Gideon Steinitz

Gideon Steinitz
Geological Survey of Israel · Natural Hazards

PhD

About

140
Publications
15,295
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,462
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1978 - December 2011
January 1973 - present
Education
January 1968 - December 1974
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Field of study
  • Geology
September 1965 - November 1967
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Field of study
  • Geology
September 1962 - August 1965
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Field of study
  • Geology

Publications

Publications (140)
Preprint
Full-text available
Analyses of neutrino measurements acquired by the Super-Kamiokande Neutrino Observatory (SK, for the time interval 1996 - 2001) and of radon decay measurements acquired by the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI, for the time interval 2007 - 2017) yield remarkably consistent detections of the same oscillation: frequency 9.43 +/- 0.04 year-1 (SK), 9.44...
Article
In the first article in this series, we reported an analysis of 29,000 hourly measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon gas in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem [1]. We now report an analysis of a full 10 years of operation that yields over 85,000 hourly gamma measurements....
Article
Pomme et al. have recently analyzed one year of GSI (Geological Survey of Israel) radon data, and claimed that “GSI radon measurements are unsuited for studying the variability of decay constants because the data are strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as solar irradiance and rainfall.” [1] They also claim that “the existence of cy...
Article
Long-term radon monitoring was performed in two boreholes, at a depth of 13 m in the 40 m deep V-2 borehole (August 2003-September 2005), and at 3 m depth in the 10 m deep V-3 borehole (August 2003-April 2008). Diurnal, multi-day and annual variations in radon time-series were observed. Daily average of radon activity in V-2 borehole was significan...
Article
We report coincidences of ground-level gamma-ray enhancements with precipitation events and strong electric fields typical of thunderstorms, measured at the Emilio Segre Cosmic Ray observatory located on the western slopes of Mt. Hermon in northern Israel. The observatory hosts 2 × 2″ Nal(TI) gamma ray scintillation detectors alongside a vertical a...
Article
Full-text available
Gamma radiation associated with radon decay exhibits variations in both time of year and time of day. The annual oscillation has its maximum value in June, suggestive of a galactic influence. Measurements made at midnight show strong evidence of an influence of solar rotation, but measurements made at noon do not. We find several pairs of oscillati...
Article
Full-text available
Radon (Rn-222; a radioactive noble gas) is characterized by large temporal variations that differ significantly from variations of (i) other trace elements in geogas (noble gases); (ii) variation patterns of other dynamic geophysical systems (atmospheric, tidal). Consensus exists that there is no simple and straightforward understanding of the phen...
Article
According to an article entitled Disproof of solar influence on the decay rates of 90Sr/90Y by Kossert and Nähle of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) [1], the PTB measurements show no evidence of variability. We show that, on the contrary, those measurements reveal strong evidence of variability, including an oscillation at 11 year-1...
Article
Full-text available
Kossert and Nahle of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have recently studied measurements from their beta-decay experiment that registers triple coincidences in a TDCR (Triple-to-Double Coincidence Ratio) system. Our analysis of the PTB data reveals evidence (which is a function of solar elevation) of an oscillation at 11 year-1, whic...
Article
Full-text available
Many experiments have been carried out to study the beta-decay rates of a variety of nuclides, and many - but not all - of these experiments yield evidence of variability of these rates. While there is as yet no accepted theory to explain patterns in the results, a number of conjectures have been proposed. We discuss three prominent conjectures (wh...
Article
Full-text available
During the last decades, the radioactive noble gas radon has found a variety of geoscientific applications, ranging from its utilization as a potential earthquake precursor and proxy of tectonic stress over its specific role in volcanic environments to a wide range of applications as a tracer in marine and hydrological settings. This topical issue...
Article
Full-text available
Radon (222 Rn) is a radioactive inert gas with an accepted half life of 3.8235 days. Its unique, systematic and complex variation in the geological environment and in simulation experiments combined with lack of understanding of the underlying drivers lead us to conduct tests of its apparent half life. A primary test took into account experimental...
Article
Full-text available
An extensive radon anomaly is developed along the western boundary fault of the Dead Sea Transform in the NW sector of the Dead Sea, extending 15–20 km north-south. The highest radon values occur in proximity to the fault scarp. Radon is measured, in gravel (depth 1.5–3 m) at sites located at a) on-fault positions, 1–30 meters east of the fault sca...
Article
Full-text available
Radon at two locations in Tenerife is investigated. The MM-0 site is located in a bunker near Teide volcano. Daily radon (DR) signals are dominated by a 12-hour (S2) periodicity. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of daytime and night-time series results in a day-night differentiation, which does not occur in the coeval temperature and pre...
Article
Full-text available
Radon, CO2 and environmental variables are recorded during nearly three years at a shelter hosting a 505 m deep well located close to Teide volcano. Different temporal patterns are observed, annual, semi-annual, semidiurnal and multi-day fluctuations, the latter observed as gradual variation of the semidiurnal signal. CO2 is anti-correlated with at...
Article
Signals from radon in air enclosed in a tight canister are recorded by five gamma detectors located around the horizontal plane and along the vertical axis. At steady state conditions (diffusion input = radon decay) the primary variation is of daily radon (DR) signals with amplitudes of around 20-25%. The DR signal, with a rounded form, is characte...
Article
Full-text available
Exploratory monitoring of radon is conducted at one location in the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). Measurements (15-min resolution) are performed over a time span of ca 600 days in the air of the surrounding calcareous country rock. Using both α- and γ-ray detectors, systematic and recurring radon signals are recorded. Two...
Article
Full-text available
New experimental results add information on the space–time variation pattern of nuclear radiation from radon in air at confined conditions. Using five gamma sensors placed around a canister containing radon in gas demonstrated temporal variation consisting of a long-term variation, which may be related to an annual variation, multiday (MD) signals...
Article
Full-text available
Radon (Rn-222) occurs at highly varying levels as a trace component in subsurface air (geogas). Nuclear radiation from radon (and progeny) in geogas exhibits systematic temporal variations composed of periodic and non-periodic signals spanning several orders of magnitude in time - from annual to daily and sub-daily duration. The outcome of numerous...
Article
Full-text available
The behavior of radon (Rn-222) within confined volumes of air is examined experimentally at the GSI (Jerusalem) since several years. In these experiments a relatively high level of radon is maintained by diffusion from a source via a tube and radiation from it is measured using nuclear detectors. In difference with the expected, nuclear radiation f...
Article
Full-text available
Exploratory monitoring of radon is conducted at one location at the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). Measurements (15-min resolution) are performed over a time span of ca. 600 days in the air of the surrounding calcareous country rock. Utilizing both alpha and gamma-ray detectors systematic and recurring radon signals are rec...
Article
This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to...
Article
Full-text available
We present an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between January 28 2007 and May 10 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmen...
Article
Rn-222 occurs at highly varying levels as a trace component in subsurface air (geogas). This high variability is traced by alpha and gamma activity due to the decay of radon and its progeny. Nuclear radiation from radon in geogas and in experiments using air+radon within a confined volume exhibits systematic temporal variations. These variations ar...
Article
Full-text available
Radon is a radioactive noble gas naturally present in the environment, particularly in soils derived from rocks with high uranium content. Radon is formed by alpha decay from radium within solid mineral grains, but can migrate via diffusion and/or advection into the air space of soils, as well as into groundwater and the atmosphere. The exhalation...
Article
Large temporal variations of radon ((222)Rn) are often encountered in air in the geologic environment, at time scales from diurnal to annual. Interpretations as to the nature of these variations, unique to (222)Rn, often invoke either above surface atmospheric variations, or the influence of subtle active geodynamic processes. So far the eventual g...
Article
Full-text available
Radon has continuously been monitored at the Roman spring of Tiberias, Israel since 2000 in the frame of an earthquake research project. However, there was no apparent earthquake related radon anomaly in 5 years of monitoring. Physical mechanisms behind periodic as well as transient radon variations were investigated. The radon signal contained per...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal variations of radon in the geological environment (upper crust) are frequent and recognized as unique in terms of the signals encountered and for the lack of substantial and generally applicable explanations. The phenomena observed at the Roded site, located in arid southern Israel, illustrate this situation. The monitoring of radon in the...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal variations of radon in the geological environment (upper crust) are frequent and recognized as unique in terms of the signals encountered and for the lack of substantial and generally applicable explanations. The phenomena observed at the Roded site, located in arid southern Israel, emphasize this situation. Monitoring of radon during more...
Article
High time resolution monitoring of radon, using alpha detectors is carried out in a massive and jointed syenite located in arid southern Israel. Monitoring, at a resolution of 15-min, is conducted in two boreholes at depths of 1.2 and 85–90 m, resulting in more then 10-yr long time-series. Systematic temporal variation patterns, manifesting large r...
Article
Full-text available
Radon measurements were performed at shallow levels during an in-land 20-ton seismic calibration explosion experiment, simulating a 2.6-ML earthquake, to investigate the influence of the explosive blast and the transitory seismic wave fields on the Radon transport in the country rock, adjacent to the focus of the explosion. The experiment was condu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Temporal variation phenomena and signals of Radon (Rn-222) are simulated in a +1 year long passive experiment within closed confines. The setup consists of a sealed 0.64 m3 metal tank filled with 0.4m of ground phosphorite (376 kg; 175 ppm U) serving as the Rn source. Rn in the overlying air volume (384 liters) is released from the natural rock and...
Article
Radon (Rn-222) occurring in geogas and water phases in upper crustal levels is often mentioned as a proxy of active geodynamics, with a potential as a precursor of earthquakes. So far the reported variability and complexity of its signals limits establishment of a verifiable scientific basis for this proposition. Most investigations tried to relate...
Article
Full-text available
High time resolution monitoring of radon (=222Rn) in three boreholes, 4, 10 and 53 m deep, along a 0.6 km transect is carried out in massive granite in southern Israel. Three components of variation occur in the measured signal (MS) - seasonal radon (SR - periodic), multiday (MD), and daily radon (DR - periodic). Temporal variation of the component...
Article
Full-text available
The basic statistical features of radon time series from continuous radon monitoring at the Elat granite, Israel are analysed. A similar analysis is carried out for ancillary and possibly related geophysical parameters for the Elat area. The results show that air temperature, precipitable water and long-wave radiation time series exhibit constant v...
Technical Report
Full-text available
High time resolution monitoring of radon, using alpha detectors along a 0.6 km long E-W transect in Nahal Shlomo (southern Israel) was carried out in the massive and jointed Precambrian Elat Granite. Monitoring, at a resolution of 15-minutes, is conducted in three boreholes at depths of 10, 4, and 53 meters, resulting in 3-5 year long time series....
Article
The K-Ar system in clay fractions from shallow marine carbonate shelf environments was investigated on silicate fractions (clay minerals, feldspar) separated from 20 Lower Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, deposited in the southern Tethys ocean. The range of lithologies investigated included dolomite and chalk, marl, shale and sandsto...
Article
Multi-day signals, generally with duration of 2-10 days, are a prominent temporal variation type of radon (Rn) in geogas in the unsaturated zone. Rare multi-day Rn signals have been found which are characterized by: (a) a declining limb lasting up to 10 days which conforms to the radioactive decay of Rn, (b) recurs at the same location and (c) is r...
Article
Radon is being monitored at three arrays of stations located in a 200 km sector along the western boundary fault of the Dead Sea Transform (DST). Measurements are conducted in the geogas of the unsaturated zone of different rock units - Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Cretaceous syenite and sub-recent unconsolidated gravel. Alpha and gam...
Article
Full-text available
Patterns of spatial and temporal variations in microearthquake activity during 1984-2004 were studied in five segments along the Dead Sea Fault (DSF). In each segment there is a narrow zone in which intense seismic activity is concentrated; the most active one is the Dead Sea segment. Segments are also characterized by distributions of hypocenter d...
Article
Authigenic K-feldspar was investigated in two Albian to Turonian sections in Israel using K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. Both sections comprise a similar succession of shallow-marine limestones, dolomites and marls, with some sandstone and shale beds of continental origin. The HCl-insol...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY This paper describes a new approach and what we think is a state-of-the-art methodology in (electro)magnetic measurements for earthquake research. Existing methods have met with limited success due to limited sensitivity and long-term stability of instruments, imperfect elimination of environmental noise, and in the case of induction coils,...
Article
Full-text available
An ultra sensitive magnetic gradiometric system and a very sensitive, continuous radon monitoring system are located with an existing seismic array, at the Amram Geophysical Observatory near Eilat, Israel. The purpose of setting these independent technologies together was to assess their applicability as a combined tool for studying earthquake rela...
Article
Full-text available
Detailed monitoring of radon (Rn) flux in gravel was carried out for a period of eight years near the active Dead Sea rift fault. The temporal relationship between hundreds of weak earthquakes (4.6 ML 0) and Rn flux signals was tested for time intervals related to the start time of 110 Rn flux signals. Earthquakes located within three pull-apart gr...
Article
A monitoring system at the surface and mainly in the sub-surface of the volcanic edifice of Tenerife is installed for monitoring and studying the radon flux as an indicator of geodynamic activity. The steep topography of Tenerife and the existence of a dense network of underground galleries enable setting up a 3D network of monitoring stations (loc...
Article
Full-text available
La Palma is one of the most volcanically active islands in the Canarian archipelago, with two eruptions in the last 50 years. At this island, a radon mapping was carried out in order to determine the normal levels of this gas in soils and in the underground environment during a quiescence period and to investigate possible active geological structu...
Article
Full-text available
The volcanism in the western Arabian plate extends from the Red Sea through the Harrat Ash Shaam system to western Syria, as far north as the Bitlis suture in the Taurides. The Harrat Ash Shaam volcanic system in Jordan consists of northwest-trending dikes and a volcanic field that together encompass a width of 220 km. In terms of width, direction,...
Article
Full-text available
The monitoring of the radon flux in soil gas along an approximately 20-km section of the western boundary fault of the Dead Sea Rift in the northwestern sector of the Dead Sea area, was carried out for 3 years (1992-1994). Seven monitoring sites were set up adjacent to the main fault scarp and to the east of it. Measurements conducted in unconsolid...
Article
Clay fractions and glauconite (clays) lose 30–80% of the 39Ar produced by the nuclear transformation 39K(n, p)39Ar during irradiation in a reactor. As a result it has not been possible to date clays by the 40Ar39Ar step-heating technique. New observations on 39Ar loss in clays are presented, and the transport behavior of the 39Ar recoils in the el...
Article
&#112The Eder unit in the Carnic Alps, which is situated immediately south of the Periadriatic lineament (PL), represents a fault-bounded block consisting of a low-grade (up to 400&#117C, indicated by epizonal illite “crystallinity” values, recrystallized quartz, and non-recrystallized white mica) metamorphic Paleozoic metasedimentary sequence. Unt...
Article
Volcanism in northeastern Israel constitutes part of an extensive. NW-SE-trending Cenozoic volcanic field ranging from the Dead Sea Rift area, southern and western Syria, Jordan, to Saudi Arabia. By its volume and extension, the Cover Basalt Formation is the most significant volcanic phase at the northwestern end of this field. This unit is the maj...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Monitoring of the radon flux along the western boundary fault of the Dead Sea Rift (DSR) was carried out in the Dead Sea area during the years 1992-1994. Monitoring radon has been raised as one of the empirical approaches to earthquake prediction. At the Northwestern corner of the Dead Sea, over a 3 km long sector (Enot Zuqim), three monitoring sit...
Article
The On Surface Covered Alpha Track (OSCAT) method consists of setting cups with SSNTD detectors directly on the exposed surface. The detectors are covered by polyester foil in order to minimize the dilution of radon with air. The results in the Gavnunim area clearly show that the joint system in syenite controls the radon concentration. The detecto...
Article
The Cambrian sedimentary sequence in Israel and adjacent countries marks the beginning of the Phanerozoic sedimentation on the Arabian–Nubian craton. The maximal burial of this sequence, in the southernmost part of Israel, was approximaly 2.5 km. Manganese nodules hosted by shales of the marine Cambrian Timna Formation, Timna Valley, were subjected...
Article
Tertiary surface combustion of Cretaceous bituminous sediments in Israel produced high-T, low-P metamorphic assemblages, which were dated by conventional KAr and techniques. Meaningful ages were obtained from samples of high metamorphic grade and K content higher than 0.8%, containing sanidine, anorthite, gehlenite and zeolites. In these minerals...
Article
Through K/Ar dating of basalt implements from two Mount Carmel late Epipalaeolithic sites and samples of locally occurring basalts, it was possible to demonstrate clearly that the prehistoric inhabitants of these sites did not utilize the locally available Upper Cretaceous (88–77 My) basalts. The dates of the basalt implements are of Tertiary-Quate...