Gianpaolo Balsamo

Gianpaolo Balsamo
European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecasts · Research Department

PhD, HDR
Focusing on km-scale surface-atmosphere coupling of vegetation/snow, inland/coastal waters in #NWP #DestinE #Copernicus

About

246
Publications
94,519
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39,718
Citations
Introduction
ECMWF Principal-scientist and Team-leader for Coupled Processes in Earth System Modelling
Additional affiliations
January 2006 - December 2022
European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecasts
Position
  • Principal Investigator
Description
  • Lead Coupled Processes team focusing on research and development at the interface of Atmosphere Land and Ocean to enhance the monitoring and predictive skills of the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System.
January 2004 - December 2005
Environment Canada
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Land data assimilation and satellite remote sensing, microwave radiative transfer modelling
September 2000 - December 2004
Meteo France
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Land surface data assimilation
Education
September 2000 - April 2003
September 1996 - July 1997
University of Reading
Field of study
  • Meteorology
September 1994 - January 1999

Publications

Publications (246)
Preprint
Full-text available
Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the fluxes of greenhouse gases and their temporal variability as well as flux attribution to natural and anthropogenic processes is essential to monitoring the progress in mitigating anthropogenic emissions under the Paris Agreement and to inform its Global Stocktake. This study provides a consolidated synth...
Preprint
The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service has recently produced a greenhouse gases reanalysis (version egg4) that covers almost two decades from 2003 to 2020 and will be extended in the future. This reanalysis dataset includes carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The reanalysis procedure combines model data with satellite data into a globally...
Article
Full-text available
Correctly representing the snow on sea‐ice has great potential to improve cryosphere‐atmosphere coupling in forecasting and monitoring (e.g., reanalysis) applications, via improved modeling of surface temperature, albedo and emissivity. This can also enhance the all‐weather all‐surface coupled data assimilation for atmospheric satellite radiances....
Article
This paper presents coupled Data Assimilation (DA) activities at the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Coupled DA is an essential component of the ECMWF Earth system strategy. It aims at providing consistent initial conditions to the coupled atmosphere, land, and ocean forecast model. The paper introduces the different dat...
Article
Concentrations of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas, continue to grow. In recent years this growth rate has increased further (2020: +15.6 ppb), the cause of which remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a high-resolution (∼80 km), short-window (24 h) 4D-Var global inversion system based on the ECMWF Integrat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate subseasonal weather forecasts, from two weeks up to a season, can help reduce costs and impacts related to weather and corresponding extremes. The quality of weather forecasts has improved considerably in recent decades as models represent more details of physical processes, and they benefit from assimilating comprehensive Earth observatio...
Article
Full-text available
The CO 2 Human Emissions project has generated realistic high-resolution 9 km global simulations for atmospheric carbon tracers referred to as nature runs to foster carbon-cycle research applications with current and planned satellite missions, as well as the surge of in situ observations. Realistic atmospheric CO 2 , CH 4 and CO fields can provide...
Preprint
Full-text available
Concentrations of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas, continue to grow. In recent years this growth rate has increased further (2020: +14.7 ppb), the cause of which remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a high-resolution (~80 km), short-window (24-hour) 4D-Var global inversion system based on the ECMWF Integ...
Article
Full-text available
The growth in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions acts as a major climate change driver, which has widespread implications across society, influencing the scientific, political, and public sectors. For an increased understanding of the CO2 emission sources, patterns, and trends, a link between the emission inventories and observed CO2 conc...
Article
Full-text available
Lake ecosystems are jeopardized by the impacts of climate change on ice seasonality and water temperatures. Yet historical simulations have not been used to formally attribute changes in lake ice and temperature to anthropogenic drivers. In addition, future projections of these properties are limited to individual lakes or global simulations from s...
Article
Full-text available
Framed within the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) of the European Commission, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is producing an enhanced global dataset for the land component of the fifth generation of European ReAnalysis (ERA5), hereafter referred to as ERA5-Land. Once completed, the period covered will span fr...
Article
Full-text available
The Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a binding international treaty signed by 196 nations to limit their greenhouse gas emissions through ever-reducing Nationally Determined Contributions and a system of 5-yearly Global Stocktakes in an Enhanced Transparency Framework. To support this process, the Euro...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we show that limitations in the representation of land cover and vegetation seasonality in the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) model are partially responsible for large biases (up to ∼10°C, either positive or negative depending on the region) on the simulated daily maximum land surface temperature (LST) w...
Preprint
Sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) prediction, especially the prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts and floods, is not only scientifically challenging but has substantial societal impacts. Motivated by preliminary studies, the Global Energy and Water 20 Exchanges (GEWEX)/Global Atmospheric System Study (GASS) has launched a new ini...
Article
Full-text available
Subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction, especially the prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts and floods, is not only scientifically challenging, but also has substantial societal impacts. Motivated by preliminary studies, the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX)/Global Atmospheric System Study (GASS) has launched a new i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report documents the proceedings of the 33rd Session of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) Scientific Steering Group (SSG), the annual meeting of scientists who guide the formation of GEWEX’s scientific program as well as Chairs and Co-Chairs of the GEWEX Panels. Originally hosted by the Seoul National University in Seoul, South Kor...
Preprint
This poster session complements the related session on the Land stage, and through poster presentations and discussion will elucidate the role that robust early warning plays in adapting to climate change, via disaster risk reduction and financial services.
Article
Full-text available
The land-surface developments of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are based on the Carbon-Hydrology Tiled Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land (CHTESSEL) and form an integral part of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), supporting a wide range of global weather, climate and environmental applications. In order to...
Article
Full-text available
The societal benefits of numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts are most evident in populated areas. An urban representation within NWP models should provide improved forecast accuracy. Here, we present the preliminary implementation of an urban scheme within the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) using a simplified single‐layer urban canopy...
Preprint
The land-surface developments of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are based on the Carbon-Hydrology Tiled Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land (CHTESSEL) and form an integral part of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), supporting a wide range of global weather, climate and environmental applications. In order to...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we present a novel monitoring methodology that combines satellite retrievals and forecasts to detect local CH4 concentration anomalies worldwide. These anomalies are caused by rapidly changing anthropogenic emissions that significantly contribute to the CH4 atmospheric budget and by biases in the satellite retrieval data. The method...
Preprint
Full-text available
Framed within the Copernicus Climate Change Service of the European Commission, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is producing an enhanced global dataset for the land component of the 5th generation of European ReAnalysis (ERA5), hereafter named as ERA5-Land. Once completed, the period covered will span from 1950 to pre...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in snow and vegetation cover associated with global warming can modify surface albedo (the reflected amount of radiative energy from the sun), therefore modulating the rise of surface temperature that is primarily caused by anthropogenic greenhouse-gases emission. This introduces a series of potential feedbacks to regional warming with posi...
Article
Full-text available
Up to now, relatively little effort has been dedicated to the quantitative assessment of the differences in spatial patterns of model outputs. In this paper, we employed a variogram-based methodology to quantify the differences in the spatial patterns of root-zone soil moisture, net radiation, and latent and sensible heat fluxes simulated by three...
Article
Full-text available
The 2018 drought and heatwave over northern Europe were exceptional, with unprecedented forest fires in Sweden, searing heat in Germany and water restrictions in England. Monthly, daily, and hourly data from ERA5, verified with in situ soil water content and surface flux measurements, are examined to investigate the subseasonal‐to‐seasonal progress...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) prediction, especially the prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts and floods, is not only scientifically challenging but has substantial societal impacts. Motivated by preliminary studies, the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX)/Global Atmospheric System Study (GASS) has launched a new initia...
Article
Full-text available
Information about the spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture is critical for many purposes, including monitoring of hydrologic extremes, irrigation scheduling, and prediction of agricultural yields. We evaluated the temporal dynamics of 18 state-of-the-art (quasi-)global near-surface soil moisture products, including six based on satellite ret...
Article
Full-text available
The surface-atmosphere turbulent exchanges couple the water, energy and carbon budgets in the Earth system. The biosphere plays an important role in the evaporation process, and vegetation related parameters such as the leaf area index (LAI), vertical root distribution and stomatal resistance are poorly constrained due to sparse observations at the...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Energy exchange at the snow‐atmosphere interface in winter is important for the evolution of temperature at the surface and within the snow, preconditioning the snowpack for melt during spring. This study illustrates a set of diagnostic tools that are useful for evaluating the energy exchange at the Earth's surface in an Earth System Model...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article présente les développements récents au Centre européen pour les prévisions météorologiques à moyen terme (CEPMMT) concernant la représentation des surfaces continentales pour la modélisation globale en prévision du temps à diverses échelles (de quelques jours à la saison), ainsi que pour les réanalyses de l'atmosphère. Les représentatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this study we present a novel monitoring methodology to detect local CH4 concentration anomalies worldwide that are related to rapidly changing anthropogenic emissions that significantly contribute to the CH4 atmospheric budget. The method uses high resolution (7 km × 7 km) retrievals of total column CH4 from the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrume...
Article
Full-text available
LDAS-Monde is a global offline land data assimilation system (LDAS) that jointly assimilates satellite-derived observations of surface soil moisture (SSM) and leaf area index (LAI) into the ISBA (Interaction between Soil Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model (LSM). This study demonstrates that LDAS-Monde is able to detect, monitor and foreca...
Article
Full-text available
Snow models are usually evaluated at sites providing high-quality meteorological data, so that the uncertainty in the meteorological input data can be neglected when assessing model performances. However, high-quality input data are rarely available in mountain areas and, in practical applications, the meteorological forcing used to drive snow mode...
Article
Full-text available
The explicit coupling at metre and second scales of the vegetation responses to the atmospheric-boundary layer dynamics drives a dynamic heterogeneity that influences canopy-top fluxes and cloud formation. Focusing on a representative day during the Amazonian dry season, we investigate the diurnal cycle of energy, moisture and carbon dioxide at the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Information about the spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture is critical for many purposes, including monitoring of hydrologic extremes, irrigation scheduling, and prediction of agricultural yields. We evaluated the temporal dynamics of 18 state-of-the-art (quasi-)global near-surface soil moisture products, including six based on sat...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric flux inversions use observations of atmospheric CO2 to provide anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 flux estimates at a range of spatio-temporal scales. Inversions require prior flux, a forward model and observation errors to estimate posterior fluxes and uncertainties. Here, we investigate the forward transport error and the associated bioge...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In this study we derive the environmental lapse rate (ELR) from vertical profiles of temperature in the lower troposphere, applying it to downscale air temperature of the new European Centre For Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis ERA5, which replaces ERA‐Interim (ERAI). We focus over the western U.S. region, a data‐rich area...
Article
Full-text available
Within the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S), ECMWF is producing the ERA5 reanalysis, which embodies a detailed record of the global atmosphere, land surface and ocean waves from 1950 onwards once completed. This new reanalysis replaces the ERA‐Interim reanalysis that was started in 2006 (spanning 1979 onwards). ERA5 is based on the Integrate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions and their observed growing trends raise awareness in scientific, political and public sectors of the society as the major driver of climate-change. For an increased understanding of the CO<sub>2</sub> emission sources, patterns and trends, a link between the emission inventories and...
Article
Full-text available
Under the Paris Agreement progress of emission reduction efforts is tracked on the basis of regular updates to national Greenhouse Gas (GHG) inventories, referred to as bottom-up estimates. However, only top-down atmospheric measurements can provide observation-based evidence of emission trends. Today there is no internationally agreed, operational...
Article
Full-text available
The Belt and Road Initiative has tremendously increased the interaction of China with the countries involved, pushing forward the integration and comparative phase, based on the main factors affecting the energy, environmental and development scenarios. The indicators of this process are strictly related to the environmental sustainability of proje...
Preprint
Full-text available
Atmospheric flux inversions use observations of atmospheric CO2 to provide anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 flux estimates at a range of spatiotemporal scales. Inversions require prior flux, forward model and observation errors to estimate posterior fluxes and uncertainties. We use a numerical weather prediction model to diagnose the global forward m...
Article
Full-text available
Snow cover properties have a large impact on the partitioning of surface energy fluxes and thereby on near-surface weather parameters. Snow schemes of intermediate complexity have been widely used for hydrological and climate studies, whereas their impact on typical weather forecast time-scales has received less attention. A new multi-layer snow sc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Snow models are usually evaluated at sites providing high-quality meteorological data, so that the uncertainty in the meteorological input data can be neglected when assessing the model performances. However, high-quality input data are rarely available in mountain areas and, in practical applications, the meteorological forcing to drive...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study demonstrates that LDAS-Monde, a global and offline Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS), that integrates satellite Earth observations into the ISBA (Interaction between Soil Biosphere and Atmosphere) Land Surface Model (LSM), is able to detect, monitor and forecast the impact of extreme weather on land surface states. LDAS-Monde jointly...
Article
Full-text available
Water bodies influence local weather and climate, especially in lake-rich areas. The FLake (Fresh-water Lake model) parameterisation is employed in the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model which is used operationally to produce global weather predictions. Lake depth and lake fra...
Article
Full-text available
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) region, often referred to as the Third Pole, is the world's highest plateau and exerts a considerable influence on regional and global climate. The state of the snowpack over the TP is a major research focus due to its great impact on the headwaters of a dozen major Asian rivers. While many studies have attempted to validat...
Presentation
Full-text available
This study demonstrates LDAS-Monde, global and offline integration of satellite Earth observations in the ISBA (Interaction between Soil Biosphere and Atmosphere) Land Surface Model (LSM), great potential to detect, monitor and forecast the impact of extremes weather on land surface conditions. LDAS-Monde jointly assimilates Earth observations of s...
Article
Full-text available
We apply spectral empirical orthogonal function (SEOF) analysis to educe climate patterns as dominant spatiotemporal modes of variability from reanalysis data. SEOF is a frequency-domain variant of standard empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, and computes modes that represent the statistically most relevant and persistent patterns from an...