Giacomo Corti

Giacomo Corti
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources IGG

PhD

About

190
Publications
72,220
Reads
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Introduction
Research interests: continental extension, structure and evolution East African Rift analogue modelling of tectonic and geomorphic processes ice flow dynamics in the Antarctic Ice Sheet tectonics of the Northern Apennines tectonics of central America.
Additional affiliations
March 2020 - present
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • Research Director
March 2013 - present
University of Florence
Position
  • Contract professor
Description
  • 1) Modelling of structural associations 2) Geodynamics
March 2013 - present
University of Florence
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Contract Professor
Education
October 1999 - February 2003
Università di Pisa
Field of study
  • Earth Science
September 1991 - July 1997
University of Florence
Field of study
  • Earth Sciences

Publications

Publications (190)
Article
Full-text available
The Mugello Basin (North-Eastern Tuscany) is an intermontane basin of the Northern Apennines (Italy) with a well-documented record of seismicity; the two major historical earthquakes occurred in 1542 (Mw = 6.0) and in 1919 (Mw = 6.4). In this study, we integrate different seismic catalogs spanning the 2005–2019 time interval, and complement these d...
Article
Full-text available
In the Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa) a complex tectonic history preceded Tertiary rifting creating pre-existing discontinuities that influenced extension-related deformation. Therefore, this area offers the opportunity to analyze the control exerted by pre-existing structures on continental rifting at different scales. In this paper we present...
Article
Asthenosphere-lithosphere interactions modulated by surface processes generate outstanding topographies and sedimentary basins, but the nature of these interactions and the mechanisms through which they control the evolution of extensional tectonic settings are elusive. Basal lithospheric shearing due to plume-related mantle flow leads to extension...
Conference Paper
The Turkana depression (Ethiopia-Kenya) is a tectonic basin related to the Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic development of the South Sudan and the Anza grabens filled with a thick sequence of Cretaceous-Paleogene sediments reaching up to a thickness of 6–8 km. These two NW-SE trending depressions, which likely resulted from NE-SW extension, were later aff...
Conference Paper
The Turkana depression (Ethiopia-Kenya) is a tectonic basin related to the Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic development of the South Sudan and the Anza grabens filled with a thick sequence of Cretaceous-Paleogene sediments reaching up to a thickness of 6–8 km. These two NW-SE trending depressions, which likely resulted from NE-SW extension, were later aff...
Article
Centrifuge analogue modelling has provided significant insights into the evolution and architecture of fold and thrust systems. However, all previous works focused on the deformation of viscous and/or plastic layers, and did not analyze the development of structures in the brittle crust. In this work, we present the results of analogue centrifuge m...
Article
Full-text available
The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) represents an area where volcanism and tectonics interact to create closely linked volcano-tectonic features. This linkage is paramount in the axial portion of the rift, where magmatic segments localize several large peralkaline eruptive centres. Many of them evolved into caldera collapse (the best preserved of which a...
Article
Full-text available
Chaotic terrains are broad regions on Mars characterized by the disruption of the basaltic bedrock into polygonal blocks separated by deep fractures. To date, the proposed genetic scenarios often involve the occurrence of subsurface ice or liquid H2O. Nevertheless, similar features also occur within some craters on the Moon, namely floor-fractured...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, new approaches for developing earthquake rupture forecasts (ERFs) have been proposed to be used as an input for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Zone-based approaches with seismicity rates derived from earthquake catalogs are commonly used in many countries as the standard for national seismic hazard models. In Italy...
Article
Full-text available
Studying the mechanisms of interaction between rift segments is key to understanding the kinematics of plate boundaries in continental rifts. However, the spatial and temporal evolution of deformation at rift linkage zones is rarely observed directly. Here we combine InSAR data spanning 2005‐2010 and 2014‐2019 from ENVISAT and Sentinel‐1 satellites...
Article
Full-text available
We present crustal scale physical analogue models of multiphase rifting to provide new constraints on the role exerted by faults formed during early extension on structures developed during later episodes of rifting. Our laboratory experiments (sand mixture is used to simulate the upper crust and PDMS-Corundum mixture is used to simulate the lower...
Article
Full-text available
Lower crustal earthquakes at plate boundaries and intraplate settings occur at depth where deformation is normally expected to occur in a ductile manner. Here we use the available earthquake catalogs and compute theoretical predictions for a range of conditions for the occurrence of lower crustal earthquakes beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) an...
Article
Full-text available
p>During the evolution of continental rift systems, extension is thought to progressively focus in-rift to the future breakup boundary while faults along the rift margins progressively deactivate. However, observational constraints on how strain is partitioned between rift axis and rift margins are still lacking. The Afar rift records the latest st...
Article
Full-text available
Scaled analogue models explored the role of different boundary conditions in intracaldera resurgence processes. Models investigated the role of magma intrusion depth (ID) (Series 1), asymmetric and symmetric caldera collapse (Series 2), as well as the presence of existing discontinuities in the pre-volcanic substratum (Series 3) on the style of cal...
Article
Caldera collapse received large attention during the last decades and was widely studied using various approaches, spanning from field-geology to numerical and analogue modelling. Analogue models allow to reproduce caldera collapse deformation, providing information otherwise difficult to obtain during such an extremely transient geological process...
Article
Full-text available
Since caldera collapse deformation is extremely difficult to study in real time - due to the high deformation rates that characterize this process and the difficult access to the caldera structures-analogue modeling has been widely used during past decades to integrate field data and, more recently, remote-sensing data (e.g., InSAR). However, the r...
Presentation
Full-text available
Keynote talk during session 9.3 of the Australian Earth Sciences Convention 2021: https://www.aesconvention.com.au/
Article
Full-text available
Continental rifting is a geodynamic process that involves the breakup of the crust, and may eventually evolve to sea floor spreading. Although it is often assumed to be a product of orthogonal divergence, continental rifting may result from oblique extension, and in several cases it is related to the rotation of plates or crustal blocks about a ver...
Data
This dataset provides internal data from ring-shear tests (RST) on a feldspar sand material that has been used in tectonic experiments by among others Montanari et al. (2017) and Zwaan et al. (2020) in the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of CNR-IGG at the Earth Sciences Department of the University of Florence (Italy) as an analogue for brittle layer...
Data
This dataset provides rheometric data of three viscous materials used for centrifuge experiments at the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of CNR-IGG at the Earth Sciences Department of the University of Florence (Italy). The first material, PP45, is a mixture of a silicone (Polydimethylsiloxane or PDMS SGM36) and plasticine (Giotto Pongo). The PDMS is...
Presentation
Full-text available
This study concerns the tectonics of the Western Afar Margin (WAM), situated between the Ethiopian Plateau and Afar Depression in East Africa. The WAM represents a developing passive margin in a highly volcanic setting, offering unique opportunities for studying (magma-rich) continental break-up. Earthquake analysis reveals that the margin still de...
Article
Full-text available
We provide insights into the tectonics of the Asela-Langano margin, at the eastern boundary of the central Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa, by combining field structural data, remote sensing, analysis of the distribution of faults, new dating of faulted material, and analysis of seismicity. The area is characterized by the occurrence of two fault...
Article
Full-text available
The Boset magmatic segment (BMS) of the northern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) is an ideal natural laboratory to investigate the kinematics, interaction, and rates of activity within a fault network in a magma‐rich rift. In this paper we take advantage of the availability of 1) high‐resolution remote sensing data (LiDAR, Aster); 2) absolute age chronol...
Article
Full-text available
The Afar region in East Africa is a key locality for studying continental break-up. Within Afar proper, passive margins are developing, of which the Southern Afar Margin (SAM) contains synthetic (basinward) faulting, whereas crustal flexure, antithetic faulting and marginal grabens occur along the Western Afar Margin (WAM). Numerous conflicting sce...
Article
Full-text available
The Afar region in East Africa represents a key location to study continental break-up. We present an integrated structural analysis of the Western Afar Margin (WAM) aiming to better understand rifted margin development and the role of plate rotation during rifting. New structural information from remote sensing, fieldwork and earthquake datasets r...
Article
The relationships between volcanic activity and tectonics at the southernmost termination of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), East Africa, still represent a debated problem in the MER evolution. New constraints on the timing, evolution and characteristics of the poorly documented volcanic activity of the Dilo and Mega volcanic fields (VF), near the K...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the controls on the distribution and magnitude of earthquakes is required for effective earthquake forecasting. We present a study that demonstrates that the distribution and size of earthquakes in Italy correlates with the steady state rate at which the Earth’s crust moves. We use a new high-resolution horizontal strain rate (S) fiel...
Data
This dataset presents the results of an experimental series of analogue models performed to investigate caldera resurgence processes, particularly the setting of the Los Potreros caldera that belongs to the Los Humeros Volcanic Complex (Puebla State, Mexico). Our experimental series was designed adopting a parametric approach, which consisted in th...
Article
Full-text available
We combine numerical modeling of lithospheric extension with analysis of seismic moment release and earthquake b‐value in order to elucidate the mechanism for deep crustal seismicity and seismic swarms in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). We run 2D numerical simulations of lithospheric deformation calibrated by appropriate rheology and extensional his...
Article
Full-text available
Complex patterns of normal faults with multiple orientations and/or highly curved shapes have been traditionally explained by successive tectonic phases of 2-dimensional deformation. Alternatively, multiple fault sets have been proposed to develop simultaneously and in orthorhombic symmetry during a single phase of 3-dimensional deformation. We use...
Conference Paper
The Northern Apennines is a NW-SE striking fold-and-thrust belt composed of a pile of NE-verging tectonic units that developed during Cenozoic collision between the European plate (Corso-Sardinian block) and the Adria plate. Seismicity and geodetic data indicate that contemporaneous crustal shortening (in the external, Adriatic part) and extension...
Data
This dataset contains geological data from the Western Afar Margin (WAM) in East Africa. These in-clude (reprocessed) earthquake data from previously published surveys and publically accessible databases (Keir et al. 2006, 2009; Ebinger et al 2008; Belachew et al. 2011; Illsley-Kemp et al. 2018a, b and the GCMT Project 2019), which form the basis f...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation is the online Display created for the EGU General Assembly 2020, which was held online. The presentation is based on a publication in Tectonics, involving a multidisciplinary study of the Western Afar Margin in East Africa, and a manuscript submitted to Tectonophysics, describing analogue models to study the evolution of said marg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chaotic terrains are broad regions on Mars characterized by the occurrence of angular-polygonal blocks separated by deep fractures and grabens, associated with collapse chains and with the overall mineralogy consisting mainly in basalts (Luzzi et al., submitted, 2020). Several mechanisms of formation for Chaotic terrains were proposed in the litera...
Data
This dataset presents the results of an experimental series of analogue models performed to investigate the interaction between a propagating continental rift and inherited crustal fabrics. Our experimental series was designed adopting a parametric approach, which consisted in the systematic variation of the orientation of various kinds of brittle...
Article
Full-text available
The Afar region represents a unique opportunity for the study of ongoing rift development and the various phases of continental break-up. In this work we discuss the geological and geomorphological characteristics of the Western Afar Margin (WAM) and the various scenarios proposed for its evolution. A drastic decline in topography and crustal thick...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to analyze the modalities of strain accommodation within a highly oblique rift, taking the Gulf of California as a prototype. Rifting in the Gulf of California is accomplished by intra‐Gulf strike‐slip (transform) faults, and mostly dip‐slip displacement on the rift‐margin faults. We have collected fault‐slip data and samples for ra...
Article
We use new analogue modelling experiments to analyse the development of pull-apart basins in an upper crust characterised by the presence of pre-existing discrete fabrics. As in previous models, lateral movement of rigid basal plates induced strike-slip deformation of a sand-pack. Local extension allowing the formation of a pull-apart basin was pro...
Article
Full-text available
Extensional plate boundaries are segmented by offsets that transfer extension between the ends of adjacent portions of the rift by linkage zones ranging in width from a few tens of km to several hundreds of km. However, the kinematics of linkage zones is poorly constrained as direct observations are difficult to make. Here we combine InSAR, seismic...
Poster
In the frame of the GEMex Europe-Mexico cooperation project (Horizon 2020 Programme; grant agreement No. 727550), we have performed a series of analogue models investigating the influence of pre-existing faults on caldera collapse and subsequent caldera resurgence. This experimental work aims at investigating the development of caldera collapse and...
Poster
Caldera collapse is a complex geological process that, due to its quasi-instantaneous nature, remains difficult and elusive to investigate. Because of this, several numerical and analogue modelling experiments have been used to analyse this process during the last decades (e.g., Geyer & Martí, 2014, and reference therein): these approaches are inde...
Poster
The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is a large-scale, NW to SE trending volcano-tectonic feature extending through central Mexico for a length of more than 2000 km. Its genesis is strictly related to the interaction between the subducting Rivera and Cocos plates and the North America plate, as the eastward propagation of volcanism is considered...
Article
We have performed a series of sandbox models addressing the influence of sand mixtures (quartz and feldspar sand in different proportions) with different grain-size on the development of normal faults. The overall model evolution suggests that fault orientation, width of the deformed area, and average subsidence are not significantly influenced by...
Preprint
Host rock deformation in active volcanic settings can signal and be used to constrain magma emplacement. Yet it is difficult to evaluate the accuracy of intrusion parameters derived from inversion of deformation signals because we cannot test estimates by directly accessing the magma body. Physical modelling is thus critical to understanding how in...
Preprint
The Los Humeros Volcanic Complex (LHVC) is a large silicic caldera complex in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), hosting a geothermal field currently in exploitation by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) of Mexico, with an installed capacity of ca. 95 MW of electric power. Understanding the structural architecture of LHVC is important...
Article
Full-text available
The Los Humeros Volcanic Complex (LHVC) is a large silicic caldera complex in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), hosting a geothermal field currently in exploitation by the Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE) of Mexico, with an installed capacity of ca. 95 MW of electric power. Understanding the structural architecture of LHVC is important...
Article
Full-text available
Continental rift systems form by propagation of isolated rift segments that interact, and eventually evolve into continuous zones of deformation. This process impacts many aspects of rifting including rift morphology at breakup, and eventual ocean-ridge segmentation. Yet, rift segment growth and interaction remain enigmatic. Here we present geologi...
Article
Full-text available
The Broadly Rifted Zone (BRZ) of southern Ethiopia is a long‐lived and structurally complex segment of the East African Rift System (EARS). However, due to poor surface exposure of early syn‐rift strata and a dearth of subsurface data, the evolution of the BRZ remains poorly understood. We present new apatite (U‐Th‐Sm)/He and augmented apatite fiss...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We investigate thermo-mechanical properties of the crust in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) by analyzing the interrelationships between the depth distribution of seismicity, geothermal gradient, composition, and crustal strength, We use both hypocentral depth as well as moment magnitudes of ∼2000 well constrained earthquakes from the EAGLE c...
Article
Constraints from restoration of minor rift-related faults preserved from subsequent Palaeoproterozoic overprint along the southern margin of the Peräpohja Belt, northern Fennoscandia indicate local NE-SW extension directions prevailed at the time of 2.44 Ga rifting of the Archaean continent. This palaeostress field is attributed to pull-apart setti...
Article
Areas undergoing pure extension are typically characterized by the formation of faults and fractures orthogonal to the maximum principal stress. In these conditions, the presence of a volcano and its magmatic system perturbs the local stress field, leading to changes in faulting magnitude and attitude. This process has been analyzed in many previou...
Article
In this work we use analogue modelling to analyse the effect of sudden ice shelf breakup on the flow of ice draining an ice sheet grounded below sea level. Experimental results confirm that the removal of the buttressing effect exerted by the ice shelf results in significant acceleration of inland glaciers: the models show indeed a pronounced incre...
Article
During continental breakup, the locus of strain shifts from a broad region of border faulting and ductile plate stretching to a narrow zone of magma intrusion in a young ocean basin. Recent studies of volcanic rifts and margins worldwide suggest this shift occurs sub‐aerially, before the onset of seafloor spreading. We test this hypothesis using re...
Conference Paper
Complex patterns of normal faults, characterised by variable strike orientations and non-systematic crosscutting relationships, have been observed in different settings (e.g. the Hoop Fault Complex in the SW Barents Sea, the Afar region, the polygonal faults in the northern North Sea and the canyon systems of Noctis Labyrinthus on Mars). These faul...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We evaluate the frictional strength of seismogenic faults in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) by inverting the available, well-constrained earthquake focal mechanisms. The regional stress field is given by −119.6◦/77.2◦, 6.2◦/7.6◦, 97.5◦/10.2◦ for trend/plunge of σ1, σ2 and σ3, respectively agrees well with previous fault kinematic and focal...