Gian Luigi Mariottini

Gian Luigi Mariottini
Università degli Studi di Genova | UNIGE · Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e della Vita (DISTAV)

MSc, MD

About

99
Publications
15,497
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1,355
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
706 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
Introduction
Gian Luigi Mariottini retired from the University of Genova. Last years he worked at the Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences (Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e della Vita - DISTAV), University of Genova. At the beginning of his career he worked also as fellow at the Pediatric Hospital "Giannina Gaslini", Genova, Italy. Gian did mainly research in Cell Biology, Ecotoxicology, Toxicology and bioactive extracts from marine organisms.

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
Cnidarians are numbered among the most venomous organisms. Their venoms are contained in intracellular capsules, nematocysts, which inject the content into preys/attackers through an eversion system resembling a syringe needle. Several cnidarian venoms have activity against the nervous system, being neurotoxic, or affect other systems whose functio...
Article
The authors report about the association of progressive external ophthalmoplegia, atypical pigmentary retinopathy, ataxia phenotype with onset in first months of life (Kearns-Sayre syndrome) and with optic nerve atrophy and deafness. The localization of retinal lesions was coincident with that reported by multifunctional electroretinogram (mfERG) i...
Book
Starting from ancient ages humans learned to utilize what nature offered to satisfy their basic needs, such as nutrition, wearing, finding refuges, taking care of one’s health, etc., also learning to utilize extracts from plants and animals to prepare medicinal products. To date, extracts from micro-organisms, plants and animals, and their syntheti...
Article
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Safeguarding the environment is one of the most serious modern challenges, as increasing amounts of chemical compounds are produced and released into the environment, causing a serious threat to the future health of the Earth as well as organisms and humans on a global scale. Ecotoxicology is an integrative science involving different physical, che...
Article
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The authors report on a patient with Chiari I malformation associated to Waardenburg phenotype, multiple malformations, osteochondrodysplasia and microdeletion of 1q21,1 chromosome, of which they underline the rarity. The pathogenesis connected to the features of neural crest cells-derived structures with mesodermal-derived tissues, mainly in the f...
Article
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Some species of Cnidarians, well known venomous organisms, are able to induce serious health problems as well as economic and social trouble. A lot of data show that cnidarian venoms can be cytotoxic to cultured cells. Therefore, a priority of the research is to find tools which could counteract the damaging activity of venoms. In this connection,...
Article
Introduction The potential efficacy of selected plant extracts to counteract the dermal toxicity of jellyfish envenomation was investigated using an in vitro cell culture model. Methods We studied plant extracts from Carica papaya, Ananas comosus, and Bouvardia ternifolia, known for their antivenom properties, in pairwise combinations with tissue...
Article
Natural substances produced by venomous marine organisms are thought to be possible sources of useful compounds and new drugs having the potential to open new ways for pharmacology, nutrition and environmental applications. In this framework, cnidarians are very interesting being widely distributed and all are venomous organisms; so, a deep knowled...
Article
Background: Rhythmic contraction and autonomous movement play a key role in the predation, production and displacement of jellyfish. Methods: Four independent body parts of the jellyfish Aurelia coerulea, including Bell, Tentacle, Oral arm and Gastric pouch were extracted and have been carried out a compared proteomics by liquid chromatography-m...
Chapter
The increasing presence of cadmium in the environment is mainly due to its use in electroplating, paint pigments, plastics, alloy preparation, mining, ceramics and silver– cadmium batteries. The chronic exposure to Cd can lead to damages to humans both directly or indirectly throughout the food chain, thus this metal and its compounds are considere...
Article
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The authors discuss the association of papilledema with Chiari I malformation (CMI) and syringomyelia on the basis of a clinical case studied by radiology, immunology and biochemistry methods. In the presence of normal haematology, blood immunology and biochemistry, clinical signs of headache and papilledema associated to hemifacial asymmetry, blin...
Article
Natural compounds extracted from organisms and microorganisms are an important resource for the development of drugs and bioactive molecules. Many such compounds have made valuable contributions in diverse fields such as human health, pharmaceutics and industrial applications. Presently however, research on investigating natural compounds from mari...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Plant extracts and jellyfish venom
Book
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Abstracts of oral communications and posters presented during the 91th National Congress of the Italian Society for Experimental Biology (Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale). Title of the congress: "The role of the Italian Society for Experimental Biology in the Italian research".
Article
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Background: Jellyfish respond quickly to external stress that stimulates mucus secretion as a defense. Neither the composition of secreted mucus nor the process of secretion are well understood. Methods: Aurelia coerulea jellyfish were stimulated by removing them from environmental seawater. Secreted mucus and tissue samples were then collected...
Chapter
There remains today a critical need for new antiviral agents, particularly in view of the alarming increase in drug resistance and associated issues. The marine environment has been a prolific contributor towards the identification of novel therapeutic agents in the recent few decades. Added to this, glycans (or carbohydrate- or sugar-based compoun...
Chapter
Cnidarians play an important role in ecosystem functioning, in the competition among species, and for possible utilization of several active compounds against cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, immune, infective, and inflammatory disorders or having antitumoral properties, which have been extracted from these organisms. Nevertheless, notwithstandi...
Article
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The authors discuss about the relationships between oculoauriculo- vertebral spectrum (OAVS), a malformative condition affecting eyes, ears and vertebral structures mainly derived from neural crests, and autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) – an electron transport chain disorder characterized by palpebral ptosis and muscu...
Article
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Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the unders...
Chapter
A lot of organisms, including microbes, algae, plants and animals, are known to produce substances of pharmacological concern provided with different biological activity. At present, several bioactive natural substances have application as drugs, pigments, biocides or have been utilized to synthesize biologically active molecules. Oceans are inhabi...
Article
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The ability of microbes to counter the scientific and therapeutic advancements achieved during the second half of the twentieth century to provide effective disease treatments is currently a significant challenge for researchers in biology and medicine. The discovery of antibiotics, and the subsequent development of synthetic antimicrobial compound...
Conference Paper
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Crassostrea gigas, conosciuta anche come Ostrica concava o Ostrica giapponese è la specie di Ostreidae più commerciata al mondo tanto da rappresentare, al 2012, il 75% della produzione europea di settore (FAP, 2012). Originaria del Pacifico, essa è considerata ora una specie alloctona naturalizzata nel Mar Mediterraneo, nel Golfo di La Spezia ne è...
Article
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Recurrent outbreaks of Pelagia noctiluca and health problems consequent to stings were recorded during the last decades. This phenomenon forced some Italian University laboratories to study this cnidarian. The first studies concerned the distribution, biochemical composition and morphology of nematocysts of Pelagia noctiluca. The discharge mechanis...
Article
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The authors report on six cases of gluten-sensitivity, also defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity, characterized by abdominal features (diarrhea, bloating, pain), genetic positivity for predisposition to celiac disease (DQB1* 02 in all cases; DQA1*05 in three; DQA1*02 in two, DQB1*03 in two), negative anti-t-Transglutaminase antibodies, normal muco...
Article
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External otitis is a diffuse inflammation around the external auditory canal and auricle, which is often occurred by microbial infection. This disease is generally treated using antibiotics, but the frequent occurrence of antibiotic resistance requires the development of new antibiotic agents. In this context, unexplored bioactive natural candidate...
Article
Indolealkylamines (IAAs) are biogenic amines and derivatives of 5-hydroxytryptamine, acting primarily on serotonin receptors. IAAs are often considered the most thoroughly investigated group of aromatic amines in the amphibian skin. On the contrary, at present the detailed knowledge of these compounds in lower organisms is still limited and the bio...
Article
Surfactants are synthetic chemicals utilized as detergents and cleaning products or as dispersants and emulsifiers to face water pollution. In spite of this, due to their wide diffusion, surfactants can induce water and soil pollution, notably in developed countries, and can be toxic to organisms. Taking into account that the assessment of new comp...
Article
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Histological, scanning electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies were performed on the gills of juvenile gilthead (Sparus aurata L.) exposed to various concentrations of three anionic detergents: sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), safety sea cleaner 2 (SSC2), and FINASOL OSR2, in short term (96 h) and chronic (28 days) experiments. The morta...
Article
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Several microorganisms – epibionts – can adhere to living supports taking advantage for their survival, feeding and movement. Epibiosis occurs particularly in aquatic environments, on both benthic and planktonic organisms, among which copepods and cladocerans represent an important living support. The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus fulvus, living i...
Article
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Cnidarian jellyfish are viewed as an emergent problem in several coastal zones throughout the world. Recurrent outbreaks pose a serious threat to tourists and bathers, as well as to sea-workers, involving health and economical aspects. As a rule, cnidarian stinging as a consequence of nematocyst firing induces merely local symptoms but cardiovascul...
Article
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In the framework of the Risk Assessment procedure for the ecotoxicological evaluation of compounds used in the aquatic environment, tests with target species must be carried out. This paper reports the results concerning the evaluation of the acute toxicity of F-500 micelle encapsulator (Hazard Control Technologies Inc., Fayetteville, GA, USA) on c...
Article
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The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell su...
Article
Many organisms produce bioactive substances used in the production of drugs. In this context, Cnidaria occupies a major position; for this reason, research on new bioactive substances has focused upon them as an interesting target. As a matter of fact, substances and extracts able to fight human diseases have been found in cnidarians, several of wh...
Article
The roots of onion (Allium cepa ) stand out for having cells with large size and small number of chromosomes. These characteristics make them useful in bioassays for the measurement of a variety of cytogenetic and morphological parameters, in which they can be used as toxicity indicators of the induction and formation of micronuclei and chromosomal...
Article
Organophosphorus pesticides (OP) are dangerous xenobiotics for aquatic environments mainly because they can interact with all links of the food web inducing bioaccumulation and bioconcentration in organisms. In addition, they have an influence on the enzymes of the cholinergic system (acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase) of the organisms...
Article
Marine sediments are a reservoir of organic and inorganic pollutants, that can be adsorbed in suspended particulate matter and can occur in higher concentration in whole sediments than in the water column; so, the evaluation of sediment ecotoxicity provides for general information on pollutant bioavailability. Microalgae are widely employed in ecot...
Article
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Marine sediments play an important role in the accumulation-storage and/or release of contaminants in seawaters; sedimets bioassays provide for general information on pollutant bioavailability. This work points out the importance to utilize free and immobilised (Na-alginate) marine algae for the ecotoxicological evaluation of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu) as...
Article
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The Scyphomedusa Pelagia noctiluca is known to be an harmful species able to cause contact dermatitis and also systemic symptoms in sensitive subjects. Taking into account that some compounds are known to be protective agents against jellyfish venoms, in this research the protection of non-cytotoxic zinc sulfate concentrations was evaluated on cult...
Article
Marine rocky substrata consist of different levels according to spatial location, environmental characteristics and occurrence of vegetal and animal communities. Particularly, the littoral system is divided into the supralittoral, midlittoral, infralittoral and circalittoral zones. The rocky shore is a transitional environment between the marine an...
Article
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The production of natural toxins is an interesting aspect, which characterizes the physiology and the ecology of a number of marine species that use them for defence/offence purposes. Cnidarians are of particular concern from this point of view; their venoms are contained in specialized structures--the nematocysts--which, after mechanical or chemic...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Cnidarians exert a meaningful influence on human activities and healyh being able to produce several local and systemic symptoms on humans. Mediterranean jellyfish are scarcely poisonous, but during outbreaks the impact of some of them, such as the Scyphomedusa Pelagia noctiluca, is noteworthy. As some compounds containing lanthanum ions c...
Article
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The correct identification of the species of origin in cell culture procedures as well as the detection of eventual cross-contamination by other cells are of essential importance to ensure the correctness of all experimental trials. In this connection, PCR is a fundamental technique to identify the occurrence of genetic information belonging to a d...
Article
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Biotoxin production is a characterizing aspect of the physiology and ecology of several marine organisms. In this study the cytotoxic effect of crude extracts from jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora hysoscella and Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) against cultured human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 was evaluated by 3- (4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2...
Article
Full-text available
Biotoxin production is a characterizing aspect of the physiology and ecology of several marine organisms. In this study the cytotoxic effect of crude extracts from jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora hysoscella and Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) against cultured human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 was evaluated by 3- (4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2...
Article
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The luminescence is a feature of several marine planktonic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, cnidaria, ctenophores, crustaceans and pyrosomes, in particular, alot of pelagic crustaces have got luminescent organs (Ghirendelli, 1981, Gruner, 1994) useful for trophic, reproductive or defense purposes. Several calanoid copepods are luminescent and po...
Article
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The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts) produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, bur...
Article
Full-text available
The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts) produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, bur...
Article
The uptake of cadmium and zinc by Spirulina platensis was investigated using a laboratory culture of this cyanobacterium. The cells were treated with metal concentrations increasing from 0.5 to 2.0 mg L(-1), in order to evaluate their adsorption capacity and survival potential. Afterwards, the cytotoxicity of cell extracts bioaccumulating heavy met...
Article
Background, Aim and ScopeThe toxicity of contaminated sediments should be evaluated considering the direct exposure of laboratory organisms to whole sediments and the indirect exposure to elutriates or extracts (Tay et al. 1992, Byrne and Halloran 1999, Nendza 2002). The alga Dunaliella tertiolecta is indicated for the use in toxicity bioassays bec...
Chapter
Full-text available
Heavy metal pollution is a growing environmental problem in marine coastal waters;for this reason the monitoring of water pollution needs the availability of test-species ableto furnish reliable and cheap results. From this point of view, copepods are important testorganisms owing to their wide distribution and for their key-position within the foo...
Article
Full-text available
Surfactants are synthetic organic chemicals used as detergents and household cleaning products and employed in several industrial processes, such as in food, mining, oil and textile. To evaluate the toxicity of these compounds freshwater and marine crustaceans have been widely used; in particular, copepods seem to have a satisfactory sensitivity to...
Article
Culturable vibrios were isolated from water and plankton fractions collected during an 18-month sampling study performed along the north-central coast of the Adriatic Sea (Italy). Unculturable Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus were detected in plankton fractions by polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA sequences for cytotoxin-haemo...
Article
Marine species carried by the ships’ ballast waters are a potentially serious environmental problem. Many strategies are being adopted to minimize the transfer of invasive or pathogenic marine species between different aquatic ecosystems. This problem is often addressed by using biocides for ballast water treatment; however, the biocide could be da...
Article
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic pollutants that can significantly affect ecosystems and exert an influence on marine planktonic and benthic communities as well as on higher organisms such as fish and mammals, including humans. In this paper the concentrations of six PAHs in water, sesto...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of 5 ceramic materials for metal-free fixed prosthodontics: In-Ceram, Cergo, IPS Empress II, Cercon ZrO2, Finesse All Ceram compared each other and to commercially pure Titanium (CpTi). The materials, prepared directly from manufacturers as 10 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness disks, h...
Article
Harbours are characterized by high pollutant charge and by the occurrence of well adapted and resistant species. This paper reports the results of an annual plankton survey (May 1997-June 1998) carried out in the western harbour of Genova (Ligurian Sea) and in its mouth. Plankton samples were collected by horizontal trawls using a WP2 net. Copepods...
Article
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Nematocyst isolation from surrounding tissue is an important step to characterize Cnidarian venom. Although several protocols have been used to extract venoms from cnidarian tissues, the complete isolation of nematocysts from tissue is still difficult. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the effectiveness of three different media, Percoll,...
Article
Cells lines from human neuroblastoma (NB) and T/lymphoma (T-L) were injected subcutaneously (sc) in female CD1 nu/nu athymic nude mice. Results obtained after the observation of tumour growth were statistically analyzed by SAS. The following four parameters were considered: 1) dose of injected cells, 2) type of injected tumour (NB or T-L), 3) age o...
Article
In aquatic environments heterotrophic flagellates are an important component within the microbial loop and the food web, owing to their involvement in the energy transfer and flux and as an intermediate link between bacteria and primary producers, and greater organisms, such as other protists and metazoan consumers. In the microbial loop heterotrop...
Article
The activity of Pelagia noctiluca venom was never assessed on cultured cells; therefore, we have evaluated on V79 cells the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and ATP depletion induced after treatment. Venom did not cause alteration on cell DNA, but showed remarkable cytotoxic properties. With the highest nematocyst concentration (150,000 nematocyst/ml) 74...
Article
The toxicity of Cnidaria exerts a noticeable influence on some human activities, such as fishery and bathing, and on public health. As toxins of Mediterranean Cnidaria are located in nematocysts and in tissues, in this study the influence of crude toxins (nematocyst and surrounding tissue venom) extracted from the jellyfish Aequorea aequorea and Rh...
Article
Full-text available
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques can highly contribute to the knowledge of body structures in order to differentiate between different species or between varieties within the same species. This is particularly important in extreme environments, such as in Antarctic waters, where the evolution efforts have promoted the development of en...
Article
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The management of the marine environment and resource exploitation depend on the knowledge of both water conditions and ecological relationships between organisms. In the framework of fishing problems, an adequate food availability is important in order to allow maintaining and growth of fish stocks. The tunny-fishing of Camogli, owing to the coco-...
Article
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In Antarctic sea waters the composition and structure of living communities and the morphology of species are strongly affected by low temperatures; furthermore, the environmental conditions and the adaptive strategies promoted evolution efforts and development of endemisms. Scanning electron microscopy can greatly contribute to the knowledge of st...
Article
The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of high concern owing to its influence on human activities and public health and to the implications in ecological relationships between organisms. In order to simulate as much as possible the natural conditions and the consequences of stinging against injured cells, as well considering that Cnidarian venoms ar...
Article
Cytotoxic, hemolytic and clastogenic activities of Rhizostoma pulmo toxin(s) contained in the jelly tissue free of nematocysts were investigated in mammalian cells with in vitro procedures. At the concentration of 37.6 microg/ml the tissue protein produced the death of 50% V79 cells; a similar potency was observed in terms of hemolytic activity. Th...
Article
Cnidarian toxins exert an influence on human activities and public health. The cytotoxicity of crude toxins (nematocyst and surrounding tissue venom) of Aequorea aequorea, Rhizostoma pulmo and Anemonia sulcata was assessed on V79 cells. Rhizostoma pulmo and Anemonia sulcata crude venoms showed remarkable cytotoxicity and killed all treated cells at...
Article
In aquaculture, the availability of highly nutritive and inexpensive live food is a subject of major concern; from this point of view, some harpacticoid copepods (gen. Tigriopus) are suitable, owing to both the ease of finding in nature and their constant reproduction in culture. In order to optimize the production of nauplii in Tigriopus fulvus Fi...
Article
Cnidarians contain different toxins causing cytotoxic and cytolytic effects probably due to cell membrane alterations. Mitochondria were used here as an experimental model system to characterize the action of cnidarian toxins. Toxin from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata affects the function of rat liver mitochondria. Effects are dose- and time-depe...
Article
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HPLC separation of crude extract components derived from nematocysts and extranematocystic tissues of macroplanktonic jellyfish Aequorea aequorea and Rhizostoma pulmo and benthic sea-anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata was carried out by different columns. A satisfactory peak separation was obtained analyzing the toxin of Rhizostoma pulmo...
Article
i. INTRODUCTION The nematocyst venom of Cnidaria produces dermonecrotic, cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects and is a serious health problem for sea-workers and bathers, particularly in some areas where exist several dangerous species whose stings are lethal also for humans. In the Mediterranean Sea there are not lethal species, nevertheless serious...
Chapter
Results are presented from samples collected from May to September 1989 in order to study the biotic plankton community in a sea zone of the Gulf of Genoa (Ligurian Sea). Three fixed stations affected by discharges from purifying installations and river flow were considered. The samplings were supported by hydrological data (temperature, salinity,...
Article
We have investigated the effects of retinoic acid (RA), human recombinant gamma interferon (gamma-IFN), and the association of both agents on the growth of human neuroblastoma (NB) cells in [CD1(nu/nu)] nude mice. Two human NB cell lines, namely LAN-5 and GI-LI-N, were previously adapted to grow in syngeneic animals for 7 consecutive passages. At t...