Gianluca Gini

Gianluca Gini
University of Padova | UNIPD · Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialisation

Professor

About

100
Publications
53,738
Reads
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6,860
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Introduction
I am professor of developmental psychology at the Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, University of Padua, Italy. My major research interests include school bullying, development of moral cognition, social media use among adolescents, peer group processes, evidence-based practice in school-based interventions, applied meta-analysis.

Publications

Publications (100)
Article
A growing body of research has demonstrated consistent links between Bandura's theory of moral disengagement and aggressive behavior in adults. The present meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the existing literature on the relation between moral disengagement and different types of aggressive behavior among school-age children and adolescents....
Article
Background and objective: A previous meta-analysis showed that being bullied during childhood is related to psychosomatic problems, but many other studies have been published since then, including some longitudinal studies. We performed a new meta-analysis to quantify the association between peer victimization and psychosomatic complaints in the s...
Article
Full-text available
Significant overlap exists between traditional victimization and peer cyber-victimization. Yet, they can also be somewhat differentiated. Adopting person-centered approaches, studies showed that multiple classes of peer victimization are distinguishable. In particular, this study analyzed the differences in Internet use, Internet motives and behavi...
Article
Psychological mechanisms that may explain the link between peer victimization and its adverse outcomes are still understudied. The current study aimed to apply the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model of psychopathology (Wells & Matthews, 1994; 1996) to help explain this link in a sample of adolescents. A total of 1169 Italian adolescen...
Preprint
BACKGROUND: The link between peer victimization and somatic problems is well-established. What is currently understudied is under what contextual conditions victims’ health might be most likely to be compromised. Studies demonstrate that victims suffer from poorer adjustment when they belong to a group in which victimization is less normative (soci...
Article
Full-text available
Peers are critical to defending and bystanding during episodes of bullying. This study investigates the extent to which friends can shape defending and bystanding as well as social cognitions associated with these two behaviors (i.e., perceptions of self-efficacy and moral distress). The study sample consisted of n = 1354 early and middle adolescen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Peers are critical to defending and bystanding during episodes of bullying. This study investigates the extent to which friends can shape defending and bystanding as well as social cognitions associated with these two behaviors (i.e., perceptions of self-efficacy and moral distress). The study sample consisted of n = 1354 early and middle adolescen...
Article
Defending in bullying is a complex, yet important behavior that is likely associated with individual characteristics and group factors that operate simultaneously in the classroom microsystem. However, little research has longitudinally analyzed the role of multiple promoting factors at both the individual and classroom level. Drawing on the social...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents' aggressive behavior has been often linked to biases in morality. However, limited knowledge is available regarding the relative strength of different moral correlates, both at the individual and class-level, in predicting different types of aggressive behavior over time. To address this gap, the present study tested the prospective ass...
Article
Full-text available
The overall aim of the present study was to examine whether moral disengagement and perceptions of antibullying class norms at individual level and at class level were associated with defending and passive bystanding in school bullying among school-age children. More specifically, we investigated the extent to which moral disengagement would contri...
Article
School closure and distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic have posed several challenges to children. Drawing upon the social-ecological framework, in this preliminary study, we tested what factors may help to explain students' difficulties with distance learning during COVID-19 lockdown, by analyzing family, school, and individual variables...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study was to examine whether collective moral disengagement in the classroom was associated with bullying perpetration and victimisation. One-thousand-and-fifty-four students from 70 classrooms in 29 schools in the middle and southern parts of Sweden completed a questionnaire in their classroom. In line with the hypotheses, t...
Article
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This three-year longitudinal study examined both within- and between-person effects of moral disengagement on verbal bullying perpetration in early adolescence. Data came from the first four waves (T1–T4, Grades 4 to 7) of an ongoing longitudinal project examining social and moral correlates of bullying in Swedish schools. Participants included 243...
Article
The study investigated the longitudinal relations between students’ roles in bullying (i.e., bullying, defending, and victimization) and social status within the class. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that students’ perception of their own status may mediate these relations. A sample of 432 early adolescents completed peer nominations for behavi...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether students’ bystander behaviours in peer victimisation were associated with individual (IMD) and classroom collective moral disengagement (CMD). Self-report survey data were analysed from 1577 Swedish students in fifth grade. Multilevel analyses revealed that, when witnessing peer victimisation, students more often sided w...
Article
Full-text available
With reference to social–cognitive theory, the aim of the present study was to examine whether school students’ tendency to display different moral disengagement mechanisms varies according to different social cues in hypothetical events in which they are engaged in bullying behavior. A repeated within-subjects experimental design was adopted. A to...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Being constantly connected on social media is a “way of being” among adolescents. However, social media use can become “problematic” for some users and only a few studies have explored the concurrent contribution of social context and emotion regulation to problematic social media use. The current study aimed to test: (i) the influenc...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether defending and passive bystanding during peer victimization episodes were associated with individual‐ and classroom‐level efficacy to stop peer victimization. Self‐report survey data were analyzed from 1,467 Swedish fourth‐grade students (mean age = 10.55) from 100 classrooms in 63 schools. Multilevel analyses revealed th...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine how different bystander roles in peer victimisation situations relate to moral disengagement, defender self-efficacy, and student-teacher relationship quality. Self-reported survey data were collected from 333 middle and junior high school students (10–15 years of age) from four schools in Sweden. Random interce...
Article
Background: The link between peer victimization and somatic problems is well-established. What is currently understudied is under what contextual conditions victims' health might be most likely to be compromised. Studies demonstrate that victims suffer from poorer adjustment when they belong to a group in which victimization is less normative (soc...
Article
Full-text available
Significant overlap exists between traditional victimization and peer cyber-victimization. Yet, they can also be somewhat differentiated. Adopting person-centered approaches, studies showed that multiple classes of peer victimization are distinguishable. In particular, this study analyzed the differences in Internet use, Internet motives and behavi...
Poster
Full-text available
Peer Influences on Defending Self-Efficacy in Early and Middle Adolescence Background and aims Defending victims of bullying is a challenging task for many students and may require a high degree of self-efficacy, which are personal beliefs about how well students are able to support the victims (Bandura, 1986). Such beliefs may not only be related...
Article
School bullying is a complex social and relational phenomenon with severe consequences for those involved. Most children view bullying as wrong and recognize its harmful consequences; nevertheless, it continues to be a persistent problem within schools. Previous research has shown that children’s engagement in bullying perpetration can be influence...
Conference Paper
Previous research has suggested that bystanders are important in schools’ prevention and intervention work against peer victimization. Prevalence of peer victimization is lower in school contexts where bystanders tend to side with the victims, compared to contexts where bystanders stay passive or side with the perpetrators. Drawing on social-cognit...
Article
Research on cyberbullying has been growing worldwide, with much of the focus on the characteristics of perpetrators and targets of cyberbullying. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid on bystanders of cyber-attacks. This study presents the Italian validation of a newly developed self-report scale that measures different forms of parti...
Article
This study examined the links between seven specific mechanisms of moral disengagement and indirect bullying, direct bullying, and pro-aggressive bystander behavior. In addition, the moderating role of gender on these associations was examined. Participants were 317 Swedish students in Grades 4 to 8 ((Formula presented.), SD = 1.35; 62% girls). Mul...
Chapter
The articles included in this collection on bullying provide a wide lens through which to view this complexity.
Article
Objective: Bullying research has recently focused on how moral cognitions and emotions shape the bullying context, though research has less assessed whether and how morality influences the bystander behaviors of youth. The present study assessed whether the level of moral distress students feel when they do not intervene to help bullied peers media...
Article
In the current study two meta-analyses are performed on longitudinal studies on peer victimization and self-esteem. The goal of these meta-analyses was to analyze whether a low self-esteem predicts future peer victimization, or whether peer victimization predicts future low self-esteem. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and ERIC were searched for re...
Article
In recent years, researchers have been showing an increasing interest in the conceptualization of problematic Facebook use, and its associations with individual characteristics. The present meta-analysis aimed to summarize the findings of the recent literature on this topic with the aim of understanding the specific features of this phenomenon (tha...
Article
The aim of the present study was to test whether teacher–student relationship (TSR) quality and student–student relationship (SSR) quality at class level and class moral disengagement (CMD), considered together in a single model, were related to class prevalence of victims (CPV) of bullying. A sample of 899 Swedish children was recruited from 43 el...
Poster
Using self-reported survey data from 1632 Swedish fifth grade students, we examined whether different bystander behaviors were associated with social cognitive correlates. Multilevel regression analyses found that reinforcing and defending were associated with both individual- and classroom-level factors, whereas only individual-level associations...
Article
Moral disengagement (MD) provides a fruitful framework for understanding how adolescents could attenuate moral self-regulation and behave aggressively. While measures of individual MD have a long tradition, only recently have Gini, Pozzoli, and Bussey developed an instrument measuring collective MD (CMD): Classroom Collective Moral Disengagement Sc...
Article
Background: A growing body of research has analyzed the potential risks of problematic Facebook use for mental health and well-being. The current meta-analysis is the first to examine the associations between problematic Facebook use, psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, etc.) and well-being (life satisfaction, positive mental health...
Article
Collective efficacy to stop peer aggression in the school context refers to adolescents’ beliefs about the capability of students and teachers in their school to work together to counteract aggressive behaviours among peers. This study presents the Italian and Swedish versions of a recently developed scale to measure the construct. Factorial struct...
Article
This meta-analysis examined the associations between cyber-victimization and internalizing problems controlling for the occurrence of traditional victimization. Twenty independent samples with a total of 90,877 participants were included. Results confirmed the significant intercorrelation between traditional and cyber-victimization (r = .43). They...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether different behaviors young adolescents can act during bullying episodes were associated with their ability to recognize morphed facial expressions of the six basic emotions, expressed at high and low intensity. The sample included 117 middle school students (45.3% girls; mean age = 12.4 years) who filled in a peer nom...
Data
Peer nominations on behavior during bullying episodes: List of items. (DOCX)
Article
Bullying is a moral transgression. Recognizing the importance of approaching bullying from a moral perspective, the present study examines whether children's judgments and reasoning to justify their judgments differ between bullying and repeated conventional transgressions. Our study also explores differences by gender and differences among bullies...
Article
The present study examined the relations between different empathic dimensions and bystanders' behavior in bullying. Specifically, the indirect effects of empathic concern and perspective taking via empathic anger on defending and passive bystanding were tested in a sample of Italian young adolescents (N = 398; Mage = 12 years, 3 months, 47.2% girl...
Article
Negative relationships within the classroom, both with peers and teachers, can be very stressful for adolescents and are often found to be associated with a variety of negative outcomes. In this study, we investigated the concurrent role of peer victimization and perceived teacher unfairness in explaining psychosocial problems in a sample of 1378 I...
Article
Objective: Being teased and otherwise victimised by peers during childhood increases risk for obesity. However, few prospective studies have considered whether risk extends to adulthood. We tested whether being teased in childhood predicted higher body mass index (BMI) and increased odds of obesity in early adulthood in a community sample of Ameri...
Article
The consequences in adulthood of bullying, teasing, and other peer victimization experiences in childhood rarely have been considered in prospective studies. Studies of peer victimization are mixed regarding whether negative outcomes are explained by pre-existing child vulnerabilities. Furthermore, replication of prior studies with broader definiti...
Article
Research on bullying has highlighted the role of morality in explaining the different behavior of students during bullying episodes. However, the research has been limited to the analysis of explicit measures of moral characteristics and moral reasoning, whereas implicit measures have yet to be fully considered. To overcome this limitation, this st...
Article
The main aim of the study was to investigate the role of individual and class justification of cyberbullying in predicting adolescents' cyberbullying perpetration over 6 months. The effects and moderating role of impulsivity, age, and gender in the hypothesized relationship between justification and cyberbullying were also tested. A sample of 750 S...
Article
Full-text available
The first aim of the present study was to examine in a single model how moral disengagement and moral emotions were related to bullying and defending behavior among schoolchildren. The second aim was to test whether the two moral dimensions interacted with each other to explain behavior in bullying situations. Data were collected from 561 Swedish s...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Studies on protective factors for school victimization are rare and usually focus on specific assets. The current study examined the association between quantity and variety of domains of developmental assets and school victimization in adolescence. Method: Data were drawn from the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS; N = 11,790 high sc...
Article
Bullying is demonstrated to be a critical issue related to food allergy (FA) in children and adolescents. We recently investigated bullying victimization in a sample of food-allergic Italian students matched to healthy controls, finding that food-allergic schoolchildren have a probability of being bullied approximately 2 times higher than healthy p...
Article
BACKGROUND Given the severity of outcomes associated with involvement in bullying and the resources spent in an effort to reduce its prevalence, it is important to investigate trends in the bullying's occurrence. The main aim of this study was to identify trends from 2002 to 2010 in prevalence of bullying and victimization among Italian adolescents...
Article
This study investigated the relationships between three psychopathic dimensions (i.e., callousness/unemotionality, grandiosity/manipulation, and impulsivity/irresponsibility) and reactive and instrumental aggression in a community sample of early adolescents (N = 243, age M = 12.29, SD = 1.18). The moderating role of moral disengagement (MD) was al...
Article
Full-text available
Existing literature clearly documents the association between cybervictimization and psychological symptoms; less clear is the association between cybervictimization and somatic symptoms. This study aims to verify the association between cybervictimization and both psychological and somatic symptoms on a representative sample of Italian early adole...
Article
Full-text available
IMPORTANCE Peer victimization is related to an increased chance of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts using meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for articles f...
Article
Background and objectives. Being bullied at school is a risk factor for a variety of negative consequences, including somatic problems. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine the association between peer victimization and headache in the school-age population. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2013 to id...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network analys...
Article
This study investigates the relationships between individual and collective moral disengagement and aggression-related behaviors (peer aggression, defending, and passive bystanding) among 918 adolescents (55.8 % boys; M age = 14.1 years, SD = 1.1). Hierarchical linear modeling showed that, at the individual level, aggressive behavior was significan...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined links between perceived teacher unfairness and bullying behavior in early adolescence, and the potential mediating role of instrumental social goals (specifically, agentic and separate goals). Based on social information processing theory, our model of proactive aggression was evaluated using path analysis in a sample of...
Article
Collective moral disengagement refers to shared group beliefs that morally justify negative actions. This study reports an initial validation of the newly developed Classroom Collective Moral Disengagement Scale (CCMDS) for adolescents. This self-report instrument assesses the degree to which mechanisms of moral disengagement are shared by students...
Article
The How I Think Questionnaire (HIT; Barriga et al., 2001) is a self-report measure of self-serving cognitive distortions. This study used meta-analytic methods to analyse: (i) the reliability of the HIT scores across samples; (ii) the variability in reliability estimates; and (iii) the convergent and criterion-group validity of the HIT scores. Resu...
Article
Full-text available
Moral disengagement processes are cognitive self-justification processes of transgressive actions that have been hypothesized to be learned and socialized within social contexts. The current study aimed at investigating socialization of moral disengagement by friends in two developmentally different age groups, namely late childhood (age: 9–10 year...
Article
This study investigated reciprocal friends’ similarity in attitudes toward bullying and responsibility for intervention in favor of the victim among 1485 Italian children (mean age = 10 years, 3 months) and adolescents (mean age =13 years, 2 months). Findings of two linear regressions confirmed that friend homophily exists in relation to both stude...
Article
The authors employed Latanè and Darley’s model about bystanders’ behavior to explain children’s active defending and passive bystanding behavior in school bullying. The three central steps of the model were operationalized by measuring provictim attitudes, personal responsibility for intervention, and coping strategies. Moreover, the role of percei...
Article
This study analyzed the relations of two dimensions of moral cognition (i.e., acceptance of moral transgression and moral disengagement) and two forms of status in the peer group (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity) with bullying and defending among 235 primary-school children and 305 middle-school early adolescents. Social status was...
Article
This study examined the role of attitudes against bullying and perceived peer pressure for intervention in explaining defending the victim and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. Participants were 1031 school-age children from two culturally diverse settings, namely Italy and Singapore, which are similar on several dimensions (e.g., quality of...
Article
A cross-sectional study from a sample of 663 elementary school children assessed the four sets of moral disengagement mechanisms conceptualized by Bandura (i.e., cognitive restructuring, minimizing one's agentive role, disregarding/distorting the consequences, blaming/dehumanizing the victim) at both the individual and the class level. Additionally...
Article
This study investigates possible individual and class correlates of defending and passive bystanding behavior in bullying, in a sample of 1,825 Italian primary school (mean age = 10 years 1 month) and middle school (mean age = 13 years 2 months) students. The findings of a series of multilevel regression models show that both individual (e.g., prov...
Article
This study examines the role of school unfairness in predicting violent behavior among Italian early adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the relations between individual (demographics, psychosocial and relational characteristics, and perception of procedural and relational school unfairness), and class characteristics (mea...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle and secondary school s...
Article
Bullying behavior is an immoral action because it humiliates and oppresses innocent victims. Presently unclear is whether bullies bully because of deficiencies in moral competence (knowledge of right and wrong), moral compassion (emotional awareness and conscience concerning moral transgressions), or some combination of these two processes; the sam...
Article
Adottando l'approccio Ruoli dei Partecipanti allo studio del bullismo, il presente studio ha analizzato: (a) le caratteristiche individuali (atteggiamenti, responsabilitŕ personale e strategie di coping) di difensori e osservatori passivi; (b) la relazione esistente tra i due ruoli e l'accettazione da parte dei pari in bambini di scuola primaria e...
Article
This study examined the role of pro-victim attitudes, personal responsibility, coping responses to observations of bullying, and perceived peer normative pressure in explaining defending the victim and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. A total of 462 Italian early adolescents (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 9 months) participated in the study....
Article
This study investigated the associations among social support, peer victimisation and somatic problems in children and adolescents. Specifically, we tested a model that posited a mediational role of peer victimisation on the association between low social support and somatic symptoms in three age groups. A total of 1570 Italian children and adolesc...
Article
Full-text available
In the last few years, there has been an increasing amount of research showing the concurrent and long-term consequences of bullying and being bullied by peers. OBJECTIVE. We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the association between involvement in bullying and psychosomatic complaints in the school-aged population. We searched online databases...
Article
Two studies employing a mixed experimental design were conducted to determine if perceptions of bullying, attitudes towards victims, and students' sense of safety at school were influenced by bystanders' reactions to different types of bullying. In Study 1, 217 middle-school children were randomly assigned to read a hypothetical scenario describing...