Gerrut Norval

Gerrut Norval
Flinders University · College of Science and Engineering

Doctor of Philosophy

About

141
Publications
26,704
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453
Citations
Introduction
From a very young age I have been interested in animals. Since 2000 I have been involved in research on reptiles, and I have been an Associate Researcher of the Applied Behavioural Ecology and Ecosystem Research Unit, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, since 2004. I have broad research interests in the natural history of lizards and snakes, and their parasites. Currently I am living in Adelaide, where I am working as a casual academic and research assistant.
Additional affiliations
March 2017 - March 2022
Flinders University
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (141)
Article
The kangaroo soft tick (Ornithodoros gurneyi) inhabits xeric habitats of Australia and, as a result, little is known about the natural hosts of the different instar stages of this tick. Large macropods are inferred as the kangaroo soft tick's principal hosts since all life stages inhabit the loose soil of kangaroo wallows. These ticks have been rep...
Article
The snake mite, Ophionyssus natricis (Acari: Macronyssidae) is an ectoparasite of veterinary significance because infestations can cause abnormal shedding and anaemia in its hosts. The snake mite has also been implicated in the transmission of pathogens. In this study, 59 sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) were caught at a study site in the vicinity o...
Article
Parasites in wildlife tend to be poorly studied in spite of the ecological roles they play, and even basic information such as the geographic distribution of the parasites and the hosts they infect or infest are not well known. For parasites that live within the host, part of the reason for this lack of information is that the hosts must be killed...
Article
The kangaroo soft tick, Ornithodoros gurneyi Warburton, 1926, is a poorly studied argasid of the more arid regions of Australia. Anecdotal accounts have stated that this tick species will bite humans, and yet bites have not been described. Herein we report on an instance of parasitism by a nymph of O. gurneyi on a human, and we provide a summary of...
Article
All ticks are haematophagous, and many exhibit some level of host specificity as adults, usually parasitizing only certain types of hosts. Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri are generally accepted to be ectoparasites of reptiles. Herein, three instances of parasitism on humans by these ticks are reported. The observations confirm that...
Article
The snake mite, Ophionyssus natricis (Acari: Macronyssidae), occurs in many parts of the world and is of animal and human health significance. In Australia Op. natricis is considered an introduced species in parts of coastal eastern and southern Australia and is thought to be absent in the wild. Herein we report on the occurrence of Op. natricis in...
Article
Predation is a dynamic process that is directly influenced by resource availability (e.g. prey types), and the health and welfare conditions of the predator (e.g. body condition, health status). When these conditions are altered, predators may need to adapt new modes of predation for survival. On 26 October 2019, a mid‐day attempted predation event...
Article
In an effort to better understand the dynamics of the parapatric boundary in South Australia of the ticks Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri the late Professor C. Michael Bull initiated studies into the ecology of sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa), a common host of these parasites. These studies spanned a period of about 40 years and exa...
Article
Full-text available
Reproductive cycle studies are essential because the reproductive biology of a species is a crucial aspect of its natural history. In lizards, stored lipids often provide the energy required for reproduction, and the liver usually plays a vital part in lipid metabolism and storage, so the examinations of the lipid and liver cycles are often importa...
Article
Parasitism is a very common life strategy and although it results in harm to the host, it plays a vital ecological role in host population and community dynamics. The sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa, is one of the best studied lizard species in Australia, to a large extent due to studies involving ticks that infest these lizards. In spite of this, li...
Article
Full-text available
Ectoparasites, such as ticks, may exhibit preferences for particular attachment sites on various hosts, since the choice of attachment sites may affect tick survival. Herein we report an instance of a mangrove snake, Boiga dendrophila dendrophila, being parasitized by the tick Amblyomma helvolum, with comments on this tick’s attachment sites. Our c...
Article
An Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus Schlegel, 1836) was collected in a forested area near the town of Thakhek, Laos. Inspection of the lizard revealed that it had a subcutaneous lump on its abdomen, which was determined to be caused by a nymph of the pentastome Kiricephalus pattoni (Stephens, 1908). Although H. frenatus has been recorded as...
Poster
The brown anole (Anolis sagrei) is an exotic invasive species that was recorded for the first time in Taiwan during 2000 in Santzepu, southwestern Taiwan, and then subsequently also recorded during 2006 in Chisintang, eastern Taiwan. Despite the initial recording of A. sagrei being over 15 years ago, no descriptions about the characteristics of the...
Poster
Reproductive ecology studies are essential because it is a crucial aspect of the ecology of a species, which in turn is essential for successful conservation and management programs. To gain insight into the reproductive ecology of the exotic invasive lizard, the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), in Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County, southweste...
Article
Full-text available
Anolis sagrei Duméril & Bibron, 1837, of both genders, were collected from an agricultural area in Santzepu, Sheishan district, Chiayi County, southwestern Taiwan, during the period march 2002 to march 2003, as part of a reproductive cycle study. unpaired t-tests, or where the assumptions of the t-test were substantially violated, the Mann-Whitney...
Article
Full-text available
The brown anole, (Anolis sagrei) has become an invasive species in some parts of the Americas, as well as some localities in the Pacific region. In Taiwan, A. sagrei was recorded for the first time in 2000 in Santzepu, southwestern Taiwan, and was subsequently also recorded in Chisintang, eastern Taiwan, during 2006. For future monitoring and resea...
Article
Full-text available
Thirteen (male = 2; female = 10; juvenile = 1) Takydromus formosanus were collected on an ad hoc basis from an Areca catechu plantation in Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County, as part of a herpetofauna research in the area. The smallest reproductively active female had a snout-vent length (SVL) of 44 mm, and the smallest male with an enlarge...
Article
Full-text available
Two populations of the exotic invasive lizard, the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), exist in Taiwan. The localities (Chisintang, eastern Taiwan and Santzepu, southwestern Taiwan) of these two populations are ca. 125 km apart and are divided by the Central Mountain Range. Anolis sagrei specimens, which had been sampled from the Chisintang and Santzepu p...
Article
Full-text available
We examined specimens of Anolis sagrei, Eutropis longicaudata, Eutropis multifasciata, Japalura polygonata xanthostoma, Japalura swinhonis, Plestiodon elegans, and Sphenomorphus indicus that we collected opportunistically from Taiwan for endoparasites. We recorded parasites in 52 of the 91 lizards examined, and the infected individuals harbored one...
Article
Forty-five individuals of Polypedates megacephalus were collected from northern Taiwan for dietary analysis. The helminths from 10 infected sampled specimens included representatives of 1 species of Acanthocephala, Pseudoacanthocephalus bufonis, and 2 species of Nematoda, Cosmocerca ornata and Oswaldocruzia hoepplii. Polypedates megacephalus is a n...
Article
Full-text available
The stomach contents of 156 anuran specimens, of five species, from the families, Bufonidae, Dicroglossidae and Microhylidae, that had been accidentally collected by pitfall traps, were examined to contribute to the understanding of the diets of these anuran species. Three thousand four-hundred and six prey items, from 21 orders of 6 classes were r...
Article
Forty-four Kiricephalus pattoni (Stephens, 1908) nymphs were recorded as subcutaneous lumps in 2 lizard and 2 snake species, collected from the wild in southwestern Taiwan. The number of nymphs collected from under the epidermis of each animal ranged in the snakes from 1 to 22, whereas in lizards it ranged from 1 to 6. The lizard Plestiodon elegans...
Article
Full-text available
We collected and individually marked 210 male and 143 female Anolis sagrei from a small Betelnut Palm (Areca catecha, L) plantation in Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County, southwestern Taiwan, during the period mid-January through mid-December 2004. Of these 353 lizards, only 35 males and 17 females were recaptured and used to calculate mont...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Anolis sagrei is an exotic invasive lizard species in Taiwan, and are known to exist in two localities, which are ca.125 km apart and is divided by the Central Mountain Range. Both sexes are quite short-lived, and become sexually mature at a relatively small size. The reproductive cycle of A. sagrei in Taiwan is cyclic, but long, and allows these l...
Article
Microhyla fissipes and Microhyla heymonsi are common anurans in lowland plains to low montane regions in most parts of Taiwan. Five Microhyla fissipes and 7 Microhyla heymonsi from southwestern Taiwan were examined for helminths. A nematode, Cosmocerca ornata, was the only helminth species found. This report is the first record of this nematode spe...
Article
Eight Fejervarya limnocharis from southwestern Taiwan were examined for helminths. Two species of Nematoda, Cosmocerca ornata and Oswaldocruzia hoepplii, and 1 species of Acanthocephala, Pseudoacanthocephalus bufonis, were found. A survey of helminths infecting other populations of F. limnocharis indicates that this frog is infected by generalist h...
Article
Full-text available
The Kühne’s Grass Lizard (Takydromus kuehnei) is a poorly studied indigenous species in Taiwan. In this report additional information concerning reproduction is incorporated with our previous observations to provide a more comprehensive description of reproduction in T. kuehnei from southwestern Taiwan. Forty-eight (male = 18; female = 30) T. kuehn...
Article
Full-text available
The reproductive behaviour was observed at a pond in Fig Tree Pocket, Brisbane, Australia, from Oct. 2010 to Jan. 2011. In total, 769 individuals were marked in the field for observations pertaining to the daily activity patterns and reproductive cycle of this sp. Forty-one I. heterostida pairs were collected and kept in the laboratory for detailed...
Article
Full-text available
Japalura swinhonis is an endemic agamid lizard species in Taiwan, and its diet has been examined in northern Taiwan and Orchid Island. But since there may be temporal and spatial variations in the diet of a species there is a need for dietary descriptions of J. swinhonis from other parts of its range. Herein, the dietary items of 47 J. swinhonis fr...
Article
Full-text available
During two collection periods, of 13 and 15 months respectively, seven hundred and forty-three brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) were collected from Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County (23º25'51"N, 120º28'30"E). The lizards were measured and dissected to determine the reproductive cycle of this invasive species in Taiwan. The smallest female show...
Article
On 20 November 2008, a Hoopoe Upupa epops was observed pecking vigorously at a dead adult Guttural Toad Amietophrynus gutturalis on the lawn of an urban garden. Due to the fact that the animal’s blood had not yet coagulated and since rigor mortis had not yet set in, it was apparent that the toad had died probably very recently, probably possibly as...
Article
Composition of the helminth community of the brown anole, Anolis sagrei, an exotic invasive species in Taiwan, was studied to identify the emigration point of this lizard. A total of 5,757 helminths was found, of which 5,734 (99.6%) were the nematode Cyrtosomum penneri. Also found were the digenean Mesocoelium monas (21, 0.4%) and one each of the n...
Article
Full-text available
Thirteen clutches of eggs were obtained from Japalura swinhonis females collected from late March 2004 to early October 2010. The specimens had an average snout-vent length, tail length, and maternal post-oviposition body mass of 66.9 mm, 150.9 mm, and 7.67 g. The clutch sizes ranged from three to five eggs (mean = 4). A total of 52 eggs were obtai...
Article
Full-text available
Five hundred-and-two brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) were collected for stomach content analysis from an area surrounding a plant nursery (23º25'51"N, 120º28'30"E) in Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County, as part of an ongoing study on this invasive species. The stomachs of 240 lizards contained ants, which were isolated for identification to es...