Gerrit Cornelis van Kooten

Gerrit Cornelis van Kooten
University of Victoria | UVIC · Department of Economics

PhD

About

411
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (411)
Chapter
Full-text available
Because of the long-standing Canada-United States lumber trade dispute and the current pressure on the world's forests as a renewable energy source, much attention has been directed toward the modelling of international trade in wood products. Two types of trade models are described in this book: one is rooted in economic theory and mathematical pr...
Chapter
Because of the long-standing Canada-United States lumber trade dispute and the current pressure on the world's forests as a renewable energy source, much attention has been directed toward the modelling of international trade in wood products. Two types of trade models are described in this book: one is rooted in economic theory and mathematical pr...
Chapter
Because of the long-standing Canada-United States lumber trade dispute and the current pressure on the world's forests as a renewable energy source, much attention has been directed toward the modelling of international trade in wood products. Two types of trade models are described in this book: one is rooted in economic theory and mathematical pr...
Chapter
Because of the long-standing Canada-United States lumber trade dispute and the current pressure on the world's forests as a renewable energy source, much attention has been directed toward the modelling of international trade in wood products. Two types of trade models are described in this book: one is rooted in economic theory and mathematical pr...
Article
Nordhaus' DICE model is used to investigate the economics of planting trees on 900 million ha of lands that can be reforested or afforested, as proposed by a number of researchers. By looking at the most optimistic restoration case, a large terrestrial sink can reduce projected future temperatures by more than 30%, with accompanying smaller margina...
Article
In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using a hybrid renewable energy system with battery storage to power an electricity grid without extra investment in fast-responding, peak-load generation assets. When more renewable energy (RE) sources are integrated into a grid, declining wholesale market prices reduce the incentive to build new th...
Article
Full-text available
Projected climate change has stimulated increasing interest in the interactive effects between carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature on crop yields. Crop yields are anticipated to decline if Earth continues to warm but increase as CO2 concentration rises. These two factors tend to work in opposite directions, and the interactive effect is not yet cl...
Article
Mathematical programming models of farmers’ cropping decisions must first be calibrated before they can be used to examine agricultural producer responses to policy changes. In this paper, we compare three calibration approaches for disentangling the risk parameter from the parameters of the cost function: one assumes a logarithmic utility function...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon prices are used to induce forest managers to adopt longer rotation periods, leading to higher carbon sequestration in the ecosystem and storage in harvested wood products. However, national governments can choose whether or not to include emissions from natural disturbances in carbon accounting schemes. Using a stochastic dynamic programming...
Article
In Ethiopia, 95 % of total agricultural output comes from some 11 million smallholder farmers. A relatively significant proportion of the food grown in the country is stored at the household level by smallholder farm households, mainly for own consumption. Storage losses, generally perceived to be high, have significant implications for household f...
Article
We revisit the underlying economics of commodity storage and its relation to food security by first clarifying the standard model used to analyze the economic efficiency and distributional effects of commodity storage programs. We find that producers prefer stabilization, although their incomes are more variable, while consumers are indifferent. Ho...
Article
This paper examines the role of storage and trade on food security with respect to milled rice in India for the period 1966–2013. Data on food balances, prices, and population obtained from FAOSTAT allow for the observation of the status quo with storage and trade. Then, using a spatial equilibrium framework, the outcomes without storage or trade a...
Article
en Through a series of reforms, the European Union (EU) replaced most of its trade distorting price support programmes with safety net provisions and direct payments decoupled from production. This has resulted in greater market orientation and a situation in which farmers face increased price variability. Policy now emphasises the development of b...
Article
Mitigating climate change will require reduced use of fossil fuels to generate electricity. To do so while eschewing nuclear power, countries have turned to wind and solar energy. In this paper, load duration and screening curves are used to investigate the extent to which a jurisdiction should invest in intermittent (solar and wind) sources of ene...
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This study provides a comparative analysis of global agricultural policies aimed at drawing lessons for the future of the CAP. Against the background of the main trends in agricultural support as well as recent changes and new initiatives in global agricultural policies, an in depth analysis is made of selected instruments in five countries (Austra...
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Full-text available
Forest-dependent, rural communities often experience declining populations and economic prosperity because technological changes related to harvesting, transportation and processing of wood fiber have increased the capital investments required while reducing employment. How then can communities, where forest resources are the primary economic drive...
Article
In this study, the price of carbon is used to incentivize a reduction in the release of CO2 emissions and an increase in sequestration of CO2 through forestry activities. Forest managers essentially have two options for increasing carbon sequestration (i.e., creating carbon offset credits): (1) avoid or delay harvest of mature timber; or (2) harves...
Article
To analyze the production impacts of changes made in 2013 to Canada's AgriStability risk management program, we calibrate a crop allocation model using positive mathematical programming (PMP). Because PMP is not straightforward if farmers are assumed to maximize expected utility (as a risk parameter also needs to be calibrated), we consider possibl...
Article
This paper empirically analyzes adoption and fuel savings efficiency of improved biomass cookstove technology using survey data from a cross-section of 200 farm households from the highlands of Tigrai, northern Ethiopia. Results indicate that these farm households are willing to adopt improved biomass cookstove innovations if this leads to economic...
Article
en California was the first jurisdiction to mandate a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. This target was subsequently endorsed by the G8 in 2009 and the European Commission in 2014, and is the guiding principle of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To achieve these targets will require near elimination of fossil fu...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a spatial price equilibrium model developed to shed new light on the economic impact of restrictive trade sanctions adopted in the Canada-U.S. softwood lumber dispute. Mixed complementarity programming is used to solve a 21-region, global trade model that is calibrated to 2011 observed bilateral trade flows using positive mathematica...
Article
The process of monitoring and measuring the carbon fluxes associated with forestry is complex and costly, and the process is subject to asymmetric information, perverse incentives and inadequate institutions. The upshot is that any trade in forestry related carbon credits is likely to involve unwarranted acts of faith. This means that, since carbon...
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Full-text available
This paper explores the viability of relying on wind power to replace upwards of 60% of electricity generation in Alberta that would be lost if coal-fired generation is phased out. Using hourly wind data from 17 locations across Alberta, we are able to simulate the potential wind power output available to the Alberta grid when modern, 3.5 MW-capaci...
Data
Summary of Alberta Wind Data. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Annually, nearly 500 gigatonnes of CO2 are exchanged between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and this exchange is clearly affected by human activities related to the Earth's forests. Governments are therefore willing to draft legislation incentivizing forest activities that sequester carbon to combat climate change. In this review, we ex...
Article
Many countries have incentivized wind power projects to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels for generating electricity. As shown in this review, the benefits and costs of integrating electricity from an intermittent wind source into a preexisting electricity grid depend on the operating protocols of the electricity system, the preexisting generat...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose in this paper is to examine the effectiveness/usefulness of the long-term athlete development (LTAD) model, particularly in the coaching of judo. The major influences on the LTAD approach, including deliberate practice, are reviewed along with recent evidence that leads to questions about the usefulness of the LTAD model. While Judo Can...
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning, renewable energy policies incentivize use of forest biomass as an energy source. Many governments have assumed (legislated) the carbon flux from burning biomass to be neutral because biomass growth sequesters CO2. Yet, trees take decades to recover the CO2 released by burning, so assume...
Article
Full-text available
European governments are rapidly turning to biomass to comply with the EU's legislated renewable energy targets for 2020 and 2030. To do so, EU member states will likely have to increase imports of biomass from timber rich regions, which will undoubtedly disrupt international wood product markets. In this study, a static global forest trade model o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the viability of carbon offset credits created through forest conservation and preservation. A detailed forest management model based on a case study of a forest estate in southeastern British Columbia, owned by The Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC) is used to demonstrate the challenging nature of estimating forest carbon o...
Article
The focus in this study is on the pricing of financial derivatives for hedging weather risks in crop production. Employing data from an earlier study, we compare different methods for pricing weather derivative options based on growing degree days (GDDs). We employ average daily temperatures to derive GDDs using three approaches: (1) An econometric...
Article
Full-text available
Co-firing biomass and coal in retrofitted power plants is an efficient means to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the energy sector. Under IPCC reporting rules, the impacts of energy produced from biomass would not be reported in the energy sector, thereby effectively lowering the emission intensity of a power plant. In this study, a carbon tax is...
Article
Catastrophic natural disturbance creates a dilemma for the public forestland owner desiring to retain growing stock and salvaging some, if not all, of the damaged timber. If logging on public forestlands is conducted by private forest companies under various tenure arrangements, attainment of the government's objectives depends crucially on how com...
Article
Full-text available
Farmland conservation policies typically use zoning and differentiated taxes to prevent urban development of farmland, but little is known about the effectiveness of these policies. This study adds to current knowledge by examining the impact of British Columbia’s Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR), established in 1973, which severely restricts subdiv...
Article
Purpose – The paper analyzes the hedging efficiency of weather-indexed insurance for corn production in Northeast of China. The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential weather variables that impact corn yields and to analyze the efficiency of weather-indexed insurance under varying thresholds for payouts (strike values). Design/methodol...
Article
Full-text available
The government of British Columbia (BC) imposes restrictions on the export of logs from public and private forestlands, primarily to promote local processing and associated employment benefits. Most economists wholeheartedly oppose BC's export restrictions, arguing that BC's citizens are worse off as a result of the government's measures. In this p...
Article
This study investigates the potential to predict monthly wildfires and area burned in British Columbia's interior using El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) and the generalized Pareto (GP) distributions are used, respectively, to account for uncertainty in wildfire frequency and area burned. Results indica...
Article
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Although wind, hydro and solar are the most discussed sources of renewable energy, countries will need to rely much more on biomass if they are to meet renewable energy targets. In this study, a global forest trade model is used to examine the global effects of expanded demand for wood pellets fired with coal in power plants. Positive mathematical...
Article
Full-text available
We develop a positive mathematical programming model to investigate the impact of climate change on land use in the prairie pothole region of western Canada, with particular focus on wetlands retention. We examine the effect of climate change and biofuel policies that are implemented to mitigate climate change on wetlands retention. Simulation resu...
Article
Weather derivatives based on heating degree days or cooling degree days have been traded in financial markets for more than 10 years. Although used by the energy sector, agricultural producers have been slow to adopt this technology even though agriculture is particularly vulnerable to weather uncertainty. In agriculture, few studies have focused o...
Article
The government of British Columbia imposes restrictions on the export of logs from public and private forestlands, primarily to promote local processing and associated employment benefits. Economists wholeheartedly oppose BC’s export restrictions, arguing that BC’s citizens are worse off as a result of the government’s measures. In this paper, it i...
Article
British Columbia's energy policy is at a crossroads; the province has set a goal of electricity self-sufficiency, a 93% renewable portfolio standard and a natural gas development strategy that could increase electricity consumption by 21 TWh to 33 TWh. To ascertain the BC's supply position, a mathematical programming model of the physical workings...
Article
As a result of many years of deforestation, fuelwood scarcity is a critical problem in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government encouraged afforestation and tree growing at both the community and household levels as a policy to stem deforestation and degradation of agricultural lands. The rationale underlying the tree growing strategy is that some signif...
Article
We extend an earlier bioeconomic model of optimal duck harvest and wetland retention in the Prairie Pothole Region of Western Canada to include cropping decisions. Instead of a single state equation, the model has two state equations representing the population dynamics of ducks and the amount of wetlands. We use the model to estimate the impact of...
Article
In the present study, the effect of weather on maize yields in northern China was examined using data from 10 districts in Inner Mongolia and two in Shaanxi province. A regression model with a flexible functional form was specified on the basis of agronomic considerations. Explanatory variables included in the model were seasonal growing degree day...
Chapter
What policy instruments are available to governments wishing to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions? What role can and should government play? How effective is government action likely to be in reducing emissions and mitigating climate change? These are the subjects of this chapter. One concern is that government interventi...
Chapter
Given weak empirical evidence for global warming, climate scientists fall back on climate models to provide the strongest case for climate change. Although computer models of the atmosphere and oceans are solidly grounded in physics, there remains too much that is arbitrary. It is necessary to provide a path of future carbon dioxide emissions befor...
Chapter
Damages avoided – the principal benefit of mitigating climate change – are investigated in this chapter, particularly the potential adverse impacts on the primary sectors, biodiversity and human health. A review of studies indicates that climate change is unlikely to have much impact on agriculture and forestry; projected climate change will increa...
Chapter
This chapter constitutes a survey of economic measurement and social cost-benefit analysis. Economic analysis employs many of the same criteria as financial analysis to determine whether a project or activity is worth undertaking – net present value (NPV), the benefit-benefit ratio (B/C) and internal rate of return (IRR). The main difference relate...
Chapter
In this concluding chapter, the main issues developed throughout the book are briefly reviewed. The concern about climate change is then discussed in broader terms, viewing it in much the same way as earlier concerns about resource scarcity, population growth and the potential adverse impact that humans have on the environment. From this perspectiv...
Chapter
Climate scientists use instrumental data from numerous weather stations to develop summary measures of regional and global temperatures. The difficulties of doing this are illustrated using both hypothetical data and information from two weather monitoring stations, where one of the stations is clearly influenced by non-climate factors to a greater...
Chapter
Fossil fuels account for more than three-quarters of global energy consumption with another 10 % or more coming from renewable and waste sources that emit carbon dioxide. Energy consumption is projected to grow by some 50 % in the next quarter century, with the majority of this coming from sources that emit CO2. While renewable sources of energy wi...
Chapter
Although individual instrumental records from various places in North America and Europe are examined to determine trends, including the identification of the warmest and coldest years in the records, the main focus of this chapter is on proxy records. Proxy temperature records are constructed from tree ring, ice core and other paleoclimatic data u...
Article
Historically, British Columbia mandated silvicultural outcomes on public forestland because timber had a sufficiently high value to produce high resource rents. The mountain pine beetle altered the value of pine, reducing rents and impacting the silvicultural re-imbursement of regulated practices. As a result, forest companies continuing to log sta...
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Full-text available
A carbon tax is an economically efficient means of incentivizing carbon-reducing investments in electrical generation systems. Along with growing demand for electricity and a desire to mitigate climate change, there has been renewed discussion about the role of nuclear power in meeting carbon dioxide emission reduction targets. Increasing reliance...
Article
Full-text available
Forest product trade analysis is complicated by the inter-relationships among forest products. This paper deals with the development and application of an integrated log-lumber trade model that divides the globe into 20 regions. These regions play a significant role as producers and/or consumers of coniferous logs and softwood lumber. The model is...
Chapter
The importance of reliable electricity to the economy continues to expand, and much of the focus of climate policy is on the generation of electricity from non-fossil fuel, non-nuclear sources. Global electricity use is expected to increase dramatically as a result of the information age, policies to electrify vehicles, and rapid economic growth in...
Chapter
Surprisingly, there are many alternative explanations for observed changes in climate. In this chapter, these are categorized by whether they are cosmological in origin or not. Non-cosmological explanations include ocean events that impact the Earth’s climate, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation....
Chapter
As noted in previous chapters, it is not easy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions – it is technically difficult and the public is willing to pay too little to do so. As a result, governments have looked to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities as a means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestering it in terrestrial carb...
Chapter
The role of renewable energy is examined within the context of global energy markets. As an alternative to fossil fuels in generating electricity, wind energy turns out to be the most viable of renewable energy options because of its lower costs. But there remain two obstacles to wider penetration of wind energy: (1) Without large subsidies or mand...
Article
The optimal location and configuration of wind farms in a large region is important information for policy makers, electricity system planners and wind farm developers. The model developed in this paper uses wind resource data, population data and transmission line locations to find the configuration that produces electricity at minimum cost. Sever...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural expansion and intensification in Canada’s Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) have contributed to declining waterfowl populations since the 1970s. Although this region represents a mere 10% of North America’s waterfowl breeding habitat, it produces over 50% of the continent’s duck population and roughly 60% of Canada’s agricultural output. Th...
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Full-text available
In light of the large volumes of pine killed in the interior forests of British Columbia (BC) by the mountain pine beetle, many forest sector participants are keen to employ forest biomass as an energy source. To assess the feasibility of a wood biomass-fired power plant in the BC interior, it is necessary to know both how much physical biomass mig...
Article
To mitigate the high variability of wind and make it a more viable renewable energy source, observers recommend greater integration of spatially-separated electrical grids, with high transmission lines linking load centers, scattered wind farms and hydro storage sites. In this study, we examine the economics of integrating large-scale wind energy i...
Article
Full-text available
The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how the public resource owner can protect future timb...
Article
Actual property values are overwhelmingly employed as a dependent variable in hedonic pricing models. Yet, assessed property values are generally more readily available than actual sales values and have, in some studies, been used in lieu of market prices. In this study, we compare estimates of different non-market amenity values based on actual tr...
Article
Full-text available
A linear programming model is used to examine the impact of carbon taxes on the optimal generation mix in the Alberta electrical system. The model permits decommissioning of generating assets with high carbon dioxide emissions and investment in new gas-fired, wind and, in some scenarios, nuclear capacity. Although there is an intertie from Alberta...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examine the effect of climate on corn yields in northern China using data from ten districts in Inner Mongolia and two in Shaanxi province. A regression model with a flexible functional form is specified, with explanatory variables that include seasonal growing degree days, precipitation, technical change and dummy variables to ac...
Article
Full-text available
British Columbia’s energy policy is at a crossroads; the province has set a goal of electricity self-sufficiency, a 93% renewable portfolio standard and provincial natural gas strategy that could increase electricity consumption by 2,500-3,800 MW. To ascertain the reality of BC’s supply position, we model the physical characteristics of BC’s hydroe...
Article
From a cost standpoint and as demonstrated in this paper, it is beneficial to permit forest-sector carbon offsets in lieu of carbon dioxide emissions reduction. Such offsets play a role in voluntary markets and Europe’s Emission Trading System. However, problems related to additionality, leakages, duration and impermanence, high transaction costs,...
Article
Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for predicting fire frequency and burned area is developed...
Article
The Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a provincial zoning scheme designed to protect agricultural land from development. Since 1973, landowners have not been permitted to use ALR land for nonagricultural purposes, prompting some to seek recovery of development option value by applying for exclusion from the ALR. U...
Article
Public perceptions of invasive species may influence policies and programs initiated by public and private stakeholders. We investigate the determinants of the public's awareness and knowledge of invasive species as few studies have examined this relationship. We focus on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and employ survey data from property owners in...
Article
Copyright 2011 by G.C. van Kooten. All rights reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial purposes by any means, provided that this copyright notice appears on all such copies.
Article
This study reexamines and updates an original bioeconomic model of optimal duck harvest and wetland retention by Hammack and Brown (1974, Waterfowl and Wetlands: Toward Bioeconomic Analysis. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future). It then extends the model to include the nonmarket (in situ) value of waterfowl and the ecosystem service and other...
Article
Full-text available
Tigers are a threatened species that might soon disappear in the wild. Not only are tigers threatened by deteriorating and declining habitat, but poachers continue to kill tigers for traditional medicine, decoration pieces and so on. Although international trade in tiger products has been banned since 1987 and domestic trade within China since 1993...
Article
More than half a million hectares of productive forest land in British Columbia have gone out of production because of inadequate reforestation following timber harvesting or destruction of the forest by insects or fire. Investments in reforestation of this backlog, not sufficiently restocked forest land are an important instrument of regional deve...