Gerulf Rieger

Gerulf Rieger
University of Essex · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

84
Publications
137,102
Reads
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2,632
Citations
Introduction
Gerulf Rieger obtained a MSc in Biological Anthropology from the University of Zurich in Switzerland and a PhD in Personality Psychology from Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Gerulf had a teaching position at Northwestern University and was a research fellow in the Department of Human Development at Cornell University before joining the Social and Health Psychology Group at the University of Essex.
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - present
University of Essex
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • My research is focused on the development and expression of sexual orientation.
September 2013 - present
University of Essex
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • I am teaching Social Psychology, Special Topics in Social Psychology, Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience, and, in the future, Human Sexuality.
September 2009 - August 2013
Cornell University
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • My research has focused on the development and expression of sexuality.
Education
September 2000 - June 2006
Northwestern University
Field of study
  • Personality Psychology
September 1995 - January 1999
University of Zurich
Field of study
  • Anthropology

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Asexuality has garnered much attention, and empirical data support its classification as a sexual orientation. Asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to others, with approximately 1% of the population falling in this category. As theoretical models situate attention as a central component of sexual response, the current study examined...
Article
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Longitudinal work suggests that sexual orientation can change over time in men and women. These studies, however, may be susceptible to the bias of self-report. The current study therefore examined self-reported sexual orientation in addition to an objective correlate: genital arousal to erotic videos showing males or females. For 52 men (19 hetero...
Article
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Homosexual women are, on average, more masculine in their appearance and behavior than heterosexual women. We hypothesized that their masculinity was influenced by exposure to elevated levels of prenatal androgen during early development. We recruited 199 women (including 67 homosexual women) and measured their masculinity via self-report and obser...
Article
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In general, women show physiological sexual arousal to both sexes. However, compared with heterosexual women, homosexual women are more aroused to their preferred sex, a pattern typically found in men. We hypothesized that homosexual women’s male-typical arousal is due to their sex-atypical masculinization during prenatal development. We measured t...
Article
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Male sexual orientation is influenced by environmental and complex genetic factors. Childhood gender nonconformity (CGN) is one of the strongest correlates of homosexuality with substantial familiality. We studied brothers in families with two or more homosexual brothers (409 concordant sibling pairs in 384 families, as well as their heterosexual b...
Article
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Most men show genital sexual arousal to one preferred gender. Most women show genital arousal to both genders, regardless of their sexual preferences. There is limited knowledge of whether this difference is driven by biological sex or gender identity. Transgender individuals, whose birth sex and gender identity are incongruent, provide a unique op...
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Most men show sexual arousal to one, preferred sex, whereas most women respond to both sexes, regardless of their sexual orientation. A different research program indicates that men have lower second-to-fourth finger length ratios (2D:4D) than women, possibly because men are exposed to higher levels of androgens during prenatal development. We hypo...
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We examined whether recalled childhood gender nonconformity and self-reported adult gender nonconformity is familial, using data from 1154 families selected for having at least two homosexual brothers. Specifically, we examined the extent to which homosexual men’s variation in gender nonconformity runs in families by examining pairs of genetic brot...
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Gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females) is more common in non-heterosexual (bisexual and homosexual) than heterosexual individuals. In the past research (Watts, Holmes, Raines, Orbell, & Rieger, 2018b), identical twins discordant for sexual orientation were perceived more similar in their gender nonconformity than unrelat...
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The degree to which bisexual-identified individuals are distinct from either heterosexual or homosexual individuals in their sexual orientation is an ongoing debate. We examined potential differences between these groups with respect to a strong correlate of sexual orientation, gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females). Acr...
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Significance There has long been skepticism among both scientists and laypersons that male bisexual orientation exists. Skeptics have claimed that men who self-identify as bisexual are actually homosexual or heterosexual. (The existence of female bisexuality has been less controversial.) This controversy can be resolved using objective, genital res...
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Some research suggests that bisexual-identified men show bisexual genital arousal, whereas other research indicates monosexual arousal: they are aroused to one sex only. These seemingly contradictory findings may be due to the type of men identifying as bisexual and the performed analyses. We examined whether both bisexual and monosexual arousal pa...
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Readers should note that the confidence intervals for the effect of sexual orientation on 2D:4D in the left hand of female twins are incorrectly reported in Table 1 of this article. In particular, the upper limit of the confidence intervals is missing a minus sign. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
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A proposed marker of prenatal androgen exposure is the ratio of the index finger to ring finger (2D:4D). Within each sex, this ratio may be lower for those who were exposed to higher levels of androgens and become attracted to women, as compared to those who were exposed to lower levels of androgens and become attracted to men. We examined these pa...
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Abstract Genetically identical twins can differ in their self-reported sexual orientations. However, whether the twins’ subjective reports reflect valid differences in their sexual orientations is unknown. Measures of sexual orientation, which are free of the limitations of self-report, include genital arousal and pupil dilation while viewing sexua...
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Family and twin studies suggest that genes play a role in male sexual orientation. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of male sexual orientation on a primarily European ancestry sample of 1,077 homosexual men and 1,231 heterosexual men using Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. We identified several SNPs with p <...
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Childhood gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females) predicts a nonstraight (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) sexual orientation in adulthood. In previous work, nonstraight twins reported more childhood gender nonconformity than their genetically identical, but straight, cotwins. However, self-reports could be biased. We therefore...
Article
Few studies from the United Kingdom have fully investigated inequalities between members of different sexual minority groups and heterosexuals over range of health outcomes. Using data from over 40,000 individuals, this study explores the health inequalities of sexual minority UK adults. We include respondents who identify as other and those who pr...
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Pupil dilation to explicit sexual stimuli (footage of naked and aroused men or women) can elicit sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. If similar patterns were replicated with non-explicit sexual stimuli (footage of dressed men and women), then pupil dilation could be indicative of automatic sexual response in fully noninvasive...
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This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47)...
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Detecting and integrating information across the senses is an advantageous mechanism to efficiently respond to the environment. In this study, a simple auditory-visual detection task was employed to test whether pupil dilation, generally associated with successful target detection, could be used as a reliable measure for studying multisensory integ...
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Studies with volunteers in sexual arousal experiments suggest that women are, on average, physiologically sexually aroused to both male and female sexual stimuli. Lesbians are the exception because they tend to be more aroused to their preferred sex than the other sex, a pattern typically seen in men. A separate research line suggests that lesbians...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A gender difference has been consistently reported with respect to sexual response. Whereas men are almost exclusively genitally aroused to their preferred sex, women are genitally aroused to both sexes, independent of preference. However, emerging research suggests that this gender difference is not as simplistic as previously assumed – measuremen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reported gender differences in genital response to preferred and nonpreferred sexual stimuli may be confounded by the fact that frequently used measures differ for men and women. Moreover, women’s non-specificity in their sexual responses is less common in homosexual women; similar to men, they can be specific in their sexual response to preferred...
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Background: Findings from family and twin studies support a genetic contribution to the development of sexual orientation in men. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting evidence for linkage to chromosome Xq28. Method: We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan on 409 independent pairs of homosexual brothers (908 analyzed individuals in...
Article
Sexual orientation is typically assumed to be independent of factors such as personality. Although this is probably accurate for heterosexual and homosexual orientations, personality may play a role in bisexuality. It was hypothesized that bisexuality is potentiated by personality traits that allow sexual behavior to occur independently of sexual r...
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Prior research finds that sexually permissive individuals are judged more negatively than nonpermissive peers, placing them at risk of social isolation. Based on the positive assortment principle (i.e., preferences for similarity in attributes in close relationships), we examined whether participants’ own permissiveness mitigated negative judgmen...
Conference Paper
Mate Choice and Attraction: Paradoxes and Potential Explanations An evolutionary framework provides a powerful lens from which to examine human mate choice. The different reproductive problems faced by men and women have led to sex differences in mate preference and divergent mating strategies. These strategies can predict individual differences i...
Article
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Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pup...
Article
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Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present...
Article
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Based on date from Wave 3 and Wave 4 from National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N=12,287), known as Add Health, the majority of young adults identified their sexual orientation as 100% heterosexual. The second largest identity group,‘‘mostly heterosexual,’’was larger than all other nonheterosexual identities combined. Comparing distrib...
Article
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Studies of North Americans suggest that laypeople can judge the sexual orientation of others with greater than chance accuracy based on brief observations of their behavior (i.e., "gaydar" exists). One factor that appears to contribute to these judgments is targets' degree of masculinity-femininity. However, behaviors related to sexual orientation...
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Commenting on Savin-Williams, Cohen, Joyner, and Rieger (2010), Meyer (2010) dismissed their analytic approach as erroneous and submitted a lengthy defense of his minority-stress hypothesis. We reject Meyer’s refutation on several accounts, the primary one being that the study was not designed or presented as a‘‘test’’of his position. Despite consi...
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Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally tru...
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There exist many subcultures of men who have sex with men (MSM), all with differing values and health behaviors. The Leathermen comprise one such subculture, which is characterized by a heightened valuation of hypersexuality and adherence to sexual control dynamics (i.e., submission and dominance). No previous research has specifically examined thi...
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In this issue, P. Hegarty (see record 2009-09998-015) comments on an article by G. Rieger, J. A. W. Linsenmeier, L. Gygax, and J. M. Bailey (see record 2007-19851-006) that compared videos of homosexual and heterosexual people from childhood and adulthood. The current authors claim it is reasonable to treat masculinity-femininity as a bipolar scale...
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Prior research suggests that sex typicality (especially femininity of females, but also masculinity of males) relates to perceptions of attractiveness, for both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Using videos from childhood and adulthood, we investigated how different components of sex typicality contributed to this effect, whether the sex of...
Article
Larger or more prominent male body attributes—increased muscularity, penis size, height, etc.—may be associated with differences in narcissism in men who have sex with men (MSM). This may be due, in part, to physical appearance, which tends to be disproportionately revered by MSM. An Internet survey (N = 649) was employed to test this and other hyp...
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To better understand sexual orientation from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated whether, compared to heterosexual men, the fewer direct descendants of homosexual men could be counterbalanced by a larger number of other close biological relatives. We also investigated the extent to which three patterns generally studied separately--handedn...
Article
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Sex-atypical behaviors may be used to identify a person as homosexual. To shield themselves from prejudice, homosexual people may attempt to conceal these behaviors. It is not clear how effectively they can do so. In Study 1, we asked homosexual participants to conceal their sex-atypical behaviors while talking about the weather. Raters watched vid...