Gerlinde Wernig

Gerlinde Wernig
Stanford University | SU · Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine

MD

About

61
Publications
7,541
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7,210
Citations
Citations since 2017
37 Research Items
2772 Citations
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Introduction
Gerlinde Wernig currently works at the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University. Gerlinde does clinical work in Hematology and Pathology as a board certified anatomical pathologist and hematopathologist. The current project is work on "unifying mechanism of fibrotic diseases" and her labs major focus is understanding the pathology of diseases associated with fibrosis and finding new targets and developing better treatments for patients afflicted with these diseases.

Publications

Publications (61)
Article
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Patients with severe COVID‐19 often suffer from lymphopenia, which is linked to T cell sequestration, cytokine storm and mortality. However, it remains largely unknown how SARS‐CoV‐2 induces lymphopenia. Here, we studied the transcriptomic profile and epigenomic alterations involved in cytokine production by SARS‐CoV‐2‐infected cells. We adopted a...
Article
We proposed and demonstrated that myelogenous leukemia has a preleukemic phase. In the premalignant phase, normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) gradually accumulate mutations leading to HSC clonal expansion, resulting in the emergence of leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Here, we show that preleukemic HSCs are the basis of clonal hematopoiesis, as well...
Article
Chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD) is a major obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) in patients. This debilitating condition is characterized by chronic inflammation, cell-mediated and humoral immunity, and ultimately tissue fibrosis. There is currently little or no understanding of the molecular pat...
Article
To explore how the immune system controls clearance of SARS-CoV-2, we used a single-cell, mass cytometry-based proteomics platform to profile the immune systems of 21 patients who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection without need for admission to an intensive care unit or for mechanical ventilation. We focused on receptors involved in interactio...
Article
Full-text available
Significance In the skin, tissue injury results in fibrosis in the form of a scar composed of dense extracellular matrix deposited by fibroblasts. Therapies that promote tissue regeneration rather than fibrosis remain elusive because principles of fibroblast programming and response to injury remain incompletely understood. Here, we present a multi...
Article
Pathologic skin scarring presents a vast economic and medical burden. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms underlying scar formation remain to be elucidated. We used a hypertrophic scarring (HTS) mouse model in which Jun is overexpressed globally or specifically in α-smooth muscle or collagen type I–expressing cells to cause excessive extracellu...
Article
Regeneration without scarring Wounds in adult mammals typically heal by forming fibrotic scars. Mascharak et al. found that a specific population of skin fibroblasts ( Engrailed-1 lineage–negative fibroblasts) activate expression of Engrailed-1 and turn on profibrotic cellular programs in response to local tissue mechanics in wounds (see the Perspe...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the skin, tissue injury results in fibrosis in the form of scars composed of dense extracellular matrix deposited by fibroblasts. The therapeutic goal of regenerative wound healing has remained elusive in part because principles of fibroblast programming and adaptive response to injury remain incompletely understood. Here, we present a multimoda...
Article
Full-text available
Significance TPO is a cytokine that signals through the receptor MPL (or TPO-R), and is essential for megakaryocyte differentiation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). TPO signaling is deregulated in essential thrombocythemia (ET). Here, we engineered diabodies (DBs) against the TPO-R ECD as surrogate TPO ligands to manipulate TPO-R...
Preprint
Thrombopoietin (TPO) and the TPO-receptor (TPO-R, or c-MPL)) are essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance and megakaryocyte differentiation. Agents that can modulate TPO-R signaling are highly desirable, both experimentally and clinically. We have developed a series of surrogate protein-ligands for TPO-R, in the form of diabodies, th...
Article
Full-text available
Scleroderma is a devastating fibrotic autoimmune disease. Current treatments are partly effective in preventing disease progression but do not remove fibrotic tissue. Here, we evaluated whether scleroderma fibroblasts take advantage of the "don't-eat-me-signal" CD47 and whether blocking CD47 enables the body's immune system to get rid of diseased f...
Article
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Adhesions are fibrotic scars that form between abdominal organs following surgery or infection, and may cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or infertility. Our understanding of adhesion biology is limited, which explains the paucity of anti-adhesion treatments. Here we present a systematic analysis of mouse and human adhesion tissues. First, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scleroderma is a devastating fibrotic autoimmune disease. Current treatments are partly effective in preventing disease progression, but do not remove fibrotic tissue. Here, we evaluated whether scleroderma fibroblasts take advantage of the do-not-eat-me-signal CD47 and whether blocking CD47 enables the immune system to get rid of diseased fibrobla...
Article
Full-text available
The transcription factor JUN is highly expressed in pulmonary fibrosis. Its induction in mice drives lung fibrosis, which is abrogated by administration of anti-CD47. Here, we use high-dimensional mass cytometry to profile protein expression and secretome of cells from patients with pulmonary fibrosis. We show that JUN is activated in fibrotic fibr...
Preprint
In pulmonary fibrosis, the transcription factor JUN is highly expressed in the fibrotic foci. Its induction in adult mice drives lung fibrosis, which is abrogated by administration of anti-CD47. Here, we use high-dimensional mass cytometry to profile protein expression and the secretome of individual fibroblasts and leukocytes from pulmonary fibros...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures lead to decreased life quality and high healthcare costs. Current treatments prevent losses in bone mass and fractures to some extent but have side effects. Therefore, better therapies are needed. This study investigated whether the transcription factor Jun has a specific pro-osteogenic potency and whether mo...
Article
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Acute GVHD (aGVHD) results from direct damage by donor T cells, whereas the biology of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) with its autoimmune-like manifestations remains poorly understood, mainly because of the paucity of representative preclinical mod...
Article
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative therapy for blood and immune diseases with potential for many settings beyond current standard-of-care. Broad HSCT application is currently precluded largely due to morbidity and mortality associated with genotoxic irradiation or chemotherapy conditioning. Here we show that a single dose...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the effects of local doxycycline administration on skin scarring. Background: Skin scarring represents a major source of morbidity for surgical patients. Doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with off-target effects on the extracellular matrix, has demonstrated antifibrotic effects in multiple organs. However, doxycycl...
Article
Peritoneal adhesions are fibrous tissues that tether organs to one another or to the peritoneal wall and are a major cause of postsurgical and infectious morbidity. The primary molecular chain of events leading to the initiation of adhesions has been elusive, chiefly due to the lack of an identifiable cell of origin. Using clonal analysis and linea...
Article
Background: Animal models of optic nerve injury are often used to study central nervous system (CNS) degeneration and regeneration, and targeting the optic nerve is a powerful approach for axon-protective or remyelination therapy. However, the experimental delivery of drugs or cells to the optic nerve is rarely performed because injections into th...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Severe human fibrotic diseases are devastating and without effective treatments. We found that c-JUN expression is increased in many human fibrotic diseases and that systemic induction of c-Jun in mice resulted in development of fibrosis of multiple organs. These results suggest that many fibrotic diseases share a common pathomechanism...
Article
Stem-cell differentiation to desired lineages requires navigating alternating developmental paths that often lead to unwanted cell types. Hence, comprehensive developmental roadmaps are crucial to channel stem-cell differentiation toward desired fates. To this end, here, we map bifurcating lineage choices leading from pluripotency to 12 human mesod...
Article
Most cell-surface receptors for cytokines and growth factors signal as dimers, but it is unclear whether remodeling receptor dimer topology is a viable strategy to “tune” signaling output. We utilized diabodies (DA) as surrogate ligands in a prototypical dimeric receptor-ligand system, the cytokine Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EpoR), to d...
Article
Since the discovery of the Philadelphia chromosome in chronic myelogenous leukemia, numerous molecular genetic events in chronic myeloid neoplasms have been described. The myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelodysplastic syndromes, and mixed myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms are now defined by more than just clinical parameters and require...
Chapter
Since the discovery of the Philadelphia chromosome in chronic myelogenous leukemia, numerous molecular genetic events in chronic myeloid neoplasms have been described. The myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelodysplastic syndromes, and mixed myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms are now defined by more than just clinical parameters and require...
Article
Full-text available
MOZ-TIF2 is a leukemogenic fusion oncoprotein that confers self-renewal capability to hematopoietic progenitor cells and induces AML with long latency in bone marrow transplantation assays. Here, we report that FLT3-ITD transforms hematopoietic cells in cooperation with MOZ-TIF2 in vitro and in vivo. Co-expression of FLT3-ITD confers growth factor...
Article
Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm residing in bone marrow. Despite advances in myeloma therapies, novel therapies are required to improve patient outcomes. CD47 is highly expressed on myeloma cells and a potential therapeutic candidate for myeloma therapies. Flow cytometric analysis of patient bone marrow cells revealed that myeloma cells...
Article
About 10% of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or myelofibrosis (MF) that lack mutations in JAK2 harbor an activating mutation in the thrombopoietin receptor, MPLW515L. Distinct from the JAK2V617F retroviral transplant model, the MPLW515L model recapitulates many features of ET and MF, including severe fibrosis and thrombocytosis. We hav...
Article
We report a Jak2V617F knockin mouse myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) model resembling human polycythemia vera (PV). The MPN is serially transplantable and we demonstrate that the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment has the unique capacity for disease initiation but does not have a significant selective competitive advantage over wild-type HS...
Article
Approximately 50% of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or myelofibrosis (MF) lack activating mutations in JAK2. Among these patients, ~10% harbor an activating mutation in the thrombopoietin receptor, MPLW515L. We have reported that expression of MPLW515L in a murine bone marrow transplant model recapitulates many features of ET and MF,...
Article
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To determine whether aberrantly activated tyrosine kinases other than FLT3 and c-KIT contribute to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathogenesis, we used high-throughput (HT) DNA sequence ana-lysis to screen exons encoding the activation loop and juxtamembrane domains of 85 tyrosine kinase genes in 188 AML patients without FLT3 or c-KIT mutations. The...
Article
We report that TG101348, a selective small-molecule inhibitor of JAK2 with an in vitro IC50 of approximately 3 nM, shows therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of myeloproliferative disease induced by the JAK2V617F mutation. In treated animals, there was a statistically significant reduction in hematocrit and leukocyte count, a dose-dependent reduc...
Article
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The V617F activating point mutation in Jak2 is associated with a proportion of myeloproliferative disorders. In normal hematopoietic cells, Jak2 signals only when associated with a growth factor receptor, such as the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). We sought to identify the molecular requirements for activation of Jak2V617F by introducing a point m...
Article
Mutations that result in constitutive tyrosine kinase activation occur in a wide spectrum of human malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although activating mutations in the tyrosine kinases FLT3 and c-KIT occur in a significant proportion of patients with AML, the genomic events responsible for oncogenic signaling in most patients...
Article
The JAK2V617F mutation is present in the majority of cases of myeloproliferative disease, including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and is an attractive candidate for molecularly targeted therapy. However, the potential toxicities of JAK2 inhibition in vivo, and identification of appropriate s...
Article
Although acquisition of JAK2V617F mutation is an important pathogenetic event in many patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and myelofibrosis (MF), the genetic events that contribute to most cases of JAK2V617F-negative MPD are not known. We used high throughput DNA sequence analysis of cytokine receptors critical for...
Article
Full-text available
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia associated with a poor prognosis. However, there are relatively few insights into the genetic etiology of AMKL. We developed a screening assay for mutations that cause AMKL, based on the hypothesis that constitutive activation of STAT5 would be a biochemical indicator of...
Article
Full-text available
The JAK2V617F allele has recently been identified in patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF). Subsequent analysis has shown that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is an important pathogenetic event in these patients, and that enzymatic inhi...
Data
Primer Sequences Used in This Study (25 KB DOC)
Article
Full-text available
An acquired somatic mutation, Jak2V617F, was recently discovered in most patients with polycythemia vera (PV), chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF), and essential thrombocythemia (ET). To investigate the role of this mutation in vivo, we transplanted bone marrow (BM) transduced with a retrovirus expressing either Jak2 wild-type (wt) or Jak2V617F...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of JAK2V617F mutations in polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and myelofibrosis (MF) represents an important advance in our understanding of these myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). Most, if not all, patients with PV and a significant number of patients with ET and MF are JAK2V617F positive, and the mutation l...
Article
Full-text available
A recurrent somatic activating mutation in the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase JAK2 (JAK2V617F) occurs in the majority of patients with the myeloproliferative disorders polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, and, less commonly, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. We do not understand the basis for the specific...
Article
Full-text available
Bone-marrow-derived cells can contribute nuclei to skeletal muscle fibers. However, serial sectioning of muscle in mdx mice implanted with GFP-labeled bone marrow reveals that only 20% of the donor nuclei chronically incorporated in muscle fibers show dystrophin (or GFP) expression, which is still higher than the expected frequency of “revertant” f...
Article
Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis (MMM) are clonal disorders arising from hematopoietic progenitors. An internet-based protocol was used to collect clinical information and biological specimens from patients with these diseases. High-throughput DNA resequencing identified a recurrent s...

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Projects (7)