Gert Kema

Gert Kema
Wageningen University & Research | WUR · Laboratory of Phytopathology

PhD

About

436
Publications
71,633
Reads
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10,995
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • Professor of Tropical Phytopathology

Publications

Publications (436)
Article
Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Zymoseptoria tritici is the primary biotic stress for durum wheat production in Tunisia. The present study was aimed to decipher the genetic diversity and population structure of Z. tritici bread wheat isolates; in the northern regions of Tunisia this pathogen infected exclusively bread wheat. A total of 162...
Preprint
Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Zymoseptoria tritici is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat causing significant yield losses worldwide. In this study, a panel of bread wheat genotypes comprised 185 globally diverse genotypes were tested against 10 Z. tritici isolates at the seedling stage. Genome-wide association study (GWAS)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Z. tritici), is an important biotic threat to durum wheat in the entire Mediterranean Basin. Although most durum wheat cultivars are susceptible to Z. tritici, research in STB resistance in durum wheat has been limited. Results In our study, we have identified resistance to...
Article
Full-text available
Recent publications have argued that there are potentially serious consequences for researchers in recognising distinct genera in the terminal fusarioid clade of the family Nectriaceae. Thus, an alternate hypothesis, namely a very broad concept of the genus Fusarium was proposed. In doing so, however, a significant body of data that supports distin...
Article
Full-text available
The front cover image is based on the Research Article A world-wide analysis of reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicides in the banana pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis by Pablo Chong et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.6372.
Preprint
Full-text available
Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Zymoseptoria tritici is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat that can lead to significant yield losses worldwide. In this study, we analyzed STB resistance pattern of 185 diverse bread wheat genotypes at the seedling stage in order to confirm known resistance genes or identifying novel putative...
Article
Full-text available
Breeding of banana is hampered by its genetic complexity, structural chromosome rearrangements and different ploidy levels. Various scientific disciplines, including cytogenetics, linkage mapping, and bioinformatics, are helpful tools in characterising cultivars and wild relatives used in crossing programs. Chromosome analysis still plays a pivotal...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal agent of the black leaf streak disease (BLSD) of banana. They are important global export commodities and a major staple food. Their susceptibility to BLSD pushes disease management to excessive fungicide use, largely relying on multisite inhibitors and sterol demethylation‐inhibitors (DMI). These...
Article
Full-text available
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causes Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa AAA ). Foc Race 1 devastated the subgroup Gros Michel during the first half of the twentieth century. The Gros Michel was largely replaced by the resistant subgroup Cavendish in the 1950s. However, in the 1980s, Foc Tropical Race 4 started to spread affecting Cavendish ban...
Article
Full-text available
The poverty of disease resistance gene reservoirs limits the breeding of crops for durable resistance against evolutionary dynamic pathogens. Zymoseptoria tritici which causes Septoria tritici blotch (STB), represents one of the most genetically diverse and devastating wheat pathogens worldwide. No fully virulent Z. tritici isolates against synthet...
Article
Full-text available
This Research Topic contains a selection of papers dealing with Fusarium wilt of banana (FWB), also known as Panama disease, that investigate (i) the epidemiology, distribution, infection biology, and diversity of the pathogen, (ii) management practices, and (iii) ways to identify and screen for resistance. The Research Topic arose from the increas...
Article
Full-text available
Banana is an important fruit and food crop, but is threatened by Fusarium wilt, one of the most devastating soil-borne fungal diseases. Only host resistance facilitates banana cultivation in infested soils around the world, but the genetic basis of Fusarium wilt of banana (FWB) is unknown. We selfed a heterozygous wild banana accession Musa acumina...
Article
Full-text available
Zymoseptoria tritici is one of the most economically destructive wheat diseases all over the world and is a model fungal plant pathogen within the ascomycetes. In this study, the instrumental role of the ZtRlm1 gene encoding a MADS-box transcription factor (TF) in the infection process of Z. tritici was functionally characterized as these proteins...
Article
Full-text available
Zymoseptoria tritici is one of the most economically destructive wheat diseases all over the world and is a model fungal plant pathogen within the ascomycetes. In this study, the instrumental role of the ZtRlm1 gene encoding a MADS-box transcription factor (TF) in the infection process of Z. tritici was functionally characterized as these proteins...
Article
Full-text available
Fusarium species are well known for their abundance, diversity and cosmopolitan life style. Many members of the genus Fusarium are associated with plant hosts, either as plant pathogens, secondary invaders, saprotrophs, and/or endophytes. We previously studied the diversity of Fusarium species in the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) associ...
Article
Full-text available
Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides are widely used for the control of a broad range of fungal diseases. This has been the most rapidly expanding fungicide group in terms of new molecules discovered and introduced for agricultural use over the past fifteen years. A particular pattern of differential sensitivity (resistance) to the s...
Article
Full-text available
The haploid fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis causes black Sigatoka in banana and is chiefly controlled by extensive fungicide applications, threatening occupational health and the environment. The 14α-Demethylase Inhibitors (DMIs) are important disease control fungicides, but they lose sensitivity in a rather gradual fashion, suggesting an underly...
Article
Fusarium wilt of bananas, commonly called Panama disease, is caused by a suite of Fusarium species. Fusarium odoratissimum (previously known as Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) comprises tropical race 4 (TR4) (Maryani et al. 2019), which is highly aggressive on Cavendish bananas as well as many other banana varieties (Ploetz 2015). Since the 1990s...
Article
The socio‐economic impact of Fusarium odoratissimum, which is colloquially called tropical race 4 (TR4) is escalating as this fungal pathogen spreads to new banana‐growing areas. Hence, the development of simple, reliable and rapid detection technologies is indispensable for implementing quarantine measures. Here, we develop a versatile Loop‐Mediat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Transposable elements (TEs) can be key drivers of evolution, but the mechanisms and scope of how they impact gene and genome function are largely unknown. Previous analyses revealed that TE-mediated gene amplifications can have variable effects on fungal genomes, from inactivation of function to production of multiple active copies. Fo...
Article
Full-text available
Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) belongs to a group of soil-borne hyphomycetes that are taxonomically collated in the Fusarium oxysporum Species Complex (FOSC). Hitherto, those infecting bananas were placed in the forma specialis cubense (Foc). Recently, however, these genetically different Foc lineages were recognized as new Fusarium spp. placed in the Fus...
Preprint
Full-text available
Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides are widely used for the control of a broad range of fungal diseases. This has been the most rapidly expanding fungicide group in terms of new molecules discovered and introduced for agricultural use over the past fifteen years. A particular pattern of differential sensitivity (resistance) to a sub...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Transposable elements (TEs) can be key drivers of evolution, but the mechanisms and scope of how they impact gene and genome function are largely unknown. Previous analyses revealed that TE-mediated gene amplifications can have variable effects on fungal genomes, from inactivation of function to production of multiple active copies. For...
Article
Full-text available
Meiosis is a key cellular process of sexual reproduction involving the pairing of homologous sequences. In many species however, meiosis can also involve the segregation of supernumerary chromosomes, which can lack a homolog. How these unpaired chromosomes undergo meiosis is largely unknown. In this study we investigated chromosome segregation duri...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch (STB) disease of wheat. Z. tritici is an apoplastic fungal pathogen, which does not penetrate plant cells at any stage of infection, and has a long initial period of symptomless leaf colonisation. During this phase it is unclear to what extent the fungus can access host pl...
Article
Full-text available
The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Focub) causes Fusarium wilt of banana. Focub strains are divided into races according to their host specificity, but which virulence factors underlie these interactions is currently unknown. In the F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol)-tomato system, small secreted fungal proteins, called Six proteins, we...
Data
List of primers being used in this study. (DOCX)
Data
PCR control of FocubΔSIX1a and FocubΔSIX1a::SIX1a. In the FocubΔSIX1a strain (KO), the SIX1a ORF has been replaced by a hygromycin resistance cassette. The FocubΔSIX1a::SIX1a strains (C1-7) have regained the gene by transformation. The upper panel shows the presence of the hygromycin resistance cassette both in the knock-out mutant and in the ectop...
Data
Disease scoring system for external and internal symptoms in banana bioassay. (PDF)
Data
Phenotypic visualization of internal symptoms in the FocubΔSIX1a and SIX1a transformants of FocubΔSIX1a. (PDF)
Data
Sequences used in this study. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Focub) causes Fusarium wilt of banana. Focub strains are divided into races according to their host specificity, but which virulence factors underlie these interactions is currently unknown. In the F. oxysporum f.sp. lycoper-sici (Fol)-tomato system, small secreted fungal proteins, called Six proteins, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Meiosis is a key cellular process of sexual reproduction involving the pairing of homologous sequences. In many species however, meiosis can also involve the segregation of supernumerary chromosomes, which can lack a homolog. How these unpaired chromosomes undergo meiosis is largely unknown. In this study we investigated chromosome segregation duri...
Article
Full-text available
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt or Panama disease on banana, is one of the major constraints in banana production worldwide. Indonesia is the centre of origin for wild and cultivated bananas, which likely co-evolved with Foc. This study explored the widest possible genetic diversity of Foc by sampling acro...
Data
Graphical representation of the distribution of 251 high quality SNPs over the genomes of the GMS Foc TR4 strains.
Data
Principal component analysis plot based on 161 filtered high quality SNPs of Foc TR4 isolates from Yunnan, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Philippines.
Data
Distribution of 251 high quality SNPs over the genomes of the GMS Foc TR4 strains.
Data
UPGMA tree based on 161 high quality SNPs over the genomes of the GMS Foc TR4 strains.
Article
Full-text available
Banana is the most popular and most exported fruit and also a major food crop for millions of people around the world. Despite its importance and the presence of serious disease threats, research into this crop is limited. One of those is Panama disease or Fusarium wilt. In the previous century Fusarium wilt wiped out the “Gros Michel” based banana...
Article
We report the Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) of P. fijiensis. Because the in vitro production of P. fijiensis conidia is challenging (Churchill, 2011; Cruz-Martín et al., 2011.; Donzelli and Churchill, 2007), our approach involves mycelium for ATMT and this resulted in the production of several transformed P. fijiensis str...
Article
Full-text available
Host resistance and fungicide treatments are cornerstones of plant-disease control. Here, we show that these treatments allow sex and modulate parenthood in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We demonstrate that the Z. tritici-wheat interaction complies with the gene-for-gene model by identifying the effector AvrStb6, which is recogniz...
Article
Full-text available
Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no acceptable resistant replacement has been identifie...
Article
Full-text available
The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors (DMIs). The continued use of DMIs puts a considerable se...
Article
Full-text available
The ascomycete Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria leaf blotch on wheat. Disease control relies mainly on resistant wheat cultivars and on fungicide applications. The fungus displays a high potential to circumvent both methods. Resistance against all unisite fungicides has been observed over decades. A different type of resistance...
Article
The dimorphic fungal pathogen, Zymoseptoria tritici undergoes discrete developmental changes to complete its life cycle on wheat. Molecular mechanisms underlying morphogenesis during infection process of Z. tritici are poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the role of ZtVf1 gene encoding a transcription factor belonging to C2-H2 su...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ascomycete Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of septoria leaf blotch on wheat. Disease control relies mainly on resistant wheat cultivars and on fungicide applications. The fungus displays a high potential to circumvent both methods. Resistance against all unisite fungicides has been observed over decades. A different type of resistance...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in genetic and molecular technologies gradually paved the way for the transition from traditional fungal karyotyping to more comprehensive chromosome biology studies. Extensive chromosomal polymorphisms largely resulting from chromosomal rearrangements (CRs) are widely documented in fungal genomes. These extraordinary CRs in fungi g...
Article
Full-text available
Zymoseptoria tritici, the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB) is an important wheat pathogen responsible for high yield losses worldwide. The assessment of the distribution of both mating type idiomorphs was studied in several wheat growing areas in North Algeria. Both mating types occurred at all spatial scales tested and showed an equal...
Conference Paper
Global aquaculture production continues to increase, whilst capture fisheries stagnate (FAO et al. 2014). Many wild fisheries have been overexploited and cultivation, if managed sustainably, is a viable alternative. The seaweed industry is undergoing a rapid global expansion and currently accounts for ~27% of the total global aquaculture production...
Conference Paper
Global aquaculture production continues to increase, whilst capture fisheries stagnate (FAO et al. 2014). Many wild fisheries have been overexploited and cultivation, if managed sustainably, is a viable alternative. The seaweed industry is undergoing a rapid global expansion and currently accounts for ~27% of the total global aquaculture production...
Conference Paper
Global aquaculture production continues to increase, whilst capture fisheries stagnate (FAO et al. 2014). Many wild fisheries have been overexploited and cultivation, if managed sustainably, is a viable alternative. The seaweed industry is undergoing a rapid global expansion and currently accounts for ~27% of the total global aquaculture production...