Germà Coenders

Germà Coenders
Universitat de Girona | UDG · Department of Economics

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About

151
Publications
35,494
Reads
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3,623
Citations
Citations since 2017
49 Research Items
1873 Citations
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Introduction
Germà Coenders is professor of quantitative methods for economics and management at the University of Girona. His research interests include compositional data analysis, marketing and accounting.
Additional affiliations
September 1997 - November 2016
Universitat de Girona
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 1996 - September 1997
Universitat de Girona
Position
  • Lecturer
September 1991 - September 1996
Universitat Ramon Llull
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
September 1991 - July 1996
Universitat Ramon Llull
Field of study
  • Management Sciences

Publications

Publications (151)
Article
Purpose-The research focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on the Spanish wine sector and the financial resilience of Spanish wineries in the period 2019-2020. Design/methodology/approach-The dataset contains 355 limited companies of the Spanish wine sector which were active in the period 2019-2020. The explanatory variables used are size and age of...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the type of mathematical construction, the use of standard financial ratios in studies analyzing the financial health of a group of firms leads to a series of statistical problems that can invalidate the results obtained. These problems originate from the asymmetry of financial ratios. The present article justifies the use of a new methodolo...
Article
Full-text available
This article classifies petrol retail companies in Spain based on their financial ratios using the Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) methodology. This methodology solves the most common distributional problems encountered in the statistical analysis of financial ratios. The main purpose of this article is to show that with the CoDA methodology, ac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Due to their type of mathematical construction, the use of standard financial ratios in studies analysing the financial health of a group of firms leads to a series of statistical problems that can invalidate the results obtained. These problems are originated by the asymmetry of financial ratios. The present article justifies the use of a new meth...
Chapter
Compositional Data (CoDa) contain information about the relative importance of parts of a whole, which the researcher deems more interesting than overall size or volume. In web mining, for instance, the relative frequency of a term is normally given more importance than absolute frequency, which mostly tells about web size, in other words, the shee...
Chapter
Compositional data (CoDa) can be defined as arrays of positive numbers, called components,for which their relative size is of interest to the researcher. We present an example concerning content analysis in social media. It is taken for granted that some hotels are more active in the networks and post more on all content categories in absolute term...
Article
Logratios between pairs of compositional parts (pairwise logratios) are the easiest to interpret in compositional data analysis, and include the well-known additive logratios as particular cases. When the number of parts is large (sometimes even larger than the number of cases), some form of logratio selection is needed. In this article, we present...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to analyse the short-term solvency of large companies in the wine sector in the period 2014-2018, in two relevant Spanish wine-production areas and assess significant differences in time and between regions. Liquidity is a direct threat to the financial health of companies and is analysed using standard financial indicato...
Article
Full-text available
The common approach to compositional data analysis is to transform the data by means of logratios. Logratios between pairs of compositional parts (pairwise logratios) are the easiest to interpret in many research problems, and include the well-known additive logratios as particular cases. When the number of parts is large (sometimes even larger tha...
Preprint
Full-text available
The common approach to compositional data analysis is to transform the data by means of logratios. Logratios between pairs of compositional parts (pairwise logratios) are the easiest to interpret in many research problems. When the number of parts is large, some form of logratio selection is a must, for instance by means of an unsupervised learning...
Article
Full-text available
While most countries have networks of stations for monitoring pollutant concentrations, they do not cover the whole territory continuously. Therefore, to be able to carry out a spatial and temporal study, the predictions for air pollution from unmeasured sites and time periods need to be used. The objective of this study is to predict the air pollu...
Chapter
Compositional Data analysis (CoDa) is the standard statistical methodology when data contain information about the relative importance of parts of a whole. Many research questions in marketing have to do with distribution of a whole (e.g., market share, product portfolio, spending distribution), or with relative importance (e.g., advertising conten...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The common approach to compositional data analysis is to transform the data by means of logratios. Logratios between pairs of compositional parts (pairwise logratios) are the easiest to interpret in many research problems, and include the well-known additive logratios as particular cases. When the number of parts is large (sometimes even larger tha...
Article
Full-text available
The companies' investment and financing policies are dynamically interrelated and there is no general consensus about the direction of this relationship. There are theoretical arguments and empirical evidence supporting both possible directions, which makes panel vector autoregressive models an appropriate tool. However, the financial ratios normal...
Chapter
DuPont analysis is a classical tool for assessing the determinants of financial performance of firms. It is based on financial ratios comparing revenues with costs (the so-called margin ratio), revenues with assets (turnover ratio), and debt with assets (leverage ratio). DuPont analysis thus focuses on comparing accounting values in relative terms...
Preprint
Full-text available
Compositional data are contemporarily defined as positive vectors, the ratios among whose elements are of interest to the researcher. Financial statement analysis by means of accounting ratios fulfils this definition to the letter. Compositional data analysis solves the major problems in statistical analysis of standard financial ratios, such as sk...
Article
Even though the logratio methodology provides a range of both generic, mostly exploratory, and purpose-built coordinate representations of compositional data, simple pairwise logratios are preferred by many for multivariate analysis in the geochemical practice, principally because of their simpler interpretation. However, the logratio coordinate sy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of standard accounting ratios on single firms is a powerful tool for diagnostics of their financial health and performance. However, statistical analyses of accounting ratios of a sample of firms lead to a series of problems that can invalidate the results obtained. The present paper justifies the use of a new methodology based on compositi...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we provide an analysis of the sentiment of the political parties’ discussion on Twitter, about the 2018 motion of no confidence to the Spanish government. In particular, we extracted and analyzed 2824 tweets from the official accounts of the 13 political parties represented in the Congress of Deputies. In its methodological developm...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of exchange rates results from events that affect different countries differently, that is, asymmetric shocks. Being value ratios, exchange rates constitute what is known as compositional data. The compositional data analysis methodology transforms exchange rates in away that ensures the validity of their subsequent statistical analys...
Article
Full-text available
Financial ratios are often used in principal component analysis and related techniques for the purposes of data reduction and visualization. Besides the dependence of results on ratio choice, ratios themselves pose a number of problems when subjected to a principal component analysis, such as skewed distributions. In this work, we put forward an al...
Article
Full-text available
Compositional data analysis is concerned with the relative importance of positive variables , expressed through their log-ratios. The literature has proposed a range of manners to compute log-ratios, some of whose interrelationships have never been reported when used as explanatory variables in regression models. This article shows their similariti...
Article
Compositional Data analysis (CoDa) is the standard statistical methodology when data contain information about the relative importance of parts of a whole. Many research questions in tourism are either related to distribution of a whole (e.g., distribution, share, allocation, etc.), or relative importance (e.g., dominance, concentration, profile, e...
Preprint
Full-text available
DuPont analysis is a classical tool for assessing the determinants of financial performance of firms. It is based on financial ratios comparing revenues with costs (the so-called margin ratio), revenues with assets (turnover ratio), and debt with assets (leverage ratio). DuPont analysis thus focuses on relative importance of accounting magnitudes a...
Article
The purpose of this article is to shed light on the patterns of inbound open innovation practices of SMEs and to explore potential size and country specificities. We base the analysis on data provided by three waves of the Eurostat Community Innovation Survey (CIS) for Spanish and Portuguese firms. The study identifies 5 innovation clusters with di...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents an empirical comparative assessment of the measurement quality of two instruments commonly used to measure fuzzy characteristics in computer-assisted questionnaires: a graphic scale (a line production scale using a slider bar) and an endecanary scale (a 0-10 rating scale using radio buttons). Data are analyzed by means of mult...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of the recent economic crisis, the financial situation of the Spanish health sector has become a major concern for responsible actors from the public and private spheres, because of a decline in public spending and increased demand due to population growth and ageing. The public health system seeks collaborative synergies with the pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Compositional data analysis is concerned with the relative importance of positive variables, expressed through their log-ratios. The literature has proposed a range of manners to compute log-ratios, some of whose interrelationships have never been reported when used as explanatory variables in regression models. This article shows their similaritie...
Poster
Full-text available
There are alternative strategies to introduce a composition as explanatory in a linear model or in a generalized linear model. Hron et al. (2012) suggested that a D–part composition can be introduced by rerunning D times a model with balance coordinates. In each model run one part is balanced against all remaining parts in the first coordinate, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the context of the recent economic crisis, the financial situation of the Spanish health sector has been a major concern for responsible actors from both the public and private sphere, because of the decline of public spending and the increased demand due to population growth and ageing. The public health system seeks collaborative synergies wit...
Article
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to identify factors that influence beliefs about dairy and lactose intolerance (LI) and to describe the regionalism of this influence. Design and Methods: Online questionnaire-based study on university students from Catalonia, Spain (n=196) and Hordaland, Norway (n=132). We used standardized factor scores...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents and develops a compositional analysis with representation of biplots, as an innovative proposal for a methodological approach to representation the theory of the agenda-setting about the political opinion of the opinion makers in the written press. For this purpose, a content analysis of the opinion articles on politics is car...
Article
This paper presents the results of a content analysis of the official Twitter accounts of the main Spanish political parties (Partido Popular, Partido Socialista Obrero Español, Podemos, Ciudadanos and Izquierda Unidad) carried out for the period of the 2015 Spanish general election. Compositional biplots are used for data visualization. Unlike tra...
Article
Instead of looking at individual nutrients or foods, dietary pattern analysis has emerged as a promising approach to examine the relationship between diet and health outcomes. Despite dietary patterns being compositional (i.e. usually a higher intake of some foods implies that less of other foods are being consumed), compositional data analysis has...
Article
Full-text available
Product innovation performance is often measured by means of the percentages in the product portfolio from: (a) innovative products launched for the first time in the market; (b) new products to the firm already extant in the market; and (c) unchanged products. These percentages have often been used to assess the impact of open innovation. More rec...
Article
Tourist spending behavior is not only relevant in terms of volume but also in terms of trip budget composition or allocation (share or proportion of total trip budget allocated to transportation, accommodation or activities). This paper aims to profile expenditure patterns before, during and after the economic crisis, and how they affect destinatio...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the compositional biplot as an innovative methodological approach to visualise intermedia agenda-setting in the study of media and political agendas in an intuitive way. As an illustration, we use a content analysis of the main Spanish media groups (RTVE, Prisa, Vocento, Unidad Editorial, COPE, Atresmedia, Planeta, Godó, Media...
Article
Financial ratios are often used in cluster analysis to classify firms according to the similarity of their financial structures. Besides the dependence of distances on ratio choice, ratios themselves have a number of serious problems when subject to a cluster analysis such as skewed distributions, outliers, and redundancy. Some solutions to overcom...
Article
Since some years ago low-cost carriers (LCCs) are becoming less and less low-cost-like, as well as full-service airlines are becoming less and less full-service-like, thus contributing to lessen the differences between users of one airline type and the other. LCCs have made air travel available to all budgets and enabled tourists to spend more at d...
Article
The analysis of compositional data (CoDa) consists in the study of the relative importance of parts of a whole rather than the size of the whole because absolute information is either unavailable or not of interest. On the other hand, when absolute and relative information are both relevant, research hypotheses concern both. This article introduces...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between Internet use and trip satisfaction has up to now been tested only with subjective variables regarding the Internet (e.g., esatisfaction), not on actual Internet use. Subjective variables, including satisfaction, may share common variance and thus show spurious correlations. The aim of this article is to test the relationsh...
Article
In this article, we propose segmenting tourists according to trip budget share (in other words, the proportions of total expenditure devoted to different items, such as transportation, accommodation, and activities undertaken). We put forward a method involving a combination of compositional data analysis (CODA) and mixture models (latent class mod...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to test whether there is a relationship between overall trip satisfaction and the actual Internet use Millennials make when planning and booking accommodation and activities in overseas trips. This relationship has up to now been tested only with subjective variables referring to Internet as a medium itself (the so-called...
Article
Full-text available
This study contributes to the current literature on open innovation by analysing the effects of open innovation activities on the introduction of new-to-the-world innovations versus imitation. We base our analysis on data provided by the Eurostat Community Innovation Survey (CIS) carried out in Germany in 2012, which for the first time made a disti...
Article
This study contributes to the literature on inbound open innovation in three ways. Firstly, it verifies the suitability of three groups of innovation activities (external information sources, cooperation and acquisition of machinery, knowledge or R&D) as indicators of open innovation, by modelling their relationship with the openness of the develop...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to describe a method for relating two compositions which combines compositional data analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and to examine its main statistical properties. We use additive log-ratio (alr) transformation on both compositions and apply standard CCA to the transformed data. We show that canonical...
Article
The expansion of low-cost airlines (LCAs) has led to a reduction of flight costs and has enabled tourists to redistribute their trip budget and spend a higher proportion at the destination. Analyses of absolute trip spending by parts (such as transportation) and of trip budget share (for example, the proportion of transportation within the total tr...
Article
The aim of this article is to study the preferences and motivations of Japanese tourists in Barcelona regarding gastronomic experiences in the city and the willingness to undertake local trips to rural areas in Catalonia (the Spanish region of which Barcelona is the capital city) to enjoy food with a more local flavor. Drawing from the literature o...
Article
Full-text available
The ritualistic use of statistical models regardless of the type of data actually available is a common practice across disciplines which we dare to call type zero error. Statistical models involve a series of assumptions whose existence is often neglected altogether, this is specially the case with ipsative data. This paper illustrates the consequ...
Article
This paper examines the qualitative, quantitative, and geographical evolution (1987–2012) of the Blue Flag campaign and accreditation process in Spain, a leading coastal tourism destination heading the list of awards. The standard Blue Flag criteria for crowded, developed beaches are now adapting to new demands for natural beaches, but they still f...
Article
The aims of this paper are to identify latent dimensions underlying actual Internet use by independent tourists when planning and booking their trip, and to study how these latent dimensions are affected by trip characteristics. We use structural equation models with binary variables and official statistics microdata on leisure visitors arriving in...
Article
The reduction in transportation costs when travelling with a low-cost airline (LCA) seems to have modified the composition of the trip budget. An understanding of expenditure composition when comparing LCA and legacy airline travellers is vital for destination marketers. Using micro official statistics data for air travellers to Spain in 2010 and t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, through MIMIC models, we identify latent dimensions underlying actual internet use when planning and booking a trip (accommodation and transportation versus activities), and relate them to trip characteristics (airline type, accommodation, time of trip planning, season, travel group, trip purpose, trip length and expenditure). Keywo...
Article
This paper examines the scope, types, and degree of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices currently employed in human resource management (HRM) in Spain, and its determinants. It analyses firm, employee, and job-related characteristics which affect the implementation of CSR in HRM. It also offers an overview of the current situation regar...
Chapter
The Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining (ESNAM) is the first major reference work to integrate fundamental concepts and research directions in the areas of social networks and applications to data mining. While ESNAM reflects the state-of-the-art in social network research, the field had its start in the 1930s when fundamental issues...
Article
Proportions of a total, including social network compositions (proportions of partner, family, friends, etc.) lie in a restricted space, which challenges statistical analysis. Network compositions can be both dependent and explanatory variables and are usually measured with error by survey instruments. Structural equation models make it possible to...
Article
The study investigates how market and technological changes in an organization's business environment moderate the relationships between responsive and proactive market orientation, innovation success, and market success of the organization. The respondents in the study were senior managers of companies operating in a Central European country. The...
Article
Full-text available
Social network items have been included in several cross-national surveys (e.g., Generations and Gender Programme, European Quality of Life Survey, International Social Survey Programme). In these surveys, several different methods and questionnaire items are applied to measure similar or identical constructs. These methods are the name generator m...
Article
Casas et al. (J Happiness Stud 9(2):197–205, 2008) found no significant relationship between paired answers given by parents and their 12–16-year-old children (N = 266) for a single-item scale on overall life satisfaction (OLS). However, a significant, but low (.19) parent–child relationship did appear for the PWI multi-item scale. Overall, childre...
Article
Full-text available
Compositional data, also called multiplicative ipsative data, are common in survey research instruments in areas such as time use, budget expenditure and social networks. Compositional data are usually expressed as proportions of a total, whose sum can only be 1. Owing to their constrained nature, statistical analysis in general, and estimation of...
Article
Full-text available
The article examines the structure of the collaboration networks of research groups where Slovenian and Spanish PhD students are pursuing their doctorate. The units of analysis are studentsupervisor dyads. We use duocentred networks, a novel network structure appropriate for networks which are centred around a dyad. A cluster analysis reveals thre...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the networks within the research groups where Spanish PhD students are pursuing their doctorate. Capó et al. (2007) used quantitative data to predict PhD students' publishing performance from their background, attitudes, supervisors' performance and research group networks. Variables related to the research group network had a...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue is devoted to the studies done to predict PhD students' academic performance carried out by the INSOC (International Network on Social Capital and Performance) research group.
Article
Full-text available
Different single-item and multiple-item scales are used as subjective indicators of well-being in the international arena. However, very few cross-cultural studies exist into subjective indicators of well-being among adolescent populations. In this study, three different multi-item scales, variations of these scales and several single items –all of...
Book
Full-text available
Aquest llibre tracta un tema que molts pensen que no existeix: la bona cuina catalana vegetariana. Potser és cert que darrerament la cuina catalana ha deixat una mica de banda els bons plats vegetarians. Això ha provocat que molts vegetarians viatgin en l'espai per cercar receptes de cuines d'arreu del món. Aquest llibre us proposa viatjar en el te...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we set out a confirmatory factor anal ysis model relating the values adolescents and their parents aspire to for the child's future. We approach a problem when collecting parents' answers and analysing paired data from parents and their child: the fact that in some families only one parent answers, while in others both meet to answer...