Germán Baldi

Germán Baldi
National Scientific and Technical Research Council | conicet · IMASL Instituto de Matemática Aplicada de San Luis

PhD Agricultural Sciences
I am a biologist mutated geographer who enjoys to find relationships between the physical, biotic, and cultural worlds.

About

65
Publications
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2,083
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Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Logging, grazing, wood extraction, and anthropogenic fires are pervasive throughout the subtropical dry vegetation of South America leading to changes in woodlands structure and ultimately its degradation. The Chaco region encompasses the second-largest forest in South America and has a long history of intensive use. We sought to characterize struc...
Article
Aim: Invasive species have the potential to alter hydrological processes by changing the local water balance. However, general patterns of how rainfall is partitioned into interception, throughfall and stemflow for invasive species worldwide have been seldom explored. We (a) describe the percentage of interception, throughfall and stemflow for inva...
Article
Full-text available
Pine tree invasions threaten many natural ecosystems of the Southern Hemisphere, modifying their structure and functioning through shifts in fire regimes, water balance, and biodiversity. The magnitude of such impacts depends on how much of the landscape has been invaded, thus a better understanding of the dispersal ability of pines and predictions...
Preprint
Full-text available
States are reacting to the global crises of biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services mainly through the expansion of their networks of protected areas. This reaction would have been boosted by the commitments made between the parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and facilitated by the opportunities offered by isolated terr...
Article
Over the last decades, the rapid replacement of native forests by crops and pastures in the Argentinean semiarid Chaco plains has triggered unprecedented groundwater level raises resulting from deep drainage increases, leading to the first massive waterlogging event on records (~25.000 Ha flooded in 2015 near Bandera, one of the most cultivated clu...
Article
Full-text available
Soil is the most important terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir but is greatly impacted by land use change (LUC). Previous analyses of LUC impacts on soil C have focused on biophysical variables, leaving aside the influence of socioeconomics. The aim of our study was to determine global soil organic carbon (SOC) change patterns after LUC and to assess...
Article
Protected areas are one of the most effective tools for nature conservation. Consequently, almost all countries have agreed to set increasingly demanding goals for the expansion of their protected area systems. However, there is a large disparity among countries, and research on the cultural drivers of differences remains quite unexplored. Here, we...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainability science recognizes the importance of the integrated assessment of the ecological and social systems in land-use planning. However, most studies so far have been conceptual rather than empirical. We developed a framework to characterize the social-ecological systems heterogeneity according to its functioning through the identification...
Preprint
Full-text available
Protected areas are one of the most effective tools for nature conservation. Consequently, almost all countries have agreed to set increasingly demanding goals for the expansion of their protected area systems. However, there is a large disparity among countries, and research on the cultural drivers of differences remains quite unexplored. Here, we...
Chapter
The Dry Chaco is mostly known as a forested ecosystem. However it includes natural grasslands, savannas, scrublands, and wetlands. With one of the highest global deforestation rates in the last two decades and only 12% of the area protected, the concern about land-use change in this ecoregion has raised exponentially; but conservation initiatives d...
Article
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Background. South America faces strong environmental pressures as a result of agriculture and infrastructure expansion and also of demographic growth, demanding immediate action to preserve natural assets by establishing protected areas. Currently, 7.1% of the (sub)continent is under strict conservation categories (I to IV, IUCN), but the spatial d...
Article
Full-text available
El vasto territorio del Chaco Seco y el Espinal se consolida como uno de los centros globales de producción de granos y carne. Tanto por distintas normas legales y limitaciones productivas, como por causas culturales, el bosque nativo se preserva en grandes porciones y numerosos pequeños fragmentos inmersos en la matriz agrícola. Estos remanentes s...
Article
Full-text available
The net amount of rainfall entering into the soil and its spatial distribution at the patch scale are key drivers of ecosystem processes in drylands. The spatial distribution of water is mainly controlled by vegetation canopy which determines the partitioning of rainfall into interception, throughfall and stemflow. In this paper, we synthesized and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Protected areas, regarded today as a cornerstone of nature conservation, result from an array of multiple motivations and opportunities. We explored at global and regional levels the current distribution of protected areas along biophysical, human, and biological gradients, and assessed to what extent protection has pursued (i) a balance...
Data
Background Protected areas, regarded today as a cornerstone of nature conservation, result from an array of multiple motivations and opportunities. We explored at global and regional levels the current distribution of protected areas along biophysical, human, and biological gradients, and assessed to what extent protection has pursued (i) a balance...
Article
Full-text available
The subtropical dry forests are experiencing rapid clearing in the southamerican Great Chaco region, mainly for soybean production in Argentina. This is causing biodiversity loss and soil salinization. This forests are unique for the floristic richness and the dense forest cover in a region characterized by semiarid climatic conditions. The authors...
Article
The aim of this work was to determine Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species and genotypes in intermediate and definitive hosts and in human isolates from endemic regions of Argentina and Brazil including those where no molecular data is available by a combination of classical and alternative molecular tools. A total of 227 samples were isolate...
Article
Few field studies examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems, resulting in high uncertainty for national inventories. This lack of data is particularly noticeable in smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa, where low inputs are often correlated with low yields, often resulting in food insecurity as well. We provide the...
Article
Full-text available
The dry subtropics are subject to a rapid expansion of crops and pastures over vast areas of natural woodlands and savannas. In this paper, we explored the effect of this transformation on vegetation productivity (magnitude, and seasonal and long-term variability) along aridity gradients which span from semiarid to subhumid conditions, considering...
Article
The replacement of natural vegetation by pastures and extensive crops is generally driven by economic incentives and supported by technology improvements and multiple subsidies. However, towards areas of increasing aridity the productive performance of these replacements may decline from all perspectives – ecological to agro-nomic to economic – due...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. The establishment of protected areas, regarded today as a cornerstone of nature conservation, resulted from a multiple array of motivations and opportunities. We explore at global and regional levels, the current distribution of protected areas along biophysical, human, and biological gradients, and assess to what extent protection purs...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a method for targeting landscapes with the objective of assessing mitigation options for smallholder agriculture. It presents alternatives in terms of the degree of detail and complexity of the analysis, to match the requirement of research and development initiatives. We address heterogeneity in land-use decisions that is lin...
Article
In this paper we explored how aridity influences the regional deforestation and land-use patterns (i.e. crops/pastures) in South American Dry Chaco. To do this, we contrasted land use during last decade (2001–2012) with a spatially explicit aridity index, which we complemented with a crop water balance model. Land-use classifications were performed...
Research
Chapter 2: Targeting landscapes to identify mitigation options in smallholder agriculture. In: MEASUREMENT METHODS: Guidelines for field measurements of agricultural greenhouse gas sources and sinks, pp. 1-26. CGIAR & CCAFS. http://samples.ccafs.cgiar.org/measurement-methods-overview/
Article
Objective: To systematically review publications on Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species/genotypes reported in domestic intermediate and definitive hosts in South America and in human cases worldwide, taking into account those articles where DNA sequencing was performed; and to analyse the density of each type of livestock that can act as in...
Article
Few field studies examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems resulting in high uncertainty for national inventories. We provide here the most comprehensive study in Africa to date, examining annual CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from 59 plots, across different vegetation types, field types and land classes in western Kenya...
Article
Full-text available
Charcoal production has been widespread in the past and is still common where poor societies and dry forests coexist. For the Dry Chaco in South America, one of the largest remaining dry forests of the world, we describe the geographical distribution, type of production systems, environmental and social context and output of charcoal based on remot...
Article
Full-text available
In the Río de la Plata grasslands (RPG) biogeographical region of South America, agricultural activities have undergone important changes during the last 15-18 years because of technological improvements and new national and international market conditions. We characterized changes in the landscape structure between 1985-1989 and 2002-2004 for eigh...
Chapter
Full-text available
1 RESUMEN: Uno de los pilares del proceso de ordenamiento territorial rural (OTR) es determinar la potencialidad de un espacio geográfi co para proveer determinados bienes y servicios (ecosistémicos, produc vos, sociales). Hasta hace pocos años, dicho proceso requería necesariamente la generación propia de planos de información espacialmente explíc...
Article
Land use change, particularly in forested ecosystems, has a direct impact on the global carbon cycle. Consequently, the regional assessment of biomass and the understanding of its current spatial controls are research priorities for regional ecology and land use. Field data and satellite imagery were combined here to map woodlands and estimate thei...
Article
Full-text available
El Chaco Seco experimenta altas tasas de deforestación y transformación productiva. Estimamos la magnitud de la apropiación humana de la productividad primaria neta (PPN) aérea de esta región por vías directas (producción ganadera, forestal y agrícola) e indirectas (fuego), su distribución regional, su relación con variables climáticas y socioeconó...
Article
Full-text available
Dry subtropical regions (DST), originally hosting woodlands and savannas, are subject to contrasting human pressures and land uses and different degrees of water limitation. We quantified how this variable context influences landscape pattern and vegetation functioning, by exploring the associations between three groups of variables describing (i)...
Article
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We studied the associations between small mammal assemblages and patterns of land use and landscape structure, and their seasonal variations in temperate agroecosystems. We collected barn owl, Tyto alba , pellets from nest sites located in the Pampean region included in Buenos Aires province (36 sites in winter and 29 in summer). We used Google Ear...
Article
Full-text available
Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber, and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, including many marginal lands with low resistance...
Article
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Climate variability affects both animal and plant populations. Understanding how this variability is modulated by topography, vegetation and population densities and how this impact on ungulate demography is an important step in order to forecast consequences of alternative management scenarios or the effects of climate change.Structural equation m...
Article
Dry subtropical regions, originally hosting xerophytic vegetation, are currently characterized by diverse land cover/use patterns. Using existing biophysical and socio-economic databases, we explored how human contexts influenced land cover, vegetation composition and agricultural production in five distant regions. On average, cultivated areas rep...
Chapter
Full-text available
South American tree plantations expand at a rate of 5,000 km2/year favored by increasingly globalized markets and local economic conditions. The main hydrological impacts of these plantations involve shifts in (a) the partition of precipitation inputs between vapour vs. liquid fluxes (associated to transpiration and canopy interception shifts) and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Traditional research on grasslands, shrublands and savannas is increasingly irrelevant to land management. Future research must explicitly consider that many of these lands will cease to exist in their current state by the end of the century. Growing global demand for food, energy and water are already driving massive...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of long-term records of productivity is a critical limitation to the study of ecosystem dynamics. Annual rings, a measure of growth in woody species, are a useful tool to document ecosystem dynamics. Time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide estimates of ecosystem productivity through satellite-derived data o...
Article
Los pastizales son uno de los ecosistemas terrestres que más modificaciones han sufrido. Los cambios en el uso del suelo han tenido un gran impacto sobre los depósitos y flujos de C. Comprender el impacto de los cambios en uso y cobertura del suelo es crítico a la hora de evaluar el potencial de los pastizales de retener C. En este trabajo analizam...
Article
The Río de la Plata grasslands (RPG) in South America are one of the largest temperate grasslands regions of the world. This region plays a key role in international crop production and land use change rates in some areas are among the highest detected nowadays. Our objective was to characterize the spatial heterogeneity of land use change dynamics...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN. En regiones sedimentarias como la llanura Chaco-Pampeana, caracterizadas por una muy escasa pendiente regional (<0.1%), las redes de evacuación de agua superficial y sales hacia el océano son pobres y los excesos hídricos se traducen, con frecuencia, en inundaciones y redistribución local de sales. Sobre la base de la experiencia local y g...
Article
Full-text available
In sedimentary regions like the Chaco-Pampa plains, characterized by a very low regional topographic gradient (<0.1%), the networks of surface water and salt evacuation towards the ocean are poor and water excesses often translate into flooding and salt redistribution. Based on local and global experience we review the risks, challenges, and uncert...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decades, South American ecosystems underwent important functional modifications due to climate alterations and direct human intervention on land use and land cover. Among remotely sensed data sets, NOAA-AVHRR "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index" (NDVI) represents one of the most powerful tools to evaluate these changes thanks to the...
Article
Full-text available
Las series temporales de imágenes de satélite constituyen una excelente herramienta para analizar los cambios en diferentes aspectos del funcionamiento de la vegetación y, por lo tanto, para el conocimiento y la gestión de áreas protegidas. En este trabajo mostramos tres aproximaciones para evaluar cambios en el promedio anual, la estacionalidad, y...
Article
In the last century, the grasslands of southern South America were rapidly converted to croplands, starting a fragmentation process that is still ongoing. Almost no information is available on the spatial patterns and environmental controls of these processes. Our objective was to characterize the degree of fragmentation and to analyze the environm...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN El ser humano modifica el territorio para llevar a cabo actividades productivas o construir viviendas. Estas modificaciones producen importantes cambios en la estructura y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas, afectan-do en última instancia la propia calidad de vida de las personas. En este artículo en primer término describimos algunos de...
Article
Full-text available
Numerosos actores socioeconómicos y políticos utilizan las estimaciones de la superficie cultivada para planificar, reducir la incertidumbre o mejorar la asignación de recursos. Para resultar confiables y útiles, las estimaciones deben basarse en una metodología debidamente documentada, reproducible en el espacio y en el tiempo, independiente del o...
Article
Full-text available
Many socioeconomic and political actors use the estimates of cropped areas to plan, reduce the uncertainty or improve resource allocation. To be trust-worthy and useful the estimates should be based on a properly documented method, reproducible in space and in time, independent of the operator and validated. To what extent are the above criteria me...

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Existe una necesidad general de comprender las inundaciones particularmente en el contexto actual de los cambios en el uso del suelo y el clima. Si bien históricamente, las inundaciones han sido percibidas como consecuencias de las influencias climáticas, en las dos últimas décadas ha emergido una imagen más recíproca, en la que los ecosistemas terrestres y las personas que los manejan pueden dejar una profunda huella en el sistema hidrológico (por ejemplo en la descarga en ríos y en niveles freáticos) (Viglizzo et al., 2009). Esto es particularmente importante llanuras sedimentarias como la Chaco-Pampeana donde, por un lado, las pérdidas evaporativas de agua son mucho más importantes que las pérdidas líquidas por lo tanto, cambios pequeños en el balance hídrico -dados por cambios de precipitación o cambios de cobertura de vegetal (partición vapor/líquido) o cambios en la temporalidad/estacionalidad de la cobertura vegetal (cultivos con ciclos distintos)- pueden producir efectos desproporcionalmente mayores en el sistema hidrológico. Por otro lado, se registran profundas alteraciones antrópicas del paisaje, deforestación en la región chaqueña (Houspanossian et al., 2016) y reemplazo de sistemas pastoriles por cultivos en la región pampeana (Viglizzo et al., 2009). Llamando la atención sobre los impactos de estos cambios hidrológicos sobre el rendimiento hídrico y las tasas de recarga freática (Jobbágy et al., 2008; Nosetto et al., 2012).