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Gert Storms

Gert Storms
KU Leuven | ku leuven · Research unit for Experimental Psychology

PhD

About

183
Publications
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4,090
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
1870 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300

Publications

Publications (183)
Article
Full-text available
Semantic gender norms are presented for 24,037 Dutch words. Eighty participants rated 6,017 words each on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from feminine to masculine. Each word was rated by 10 male and 10 female participants. The collected norms show high reliability and correlate well with similar norms in English. We show that semantic gender is di...
Preprint
Full-text available
Semantic gender norms are presented for 24,037 Dutch words. Eighty participants rated 6,017 words each on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from feminine to masculine. Each word was rated by 10 male and 10 female participants. The collected norms show high reliability and correlate well with similar norms in English. We show that semantic gender is di...
Article
We investigate whether the Pairwise Rating Method (PRaM) and the Spatial Arrangement Method (SpAM) yield multidimensional scaling (MDS) solutions of comparable dimensionality. Across three studies that included twelve semantic categories with varying numbers of both pictorial and verbal exemplars, we did not find consistent dimensionality differenc...
Article
We compare two methods for obtaining similarity data in the conceptual domain. In the Spatial Arrangement Method (SpAM), participants organize stimuli on a computer screen so that the distance between stimuli represents their perceived dissimilarity. In Total-Set Pairwise Rating Method (PRaM), participants rate the (dis)similarity of all pairs of s...
Article
Although children may productively use concrete nouns after limited exposure, complete mastery of adult-like patterns of noun usage can take up to 14 years. We evaluated whether a transition from universal to language-specific naming is part of the refinement in later lexical development, and we compared how this refinement plays out in monolingual...
Preprint
We investigate whether two methods for obtaining similarity data yield multidimensional scaling (MDS) solutions of comparable dimensionality. In the Pairwise Rating Method (PRaM), participants rate the (dis)similarity of all pairs of stimuli on a Likert scale. In the Spatial Arrangement Method (SpAM), participants organize stimuli on a computer scr...
Article
Full-text available
The examination of semantic cognition has traditionally identified word concreteness as well as valence as two of the principal dimensions in the representation of conceptual knowledge. More recently, corpus-based vector space models as well as graph-theoretical analysis of large-scale task-related behavioural responses have revolutionized our insi...
Article
The research of the word is still very much the research of the noun. Adjectives have been largely overlooked, despite being the second-largest word class in many languages and serving an important communicative function, because of the rich, nuanced qualifications they afford. Adjectives are also ideally suited to study the interface between cogni...
Preprint
Full-text available
Word associations have been used widely in psychology, but the validity of their application strongly depends on the number of cues included in the study and the extent to which they probe all associations known by an individual. In this work, we address both issues by introducing a new English word association dataset. We describe the collection o...
Preprint
Similarity plays an important role in organizing the semantic system. However, given that similarity cannot be defined on purely logical grounds, it is important to understand how people perceive similarities between different entities. Despite this, the vast majority of studies focus on measuring similarity between very closely related items. When...
Preprint
In contrast to noun categories, little is known about the graded structure of adjective categories. In this study, we investigated whether adjective categories show a similar graded structure and what determines this structure. The results show that adjective categories like nouns exhibit a reliable graded structure. Similar to nouns, we investigat...
Preprint
A robust finding in category-based induction tasks is for positive observations to raise the willingness to generalize to other categories while negative observations lower the willingness to generalize. This pattern is referred to as monotonic generalization. Across three experiments we find systematic non-monotonicity effects, in which negative o...
Preprint
In this article, we describe the most extensive set of word associations collected to date. The database contains over 12,000 cue words for which more than 70,000 participants generated three responses in a multiple-response free association task. The goal of this study was (1) to create a semantic network that covers a large part of the human lexi...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in semantic categorization are commonplace. Individuals apply a word like SPORTS to different instances because they employ different conditions for category membership (vagueness in criteria) or because they differ regarding the extent to which they feel the term can be applied given fixed conditions (vagueness in degree). T...
Article
Full-text available
The field of cognitive aging has seen considerable advances in describing the linguistic and semantic changes that happen during the adult life span to uncover the structure of the mental lexicon (i.e., the mental repository of lexical and conceptual representations). Nevertheless, there is still debate concerning the sources of these changes, incl...
Article
Full-text available
The boundaries of our understanding of conceptual representation in the brain have been redrawn since the introduction of explicit models of semantics. These models are grounded in vast behavioural datasets acquired in healthy volunteers. Here, we review the most important techniques which have been applied to detect semantic information in neuroim...
Preprint
Full-text available
The field of cognitive aging has seen considerable advances in describing the linguistic and semantic changes that happen during the adult life span to uncover the structure of the mental lexicon (i.e., the mental repository of lexical and conceptual representations). Nevertheless, there is still debate concerning the sources of these changes, incl...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of visual and nonvisual attributes of concrete entities is distributed over neocortical uni- and polymodal association cortex. Here we investigated the role of left perirhinal cortex in explicit knowledge retrieval from written words. We examined whether it extended across visual and nonvisual properties, animate and inanimate entities, h...
Article
Full-text available
In two studies we compare a distributional semantic model derived from word co-occurrences and a word association based model in their ability to predict properties that affect lexical process-ing. We focus on age of acquisition, concreteness, and three affective variables, namely valence, arousal, and dominance, since all these variables have been...
Article
Full-text available
Word associations have been used widely in psychology, but the validity of their application strongly depends on the number of cues included in the study and the extent to which they probe all associations known by an individual. In this work, we address both issues by introducing a new English word association dataset. We describe the collection o...
Article
Full-text available
In the human category of learning, learning is studied in a supervised, an unsupervised, or a semisupervised way. The rare human semisupervised category of learning studies all focus on early learning. However, the impact of the semisupervised category learning late in learning, when automaticity develops, is unknown. Therefore, in Experiment 1, al...
Chapter
Individual differences in application are considered a hallmark of vague terms. When a term is truly vague there exists a range of applications that are considered permissible by competent users of the language. The divergence in application may be the result of indeterminacy with respect to the conditions for application (vagueness in criteria) an...
Article
Full-text available
Some words are lexically suggestive about the taxonomic position of their referent (e.g., jellyfish in English) and this information can vary across languages (e.g., in Dutch the equivalent of jellyfish holds no taxonomic information: kwal). To evaluate the role of such lexical suggestions, we conducted a cross-linguistic study in which similarity...
Preprint
Many researchers have tried to predict semantic priming effects using a myriad of variables (e.g., prime–target associative strength or co-occurrence frequency). The idea is that relatedness varies across prime–target pairs, which should be reflected in the size of the priming effect (e.g., cat should prime dog more than animal does). However, it i...
Article
Full-text available
Many researchers have tried to predict semantic priming effects using a myriad of variables (e.g., prime–target associative strength or co-occurrence frequency). The idea is that relatedness varies across prime–target pairs, which should be reflected in the size of the priming effect (e.g., cat should prime dog more than animal does). However, it i...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the relationship between category extension and intension for 11 different semantic categories. It is often tacitly assumed that there is a (strong) extension–intension link. However, a recent study by Hampton and Passanisi (2016) examining the patterns of stable individual differences in concepts across participants...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper describes two attempts to replicate a recent study of ours in the semantic priming domain (Heyman, Van Rensbergen, Storms, Hutchison, & De Deyne, 2015). In that study, we observed that semantic priming for forward associates (e.g., 'panda-bear') completely evaporated when participants’ working memory was taxed, whereas backward (e...
Article
Full-text available
According to a recent study, semantic similarity between concrete entities correlates with the similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS during category naming. We examined the replicability of this effect under passive viewing conditions, the potential role of visuoperceptual similarity, where the effect is situated compared to regions th...
Article
Storms, Ameel, and Malt [2015. “Development of Cross-language Lexical Influence.” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 18: 529–547] compared the development of naming patterns in monolingual and bilingual children. They concluded that bilinguals' naming patterns in their two languages become increasingly similar with age an...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates category intension in school-aged children and adults at two different levels of abstraction (i.e., superordinate and basic level) for two category types (i.e., artefacts and natural kinds). We addressed two critical questions: what kind of features do children and adults generate to define semantic categories and whi...
Article
Full-text available
Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whet...
Article
Considerable stability of the meanings associated with concrete nouns is arguably important for their effective use. On the other hand, variability is observed across time, individuals, and communicative contexts. This study examined the balance between stability and flexibility in meanings of common, basic level artifact nouns by evaluating speake...
Article
Full-text available
Similarity plays an important role in organizing the semantic system. However, given that similarity cannot be defined on purely logical grounds, it is important to understand how people perceive similarities between different entities. Despite this, the vast majority of studies focus on measuring similarity between very closely related items. When...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Two studies examined how lexical information contained in words affects people's category representations. Some words are lexically suggestive regarding the taxonomic position of their referent (e.g., bumblebee, starfish). However, this information differs from language to language (e.g., in Dutch the equivalent words hold no taxonomic information:...
Conference Paper
Cross-linguistic research has shown that boundaries for lexical categories differ from language to language. The aim of this study is to explore these differences between languages in relation to the categorization differences within a language. Monolingual Dutch-(N=400) and French-speaking (N=300) Belgian adults provided lexical category judgments...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have reported differences in categorization strategies among participants: some learn a category by making abstraction across the category members while others use a memorization strategy. Despite the prevalence of these differences, little attention has been paid to investigating what influences some to use an abstraction strategy...
Article
Full-text available
An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study graded-ness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method th...
Data
Selected items for the eight target categories. (DOCX)
Article
Much has been said about children’s strategies for mapping elements of meaning to words in toddlerhood. However, children continue to refine word meanings and patterns of word use into middle childhood and beyond, even for common words appearing in early vocabulary. We address where children past toddlerhood diverge from adults and where they more...
Article
Full-text available
Semantic priming, the phenomenon that a target is recognized faster if it is preceded by a semantically related prime, is a well-established effect. However, the mechanisms producing semantic priming are subject of debate. Several theories assume that the underlying processes are controllable and tuned to prime utility. In contrast, purely automati...
Chapter
Semantic networks are often used to represent the meaning of a word in the mental lexicon. To construct a large-scale network for this lexicon, text corpora provide a convenient and rich resource. In this chapter the network properties of a text-based approach are evaluated and compared with a more direct way of assessing the mental content of the...
Article
Full-text available
Word ratings on affective dimensions are an important tool in psycholinguistic research. Traditionally, they are obtained by asking participants to rate words on each dimension, a time-consuming procedure. As such, there has been some interest in computationally generating norms, by extrapolating words' affective ratings using their semantic simila...
Article
Full-text available
In the speeded word fragment completion task, participants have to complete fragments such as tom_to as quickly and accurately as possible. Previous work has shown that this paradigm can successfully capture subtle priming effects (Heyman, De Deyne, Hutchison, & Storms Behavior Research Methods, 47, 580-606, 2015). In addition, it has several advan...
Article
To study the availability of psychological research data, we requested data from 394 papers, published in all issues of four APA journals in 2012. We found that 38% of the researchers sent their data immediately or after reminders. These findings are in line with estimates of the willingness to share data in psychology from the recent or remote pas...
Data
Supplementary appendices containing detailed information on the models and the model evaluation methods may be downloaded from http:// pbr. psychonomic-journals. org/ content/ supplemental.
Article
Full-text available
The current study examines the underlying processes of semantic priming using the largest priming database available (i.e., Semantic Priming Project, Hutchison et al. Behavior Research Methods, 45(4), 1099-1114, 2013). Specifically, it compares priming effects in two tasks: lexical decision and pronunciation. Task similarities were assessed at two...
Article
Full-text available
A robust finding in category-based induction tasks is for positive observations to raise the willingness to generalize to other categories while negative observations lower the willingness to generalize. This pattern is referred to as monotonic generalization. Across three experiments we find systematic non-monotonicity effects, in which negative o...
Article
Full-text available
Bilinguals are often not fully monolingual-like in either language. With respect to the lexicon, recent research demonstrates that their naming patterns for common household objects tend to converge on a common pattern for the two languages. The present study investigates the developmental trajectory of naming of common household objects in Dutch/F...
Article
Full-text available
Words are characterized by a variety of lexical and psychological properties, such as their part of speech, word-frequency, concreteness, or affectivity. In this study, we examine how these properties relate to a word's connectivity in the mental lexicon, the structure containing a person's knowledge of words. In particular, we examine the extent t...
Article
Full-text available
Whether it pertains to the foods to buy when one is on a diet, the items to take along to the beach on one's day off or (perish the thought) the belongings to save from one's burning house, choice is ubiquitous. We aim to determine from choices the criteria individuals use when they select objects from among a set of candidates. In order to do so w...
Data
Whether it pertains to the foods to buy when one is on a diet, the items to take along to the beach on one's day off or (perish the thought) the belongings to save from one's burning house, choice is ubiquitous. We aim to determine from choices the criteria individuals use when they select objects from among a set of candidates. In order to do so w...
Article
The gold standard among proximity data collection methods for multidimensional scaling is the (dis)similarity rating of pairwise presented stimuli. A drawback of the pairwise method is its lengthy duration, which may cause participants to change their strategy over time, become fatigued, or disengage altogether. Hout, Goldinger, and Ferguson (2013)...
Article
Full-text available
The present research examines the nature of the different processes that have been proposed to underlie semantic priming. Specifically, it has been argued that priming arises as a result of automatic target activation and/or the use of strategies like prospective expectancy generation and retrospective semantic matching. This article investigates t...
Article
This study aims to assess the reliability and the validity of exemplar similarity derived from category fluency tasks. A homogeneous sample of 21 healthy participants completed a category fluency task twice with an interval of one week. They also rated pairs comprised of the most frequently generated exemplars in terms of similarity. Similarities w...
Article
Full-text available
Usage patterns for common nouns continue to change well past the early years of language acquisition in free naming (Andersen, 1975; Ameel, Malt, & Storms, 2008). The current research evaluates whether this continued evolution is shown in receptive judgments as well, given their differing cognitive demands. We found an extended learning trajectory...
Article
Full-text available
The present research investigates semantic priming with an adapted version of the word fragment completion task. In this task, which we refer to as the speeded word fragment completion task, participants need to complete words such as lett_ce (lettuce), from which one letter was omitted, as quickly as possible. This paradigm has some interesting qu...
Article
This paper looks at a hitherto unexplored aspect of taxonomically organized concepts which has to do with word distributions in corpora of actual language use. In parallel to the psychological informativeness claim of the differentiation explanation, the question is addressed if concepts are internally more similar than their higher-ranked taxonomi...
Article
Full-text available
Word processing studies increasingly make use of regression analyses based on large numbers of stimuli (the so-called megastudy approach) rather than experimental designs based on small factorial designs. This requires the availability of word features for many words. Following similar studies in English, we present and validate ratings of age of a...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the influence of a button response task on the event-related potential (ERP) in a semantic priming experiment. Of particular interest is the N400 component. In many semantic priming studies, subjects are asked to respond to a stimulus as fast and accurately as possible by pressing a button. Response time (RT) is recorded in para...
Article
One of the most significant recent advances in the study of semantic processing is the advent of models based on text and other corpora. In this study, we address what impact both the quantitative and qualitative properties of corpora have on mental representations derived from them. More precisely, we evaluate models with different linguistic and...
Article
Full-text available
In long-term memory research, Tulving (1972) introduced a distinction between episodic memory and semantic memory that was very productive. In Tulving's conception, episodic memory refers to memories for events we experienced ourselves. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014. All rights are reserved.
Article
When asked to indicate which items from a set of candidates belong to a particular natural language category inter-individual differences occur: Individuals disagree which items should be considered category members. The premise of this paper is that these inter-individual differences in semantic categorization reflect both ambiguity and vagueness....
Data
A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect o...
Data
Membership in many natural categories is considered all-or-none, while membership in most artifact categories is found to be graded. We introduce an alternative for the prevailing view that this domain difference in categorization results from representational differences. The context variety account posits that an item’s gradedness reflects the va...
Data
Abstract categories present with graded structure. The extent to which feature commonality between exemplars and category provides a satisfying account of this graded structure varies from one abstract category to the other (Hampton, 1981). We investigate whether the incorporation of features that exemplars share with external categories yields an...
Data
According to the Threshold Theory (Hampton, 1995, 2007) semantic categorization decisions come about through the placement of a threshold criterion along a dimension that represents items' similarity to the category representation. The adequacy of this theory is assessed by applying a formalization of the theory, known as the Rasch model (Rasch, 19...