. It was therefore hypothesized that increa...
Conference Paper
This study investigated the effects of a tool designed for supporting the online collaborative performance of learners carrying out complex learning tasks. Appropriate collaborative cognitive activities may be evoked by structuring the whole learning task into phases and providing congruent external representations for each stage (i.e., representat...
Article
Full-text available
Although protocol analysis can be an important tool for researchers to investigate the process of collaboration and communication, the use of this method of analysis can be time consuming. Hence, an automatic coding procedure for coding dialogue acts was developed. This procedure helps to determine the communicative function of messages in online d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge creation entails collaborative learning processes, involving groups of students that act collaboratively in order to create new knowledge. In this study, we discuss shared epistemic agency as one of the main concepts capturing the process and evolution of collaboratively creating knowledge. A multiple-method approach was employed when ana...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In CSCL environments model representations can stimulate learners to explicate their reasoning and elicit and support knowledge construction. But literature on their effectiveness is not clear with data indicating that representations not adapted to task demands have counterproductive effects. By matching the representational guidance of a model re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Students' actions within a CSCL-environment can be recorded and stored as interaction data. This data can be accessed and analyzed automatically. Teachers, students and researchers may benefit from these analyses. It gives teachers and students immediate feedback about performance indicators and it can help researchers to identify meaningful patter...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of visualization of participation during computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). It is hypothesized that visualization of participation could contribute to successful CSCL. A CSCL-environment was augmented with the Participation Tool (PT). The PT visualizes how much each group member contributes to his...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, researchers have developed sophisticated online learning environments to support students engaging in dialogic argumentation. This review examines five categories of analytic frameworks for measuring participant interactions within these environments focusing on (1) formal argumentation structure, (2) conceptual quality, (3) n...
Conference Paper
In order to prepare students for productive participation in knowledge society, higher education is presented with the challenge to create authentic contexts in which students learn to become active and responsible actors in the learning process (Hakkarainen, 2006). Paavola and Hakkarainen (2005) maintain that settings which allow students to focus...
Article
This study examined the effects of the shared space (SS) on students' behaviors in a computer- supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. The SS visualizes discussion and agreement during online discussions. It was hypothesized the SS would increase the media richness of the CSCL-environment, would stimulate critical and exploratory group...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the Shared Space (SS), a tool that visualizes discussion and agreement during online discussions by analyzing students' chat messages. The SS therefore provides group members with feedback about the way they are conducting their online discussions. It is hypothesized the SS will increase the media richness of the CSCL-environme...
Chapter
Full-text available
Technology-enhanced learning environments offer a range of features to facilitate active learning through evidence-based argumentation (e.g., Fabos & Young, 1999; Kollar et al., 2005; Marttunen & Laurinen, 2001; Pea, 1994; Roschelle & Pea, 1999; Schellens & Valcke, 2006). This chapter examines the affordances of these environments, the research beh...
Conference Paper
Over the last decade, researchers have developed sophisticated online learning environments to promote argumentative discourse between students. This symposium examines some of the diverse ways researchers have attempted to examine how students engage in argumentation and to assess the effectiveness of CSCL environments in fostering productive argu...
Article
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In de afgelopen jaren zijn diverse richtlijnen voor het vormgeven van computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) geformuleerd (Strijbos, Martens, & Jochems, 2004). Ondanks deze richtlijnen ervaren docenten en onderzoekers nog regelmatig problemen wanneer leerlingen online samenwerken, zoals conflicten en discussies zonder diepgang. Een mogeli...
Article
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Discourse synthesis refers to reading and writing activities within a specific type of writing task, which requires students to synthesize information from multiple textual sources and use it to write a new text. The main goal of this research was to reveal how groups of secondary education students make use of semantic information from multiple so...
Article
Full-text available
When a computer-based tool or application is used to carry out a specific task in a learning situation - that is, it is used for learning-more effectively or efficiently one speaks of learning with the tool or application. When, possibly, that same tool or application is used to enhance the way a learner works and thinks, and as such has effects th...
Article
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An automatic coding procedure is described to determine the communicative functions of messages in chat discussions. Five main communicative functions are distinguished: argumentative (indicating a line of argumentation or reasoning), responsive (e.g., confirmations, denials, and answers), informative (transfer of information), elicitative (questio...