Gernot Reishofer

Gernot Reishofer
Medical University of Graz · Division of Neuroradiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology

PhD

About

90
Publications
30,181
Reads
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3,686
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
2197 Citations
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Introduction
Gernot Reishofer currently works at the Division of Neuroradiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Medical University of Graz. Gernot does research in Radiology, Biophysics and Medical Physics.
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - present

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Full-text available
The fractal dimension (FD) can be used as a measure for morphological complexity in biological systems. The aim of this study was to test the usefulness of this quantitative parameter in the context of cerebral vascular complexity. Fractal analysis was applied on ten patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and ten healthy controls....
Article
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Background Diffusion weighted (DW) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has shown great potential to discriminate between healthy and diseased vessel tissue by evaluating the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) along the arterial axis. Recently, ex vivo studies on porcine arteries utilizing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed a circumferent...
Article
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Fractal analysis is a widely used tool to analyze the geometrical complexity of biological structures. The geometry of natural objects such as plants, clouds, cellular structures, blood vessel, and many others cannot be described sufficiently with Euclidian geometric properties, but can be represented by a parameter called the fractal dimension. He...
Article
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Objective To compare two established software applications in terms of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) lesion volumes, volume of critically hypoperfused brain tissue, and calculated volumes of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in brain MRI of patients with acute ischemic stroke.Methods Brain MRI examinations of 81 patients with acute stroke due to...
Article
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When developing artificial intelligence (AI) software for applications in radiology, the underlying research must be transferable to other real-world problems. To verify to what degree this is true, we reviewed research on AI algorithms for computed tomography of the head. A systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items...
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Objectives There is evidence of involvement of the venous system in multiple sclerosis (MS). If this bears also an association with the frequency and extent of developmental venous anomalies (DVA) still has to be determined. We therefore investigated this in patients with different phenotypes of MS and in comparison, to a control population. Metho...
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Introduction: Motor imagery (MI) refers to the mental rehearsal of a physical action without muscular activity. Our previous studies showed that MI combined with rhythmic-auditory cues improved walking, fatigue and quality of life (QoL) in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Largest improvements were seen after music and verbally cued MI. It is...
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Background: PCSK9 antibodies strongly reduce LDL cholesterol. The effects of PCSK9 antibodies on triglyceride metabolism are less pronounced. The present study aimed to investigate in detail the effects of alirocumab on triglycerides, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and lipase regulators. Methods: A total of 24 patients with an indication for tr...
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Background: Short-term effects of alirocumab on vascular function have hardly been investigated. Moreover, there is a scarce of reliable non-invasive methods to evaluate atherosclerotic changes of the vasculature. The ALIROCKS trial was performed to address these issues using standard ultrasound-based procedures and a completely novel magnetic res...
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Osteocalcin, in its non-carboxylated form, has a positive effect on glucose metabolism. Additionally, osteocalcin levels are related to body composition, especially muscle mass. The relation to the distribution of different adipose tissue types, such as subcutaneous, intermuscular, and visceral adipose tissue, is unclear. This study aimed to invest...
Article
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Telomeres are a crucial factor in the preservation of genomic integrity, and an elevated risk for diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular events is related to shortened telomeres. However, telomere deterioration could be caused by factors such as chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, which are promoted by an imbalance among reactive oxygen...
Article
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Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with hypoadiponectinemia. On the contrary, studies revealed correlations between the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and higher serum adiponectin levels. Furthermore, independent association of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) deposit in the thigh with cardiometabolic risk factors...
Article
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Repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to produce an analgesic effect and therefore has a potential for treating chronic refractory pain. However, previous studies used various stimulation parameters (including cortical targets), and the best stimulation protocol is not yet identified. The present study investigated the effects o...
Article
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The determination of the generalized fractal dimensions (FDs) from MRI tractograms is affected by image resolution and the number of fiber tracts. In this work, we demonstrate that only certain combinations of image resolution, number of fiber tracts and exponent of the generalized dimensions are able to capture structural changes in human cerebral...
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Information on microstructural white matter integrity has been shown to explain post-stroke recovery beyond clinical measures and focal brain damage. Especially, knowledge about early white matter changes might improve prediction of outcome. We investigated 42 acute reperfused ischemic stroke patients (mean age 66.5 years, 40% female, median admiss...
Article
Background and Study Aims Language is characteristically human, and preserving it is critical when resecting tumors in language-eloquent brain areas. Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nrTMS) has been used in recent years as a noninvasive technique to identify preoperatively the language-eloquent cortical areas in tumor patient...
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Purpose: Multiplication of FLAIR and T2-weighted MRI scans results in images (called FLAIR2) with an improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions but with a reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Denoising of these images may therefore further improve FLAIR2 image quality. The purpose of this work is to present a system...
Article
A growing body of evidence from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging adaptation (fMRIa) has implicated the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) as a crucial brain region representing the semantic meaning of number symbols. However, it is currently unknown to what extent the left IPS brain activity can be generalized across modalities (e.g., Arabic digi...
Article
OBJECTIVE Cerebral damage in frontal, parietal, and temporal brain areas and, probably more importantly, their interconnections can lead to deficits in language. However, neural plasticity and repair allow the brain to partly compensate for neural injury, mediated by both functional and structural changes. In this study, the authors sought to syste...
Chapter
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Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are cerebrovascular lesions consisting of a pathologic tangle of the vessels characterized by a core termed the nidus, which is the “nest” where the fistulous connections occur. AVMs can cause headache, stroke, and/or seizures. Their treatment can be challenging requiring surgery, endovascular embolization, and/or...
Article
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The ability to use numerical information in different contexts is a major goal of mathematics education. In health risk communication, outcomes of a medical condition are frequently expressed in probabilities. Difficulties to accurately represent probability information can result in unfavourable medical decisions. To support individuals with low-n...
Article
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The way information is processed in the brain varies strongly between individuals. A prominent distinction is made between visual and verbal processing in everyday-life as well as concrete tasks at hand. To investigate the role of routinely-used cognitive styles and task-specific cognitive strategies, n. =. 40 participants were presented with the d...
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Many elite singers appear to frequently drop the posterior mandible while singing to optimize resonance production. This study investigated the physiology of the Low Mandible Maneuver (LMM) through the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), and spectrographic analysis. The study of elite singers has been hampered by the paucity o...
Conference Paper
Multi-contrast MRI has become a well-recognized tool to study the complexity of an atherosclerotic plaque in order to predict lesion vulnerability. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an additional measure that provides information on the influence of plaque components on the diffusion process, which may help to understand the formation of a co...
Conference Paper
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Background / Purpose: Advanced scan techniques, such as readout-segmented EPI, provide the basis for high resolution DTI with an in plane resolution of 1 mm and below but suffer from low signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this work we present a novel method for spatial regularization of the diffusion tensor using a local dependent total variation (T...
Conference Paper
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Background / Purpose: Readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rs-EPI), with 2D navigator-based reacquisition, enables the sampling of high-resolution DWI with reduced susceptibility artifacts. In this work we set out to regularize the entire diffusion tensor for all three dimensions simultaneously using the concept of total generalized variation (...
Conference Paper
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Background / Purpose: It has been shown recently that readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rs-EPI) with 2D navigator-based reacquisition enables the sampling of high-resolution DWI with reduced susceptibility artifacts. In this work we set out to investigate the feasibility of 1mm isotropic DTI in-vivo on a clinical 3T system using measurements...
Conference Paper
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Background / Purpose: We examined the influence of sleep deprivation on the hemispheric interplay in resting-state functional connectivity. Main conclusion: Eloquent areas (Insual, post- and pre central gyrus) as well as the thalamus showed altered hemispheric connectivity after sleep deprivation.
Article
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Neuroscience studies on creativity have revealed highly variegated findings that often seem to be inconsistent. As recently argued in Fink and Benedek (Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 2012), this might be primarily due to the broad diversity in defining and measuring creativity as well as to the diversity of experimental procedures and methodologies used in...
Conference Paper
It has been shown recently, that spatially dependent regularization of the diffusion tensor applied on readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rs-EPI) with 2D navigator-based reacquisition significantly improves fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and tractography. In this work we propose a novel approach for automatic regularizing the entire diffusion...
Article
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Behavioral research has revealed that some cognitive features may be similar between creative and psychotic/schizophrenic-like thoughts. In this study, we addressed the potential link between creativity and schizotypy at the level of the brain by investigating functional patterns of brain activity (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) durin...
Article
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This fMRI study investigated brain activation during creative idea generation using a novel approach allowing spontaneous self-paced generation and expression of ideas. Specifically, we addressed the fundamental question of what brain processes are relevant for the generation of genuinely new creative ideas, in contrast to the mere recollection of...
Article
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Readout-segmented echo planar imaging with 2D navigator-based reacquisition is an uprising technique enabling the sampling of high-resolution diffusion images with reduced susceptibility artifacts. However, low signal from the small voxels and long scan times hamper the clinical applicability. Therefore, we introduce a regularization algorithm base...
Article
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With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T, we investigated the neural correlates of visualization and verbalization during arithmetic word problem solving. In the domain of arithmetic, visualization might mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results while calculating, and verbalization might mean that number...
Article
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While the left angular gyrus (lAG) has been repeatedly implicated in mental arithmetic, its precise functional role has not been established. On the one hand, it has been speculated that the lAG is involved in task-specific processes. On the other hand, the observation of relative deactivation during arithmetic has led to the contention that differ...
Conference Paper
Readout-segmented echo planar imaging (RS-EPI) with 2D navigator-based reacquisition is a new promising technique that enables the sampling of high resolution DWI with reduced susceptibility artifacts. Giving the fact that long scan times are required for high SNR due to the measurement of two or more averages, we set out to regularize the diffusio...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory central-nervous-system disorder with a neurodegenerative component. While in the past MS has been predominantly viewed as a white matter (WM) disease, grey matter (GM) pathology receives increasing attention in MS research. In this study, we tested hypothesis-free for a possible spatial relationship...
Article
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As it is the case in brainstorming, each single idea a person generates to a specific problem may stimulate new ideas or solutions in others. In this fMRI study, we investigate the effects of cognitive stimulation via the exposure to other people's ideas on the originality of generated ideas. Participants are requested to generate alternative uses...
Article
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Previous fMRI studies in English-speaking samples suggested that specific interventions may alter brain function in language-relevant networks in children with reading and spelling difficulties, but this research strongly focused on reading impaired individuals. Only few studies so far investigated characteristics of brain activation associated wit...
Article
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Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique which allows determining the bulk magnetic susceptibility distribution of tissue in vivo from gradient echo magnetic resonance phase images. It is commonly assumed that paramagnetic iron is the predominant source of susceptibility variations in gray matter as many studies have reported...
Article
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The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T was to investigate the influence of the verbal-visual cognitive style on cerebral activation patterns during mental arithmetic. In the domain of arithmetic, a visual style might for example mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results, and a verbal style might...
Article
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The neural efficiency hypothesis postulates an inverse relationship between intelligence and brain activation. Previous research suggests that gender and task modality represent two important moderators of the neural efficiency phenomenon. Since most of the existing studies on neural efficiency have used ERD in the EEG as a measure of brain activat...
Article
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While the functional correlates of spelling impairment have been rarely investigated, to our knowledge no study exists regarding the structural characteristics of spelling impairment and potential changes with interventions. Using diffusion tensor imaging at 3.0 T, we here therefore sought to investigate (a) differences between children with poor s...
Article
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The ability to extract numerical information from different representation formats (e.g., equations, tables, or diagrams) is a key component of mathematical competence but little is known about its neural correlate. Previous studies comparing mathematically less and more competent adults have focused on mental arithmetic and reported differences in...
Article
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Dynamic susceptibility contrast-MRI is the most commonly used functional MRI-based method for studying changes in cerebral perfusion. However, several studies indicated a systematic overestimation of perfusion parameters compared with other imaging modalities related to the high sensitivity of dynamic susceptibility contrast-MRI for blood flow in l...
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Background / Purpose: Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with a greater risk of school drop-out, unemployment, and emotional and behavioural problems. Approximately 15% of affected children show reading and spelling difficulties. Hence, it is of major importance to improve the understanding of the underlying brain processes of...
Article
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Rectal cancer is the second most common form of cancer in developed countries. The decision of an appropriate therapeutic approach like radiation therapy or surgical interven- tion largely depends on the quality of structural and functional imaging methods. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic reso- nance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a widely accepted method...
Article
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A new super-resolution method is presented to overcome limitations of spatial resolution in MRI. In contrast to previous attempts that are based on simple field of view shifts, the new method additionally modulates the longitudinal magnetization within the imaging plane for each shift, allowing the acquisition of new and independent k-space data. W...
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Cognitive stimulation via the exposure to ideas of other people is an effective tool in stimulating creativity in group-based creativity techniques. In this fMRI study, we investigate whether creative cognition can be enhanced through idea sharing and how performance improvements are reflected in brain activity. Thirty-one participants had to gener...