Gert Martin Hald

Gert Martin Hald
University of Copenhagen · Department of Public Health

Ph.D

About

78
Publications
142,473
Reads
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2,533
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2009 - present
University of Copenhagen
Position
  • Head of Section (Environmental Health), Associate Professor

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Full-text available
Sensory impairment is common in older age and may be associated with intra- and interpersonal struggles. Treatment and intervention efforts may be hampered by functional difficulties or unwillingness to receive face-to-face mental health services. The current study seeks to assess the efficacy of an online psychological intervention for older adult...
Article
Introduction: This study investigated whether the Big Five personality dimensions were associated with mental health trajectories and/or intervention effects of a digital divorce intervention from juridical divorce to 12 months following juridical divorce. The study utilized a randomized controlled trial study design (N = 676) and measured mental...
Article
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Solitary sexual activity is a free, safe, and accessible way to experience sexual pleasure. Despite these advantages, research on masturbation in later life is highly understudied. Using data from a cross-sectional probability-based survey of 3,816 European adults (mean age 67 years; range 60-75 years), we explored several sociodemographic, health,...
Article
Divorce conflict is the main driver of adverse postdivorce health adjustments among divorcing families. Despite the growing potential of online divorce support programs, there is concern that such solutions might not be sufficient to impact health‐related disparities among high‐conflict divorcees. The present study examined the effectiveness of the...
Article
Divorce interventions have been found effective in reducing negative outcomes for newly divorced people, including depression and hostility. Typically, divorce interventions cover a variety of issues that may influence people’s level of depression and hostility. However, it is unclear whether the interventions differentially affect the outcomes. Th...
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Introduction: Appearance dissatisfaction is a sensitive issue and has been tied to depression, dissatisfaction in romantic relationships, and reduced sexual satisfaction. Aim: This study sought to examine associations between appearance satisfaction and specific sexual problems and related distress, testing also the moderating role of relationsh...
Article
Research into gender and postdivorce mental and physical health has been highly inconsistent. The Gender Similarities Hypothesis suggests there are more similarities than differences and the Divorce Stress Adjustment Perspective suggests that structural inequalities may contribute to adverse postdivorce outcomes. We conducted secondary analyses fro...
Article
This national web-population study from Norway (N = 4,148) assessed 1) the prevalence of BDSM and role-play interests and behaviors, 2) the socio-demographic characteristics of the BDSM-oriented participants, and 3) the associations between a) BDSM and b) role-play interests and behaviors, and sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and rel...
Article
Objectives: The study explored characteristics associated with the self-assessed effects of pornography use on one’s personal sex life. Methods: Data were collected in a probability-based sample of Norwegian adults (n = 4,160). Results: Most participants (41.3%) did not believe that pornography affected their sex life. More participants reported po...
Article
This study compared recently divorced Dane’s perceived stress scores with normative data of both (1) general and (2) divorced/separated populations, and investigated the predictive power of sociodemographic- and divorce-related variables on perceived stress. A total of 1,856 divorcees responded to the Perceived Stress Scale and related variables. R...
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The last decades of research have consistently found strong associations between divorce and adverse health outcomes among adults. However, limitations of a majority of this research include (a) lack of “real-time” research, i.e., research employing data collected very shortly after juridical divorce where little or no separation periods have been...
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There has been little comparative, cross-cultural research on sexual difficulties and associated distress, and factors associated with these, among older women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate prevalence rates of sexual difficulties, distress related to these difficulties, and associated socio-demographic, relational, and health...
Article
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Even though sexual activity frequently takes place with another person, research rarely focuses on how partners influence each other’s sexual lives. This study used the sexual dyad to compare the concept of actual versus perceived discrepancy in sexual interest and explored how each is related to older partnered individuals’ sexual satisfaction. Fu...
Article
Background: Two decades of divorce research has consistently documented adverse mental and physical health effects of divorce. Responding to calls for evidence-based online divorce interventions, this study tests effects of the "Cooperation after Divorce" (CAD) digital intervention platform on divorcees' mental and physical health. Methods: Rand...
Article
High levels of hostility often occur during and postdivorce and may significantly affect the quality of life, parent–child relationships, and social functioning of divorcees. Moreover, hostility may predict aggressive and violent behavior. This study sought to (a) compare average general hostility levels of a large sample of Danish divorcees to the...
Article
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Sexual well-being is an important part of life for many people aged 60 and older. However, older adults often face barriers to seeking and receiving help for sexual difficulties. This study used data from a probability survey (n=3820) on sexuality and ageing to examine help-seeking in 60-75 year-olds in Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal. More...
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Body image issues can affect all domains of sexual functioning. The aim of this study was to examine how, in a sociocultural context where physical and sexual attractiveness is equated with young and slim body ideals, appearance dissatisfaction and importance are related to sexual satisfaction in older adults in four European countries. A cross-sec...
Article
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The ways in which the discrepancy between one’s own interest in sex and that of one’s partner may affect personal sexual satisfaction has rarely been systematically studied, especially among older adults. Previous research among younger adults indicates that a discrepancy in sexual desire can be detrimental in terms of several relationship outcomes...
Article
Background: In divorce research, studies using large samples, very recently divorced individuals and validated measures of depression and anxiety with available background populations for comparison are missing. Aims: This study aimed to investigate symptoms of depression and anxiety among recently divorced Danes and assess the explanatory power of...
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Aim: What is the prevalence of using lubricants and medication to enhance erectile function among older adults, and what predicts such use? Methods: Survey data were collected in probability samples among 60–75 year olds in Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal. Results: In men, the use of medication was highest in Norway (26%) and lowest in Portu...
Article
Traditionally, the concept of burnout has been applied to the workspace but recent research suggests its applicability to more general contexts such as the family sphere. The present study applies burnout to the divorce context and a) propose and statistically tests the Divorce Burnout Model (DBM), b) investigates the contribution of sociodemograph...
Article
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Divorce has long been considered one of the most pervading stressful life events and has consistently been associated with high stress levels and subsequent poorer mental- and physical health. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Cooperation after Divorce (CAD) online intervention on perceived stress immediately following divorce. The stud...
Article
Divorce is associated with a range of negative psychological consequences, including increased symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization. The current study presents the results of a 1-year longitudinal randomized controlled trial study of the Cooperation After Divorce online intervention platform for adults going through a divorce. Particip...
Article
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Objectives Given the paucity of studies focusing on testosterone (T) and adolescent sexuality, and their conflicting findings, we aimed to empirically address two competing conceptualizations of the link between T and sexual behavior in adolescence: (1) the T as sexual motivator and (2) the T as competition-sensitive sexual motivator models. Metho...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of extradyadic activity in older adults in four European countries and investigate factors associated with extradyadic sex. Postal questionnaire data were collected in probability samples among populations aged 60–75 years in Norway (N = 1271), Denmark (N = 1045), Belgium (N = 991), and Portuga...
Article
A total of 2,371 Danish residents participating in the Cooperation After Divorce RCT study indicated the motives for their divorce. The most frequently given motives were lack of love/intimacy, communication problems, lack of sympathy/respect/trust, and growing apart. The least reported motives were violence, addiction, accident or illness, and per...
Article
There is a lack of validated short screening instruments specifically addressing conflict and cooperation post-relationship/marital dissolution. Accordingly, this study aims to validate the newly developed Divorce Conflict Scale and evaluate divorce conflict levels in relation to sociodemographic and divorce-related variables. Two samples of recent...
Article
Background: Among older men, comparable cross-cultural investigations of sexual problems and associated distress that also include a multitude of relevant explanatory variables of these sexual problem and related distress are rare in the research literature. Aims: To investigate prevalence rates of sexual problems and associated distress among o...
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The aim of this article was to describe partnered and non-partnered sexual activity and sexual satisfaction in older men and women from Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal, and to explore sociodemographic correlates of sexual activity and satisfaction. Data were collected in 2016 using postal, anonymous questionnaires in probability samples of t...
Article
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The Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES) is a 47-item measure of self-perceived effects of pornography use. While the PCES is frequently used in the pornography research literature, its length may limit its applicability in some research situations. This study investigated if a short-form version of the PCES could be created for use with he...
Article
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Background: Although sex aids have been used in clinical practice for ages, the scientific literature assessing their application in men with sexual dysfunction is limited. Aim: To summarize medical literature regarding scientific uses of the most common sex aids in men with sexual dysfunction and assess their clinical applicability. Methods:...
Article
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The aim of the study was to explore attitudes towards sexuality and sexual behaviour in older adults in Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal. A cross-sectional survey with representative samples of the population aged 60–75 years recruited through phone registers in Norway (676 men and 594 women), Denmark (530 men and 515 women), Belgium (318 men...
Article
What is the prevalence of using the Internet for love and sexual activities among older adults across Europe, and what predicts such use? Data were collected in probability samples among populations aged 60-75 years in Norway (N = 1271), Denmark (N = 1045), Belgium (N = 991), and Portugal (N = 509) using postal questionnaires. A total of 36% of men...
Article
Introduction: Despite the popularity and analytical relevance of the concept of successful aging, little efforts have been made to address its relationship to sexuality in older individuals. Aim: To explore the relationship between successful aging and the (retrospectively assessed) change in sexual interest and enjoyment in the past 10 years, u...
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Introduction: Active prostate cancer treatment is often associated with significant adverse physiological and psychological effects including significant sexual problems. Most studied among these sexual problems is erectile dysfunction while related sexual bothers such as overall sexual function and satisfaction with one's sex life are much less s...
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Aim: To test a conceptual model of retrospectively-assessed change in sexual interest and sexual enjoyment in the past 10 years among coupled older adults in Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal. To determine the degree to which structural influences, personal characteristics, and interpersonal factors predict the dynamics of sexual interest and...
Article
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To investigate factors that predict partnered sexual activity in men and women aged 60–75 years from Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal. A cross-sectional study including national representative samples of people aged 60–75 years from Norway (676 men, 594 women), Denmark (530 men, 515 women), Belgium (318 men, 672 women), and Portugal (236 men,...
Article
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Introduction: Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. Aims: (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal...
Article
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Pornography has been identified as playing an increasingly important role in the sexual socialization of men. However, relatively little attention has been paid to men’s perceptions of their own pornography consumption. This study investigated self-perceived effects of pornography consumption among an online sample of heterosexual men (N = 312). Th...
Article
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Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...
Article
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Aim: The aim of the current paper was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: We conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in PsycINFO. Results: The review showed that while common biological changes may...
Article
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Aim: the aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the literature published 2005–2015 on sexual satisfaction and body image in older adults. Method: A narrative literature search using the PsycINFO database was conducted. Results: Although women in general seem less satisfied with their bodies than men, particularly in sexual contexts, older wo...
Article
Using a cross-sectional questionnaire design and a sample of 2284 coupled Croatian adults, this study investigated the association between Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) use and relationship satisfaction. Further, possible moderation of emotional intimacy on the relationship between SEM use and relationship satisfaction was investigated. Controlling...
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Introduction: Studies of mortality and somatic well-being after sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) of transsexual individuals are equivocal. Accordingly, the present study investigated mortality and somatic morbidity using a sample of transsexual individuals who comprised 98% (n = 104) of all surgically reassigned transsexual individuals in Denmark. Ai...
Article
The following is a review of pornography consumption patterns and effects of pornography on attitudes, cognitions, and behaviors. The review shows that pornography is widely circulated and used; predominately nonviolent pornography is used; main media outlets for consumption are the Internet, videos/DVDs, television, and magazines; and most often p...
Article
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Background: There is a lack of long-term register-based follow-up studies of sex-reassigned individuals concerning mortality and psychiatric morbidity. Accordingly, the present study investigated both mortality and psychiatric morbidity using a sample of individuals with transsexualism which comprised 98% (n = 104) of all individuals in Denmark....
Article
Previous research on exposure to different types of pornography has primarily relied on analyses of millions of search terms and histories or on user exposure patterns within a given time period rather than the self-reported frequency of consumption. Further, previous research has almost exclusively relied on theoretical or ad hoc overarching categ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Norway, with a particular emphasis on a possible relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants included 529 MSM living in Norway recruited online to complete a SEM co...
Article
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Using a self-selected online sample of 448 Norwegian men who have sex with men (MSM) and a cross-sectional design, the present study investigated first-person effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption on sexual knowledge, enjoyment of and interest in sex, attitudes towards sex and understanding of one’s sexual orientation. First-person e...
Article
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Introduction: Male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) individuals with transsexualism (International Classification of Diseases-10) may differ in core clinical and sociodemographic variables such as age, sexual orientation, marriage and parenthood, school, educational level, and employment. Assessing and understanding the implication of such...
Conference Paper
Background: How does what we see influence what we do? This study sought to study consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) by men who have sex with men (MSM); and to investigate a hypothesized relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Methods: Participants were 1391 MSM living in the US recruited on...
Article
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The aim of this study was to explore the association between the consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting condom and non-condom use and HIV/STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Norway. We also explored whether the association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated...
Article
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Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lowe...
Article
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This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-e...
Article
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Self-perceived effects of pornography consumption were studied in a sample of university students in Indonesia—a conservative, Muslim majority country with strict anti-pornography laws. Using a cross-sectional design and a modified version of the Pornography Consumption Effect Scale (PCES), we assessed participants' reports of how pornography affec...
Data
Full-text available
Using a probability-based sample of young Danish adults and a randomized experimental design, this study investigated effects of past pornography consumption, experimental exposure to nonviolent pornography, perceived realism of pornography, and personality (i.e., agreeableness) on sexist attitudes (i.e., attitudes toward women, hostile and benevol...
Article
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Using a sample of Indonesian university students and a cross sectional design, this study investigated prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption in Indonesia, a religious, sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws. Further, the association between pornography consumption and common non-marital se...
Article
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Introduction Concerns have been voiced that the use of sexually explicit materials (SEMs) may adversely affect sexual behaviors, particularly in young people. Previous studies have generally found significant associations between SEM consumption and the sexual behaviors investigated. However, most of these studies have focused on sexual behaviors r...
Data
Introduction. Concerns have been voiced that the use of sexually explicit materials (SEMs) may adversely affect sexual behaviors, particularly in young people. Previous studies have generally found significant associations between SEM consumption and the sexual behaviors investigated. However, most of these studies have focused on sexual behaviors...
Article
Full-text available
This study sought to study consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) by men who have sex with men (MSM); and to investigate a hypothesized relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants were 1,391 MSM living in the US, recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Almos...
Article
Full-text available
Using a probability-based sample of young Danish adults and a randomized experimental design, this study investigated effects of past pornography consumption, experimental exposure to nonviolent pornography, perceived realism of pornography, and personality (i.e., agreeableness) on sexist attitudes (i.e., attitudes toward women, hostile and benevol...
Article
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Introduction: Researchers have proposed that consumption of Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) may not only adversely influence sexual attitudes and behaviors of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) but (also) play a positive role in the development and sexual education of MSM, be a major source of sexual information for MSM, and provide validation, underst...
Article
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Based on the Confluence Model of Sexual Aggression, we hypothesized that individual differences in risk for sexual aggression moderate the association between pornography use and attitudes supporting violence against women. This hypothesis was in keeping with the findings of a recent meta-analysis which indicated such a positive association between...
Article
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Effects of pornography consumption remains a hotly debated issue. The views range from the embracement of pornography as a tool to enhance the joys of sexuality to the conviction that porno­ graphy can reduce sexual satisfaction and lead to attitudes supporting violence or sexual aggression. This brief report re­ views the scientific literature con...
Article
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This study investigated the primary conclusion from Clark and Hatfield's often cited field experiment “Consent to Sex with a