# Gerhard GroessingAustrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies · -

Gerhard Groessing

Dr.

## About

64

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## Publications

Publications (64)

Emergent quantum mechanics (EmQM) explores the possibility of an ontology for quantum mechanics. The resurgence of interest in realist approaches to quantum mechanics challenges the standard textbook view, which represents an operationalist approach. The possibility of an ontological, i.e., realist, quantum mechanics was first introduced with the o...

In the quest for an understanding of nonlocality with respect to an appropriate ontology, we propose a "cosmological solution". We assume that from the beginning of the universe each point in space has been the location of a scalar field representing a zero-point vacuum energy that nonlocally vibrates at a vast range of different frequencies across...

We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of "r...

What defines an emergent quantum mechanics (EmQM)? Can new insight be advanced into the nature of quantum nonlocality by seeking new links between quantum and emergent phenomena as described by self-organization, complexity, or emergence theory? Could the development of a future EmQM lead to a unified, relational image of the cosmos? One key motiva...

We present our model of an Emergent Quantum Mechanics which can be characterized by "realism without pre-determination". This is illustrated by our analytic description and corresponding computer simulations of Bohmian-like "surreal" trajectories, which are obtained classically, i.e. without the use of any quantum mechanical tool such as wave funct...

It is a frequent assumption that - via superluminal information transfers -
superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily
exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences.
However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically
imply superluminal signalling and communication? The...

We show that during stochastic beam attenuation in double slit experiments,
there appear unexpected new effects for transmission factors below
$a\lesssim10^{-4}$, which can eventually be observed with the aid of weak
measurement techniques. These are denoted as quantum sweeper effects, which are
characterized by the bunching together of low countin...

Elements of a "deeper level" explanation of the deBroglie-Bohm (dBB) version
of quantum mechanics are presented. Our explanation is based on an analogy of
quantum wave-particle duality with bouncing droplets in an oscillating medium,
the latter being identified as the vacuum's zero-point field. A hydrodynamic
analogy of a similar type has recently...

Combining high and low probability densities in intensity hybrids, we study
some of their properties in double-slit setups. In particular, we connect to
earlier results on beam attenuation techniques in neutron interferometry and
study the effects of very small transmission factors, or very low counting
rates, respectively, at one of the two slits....

Does "epistemic non-signalling" ensure the peaceful coexistence of special
relativity and quantum nonlocality? The possibility of an affirmative answer is
of great importance to deterministic approaches to quantum mechanics given
recent developments towards generalizations of Bell's theorem. By
generalizations of Bell's theorem we here mean efforts...

By introducing the concepts of "superclassicality" and "relational
causality", it is shown here that the velocity field emerging from an n-slit
system can be calculated as an average classical velocity field with suitable
weightings per channel. No deviation from classical probability theory is
necessary in order to arrive at the resulting probabil...

We present a new tool for calculating the interference patterns and particle
trajectories of a double-, three- and N-slit system on the basis of an emergent
sub-quantum theory developed by our group throughout the last years. The
quantum itself is considered as an emergent system representing an
off-equilibrium steady state oscillation maintained b...

Based on a re-formulation of the classical explanation of quantum mechanical Gaussian dispersion (Grössing et al. (2010) [1]) as well as interference of two Gaussians (Grössing et al. (2012) [6]), we present a new and more practical way of their simulation. The quantum mechanical “decay of the wave packet” can be described by anomalous sub-quantum...

A research program within the scope of theories on "Emergent Quantum
Mechanics" is presented, which has gained some momentum in recent years. Via
the modeling of a quantum system as a non-equilibrium steady-state maintained
by a permanent throughput of energy from the zero-point vacuum, the quantum is
considered as an emergent system. We implement...

In a new approach to explain double-slit interference "from the single
particle perspective" via "systemic nonlocality", we answer the question of how
a particle going through one slit can "know" about the state of the other slit.
We show that this comes about by changed constraints on assumed classical
sub-quantum currents, which we have recently...

Based on our model of quantum systems as emerging from the coupled dynamics
between oscillating "bouncers" and the space-filling zero-point field, a
sub-quantum account of nonlocal correlations is given. This is explicitly done
for the example of the "double two-slit" variant of two-particle
interferometry. However, it is also shown that the entang...

Based on a proposed classical explanation, the quantum mechanical "decay of
the wave packet" is shown to simply result from sub-quantum diffusion with a
specific diffusivity varying in time due to a particle's changing thermal
environment. The exact quantum mechanical intensity distribution, as well as
the corresponding trajectory distribution and...

Double slit interference is explained with the aid of what we call "21st century classical physics". We model a particle as an oscillator ("bouncer") in a thermal context, which is given by some assumed "zero-point" field of the vacuum. In this way, the quantum is understood as an emergent system, i.e., a steady-state system maintained by a constan...

In our bouncer-walker model a quantum is a nonequilibrium steady-state maintained by a permanent throughput of energy. Specifically, we consider a "particle" as a bouncer whose oscillations are phase-locked with those of the energy-momentum reservoir of the zero-point field (ZPF), and we combine this with the random-walk model of the walker, again...

These proceedings comprise the plenary lectures and poster contributions of the 'Heinz von Foerster Conference 2011' on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmerQuM11), which was held at the University of Vienna, 11–13 November 2011.
With the 5th International Heinz von Foerster Conference convened at the occasion of von Foerster's 100th birthday, the organ...

A classical explanation of interference effects in the double slit
experiment is proposed. We claim that for every single
“particle” a thermal context can be defined, which reflects
its embedding within boundary conditions as given by the totality of
arrangements in an experimental apparatus. To account for this context,
we introduce a “path excita...

By modelling quantum systems as emerging from a (classical) sub-quantum thermodynamics, the quantum mechanical "decay of the wave packet" is shown to simply result from sub-quantum diffusion with a specific diffusion coefficient varying in time due to a particle's changing thermal environment. It is thereby proven that free quantum motion strictly...

Based on the modelling of quantum systems with the aid of (classical) non-equilibrium thermodynamics, both the emergence and the collapse of the superposition principle are understood within one and the same framework. Both are shown to depend in crucial ways on whether or not an average orthogonality is maintained between reversible Schrödinger dy...

This review presents results obtained from our group’s approach to model quantum mechanics with the aid of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. As has been shown, the exact Schrödinger equation can be derived by assuming that a particle of energy is actually a dissipative system maintained in a nonequilibrium steady state by a constant throughput of ener...

In a new thermodynamic interpretation, the quantum potential is shown to result from the presence of a subtle thermal vacuum energy distributed across the whole domain of an experimental setup. Explicitly, its form is demonstrated to be exactly identical to the heat distribution derived from the defining equation for classical diffusion wave fields...

In the context of our recently developed emergent quantum mechanics, and, in
particular, based on an assumed sub-quantum thermodynamics, the necessity of
energy quantization as originally postulated by Max Planck is explained by
means of purely classical physics. Moreover, under the same premises, also the
energy spectrum of the quantum mechanical...

Einstein's objection against both the completeness claim of the orthodox version and the Bohmian interpretation of quantum theory, using the example of a 'particle in a box', is reiterated and resolved. This is done by proving that the corresponding quantum mechanical states exactly match classical analogues. The latter are shown to result from the...

Assuming that a particle of energy ℏω is actually a dissipative system maintained in a nonequilibrium steady state by a constant throughput of energy (heat flow), one obtains the shortest derivation of the Schrödinger equation from (modern) classical physics in the literature, and the only exact one, too.

It is argued that any operational measure of time is inseparably bound to the presence of a periodic process in some medium. Since, as first formulated by Einstein's (1905) equation for the energy, all "particles" (neutrons, electrons, photons, etc.) are each characterized by a specific "frequency", the inverse of this frequency is the smallest ope...

Purpose
As any attempts at explaining quantum theory in terms of simple, local “cause‐and‐effect” models have remained unsatisfactory, approaches from the perspectives of systems theory seem called for, which is rich in a variety of more complex understandings of causality.
Design/methodology/approach
This paper presents one option for such approa...

Under the only assumptions that energy and momentum of a particle i) come in multiples of Planck's quantum of action, and ii) are subject to fluctuations related to the Huygens waves originating from the particle's embedded-ness in the surrounding "vacuum", one can derive the essentials of quantum physics from classical physics. In fact, the sugges...

It is shown how the essentials of quantum theory, i.e., the Schroedinger equation and the Heisenberg uncertainty relations, can be derived from classical physics. Next to the empirically grounded quantisation of energy and momentum, the only input is given by the assumption of fluctuations in energy and momentum to be added to the classical motion....

The Schroedinger- and Klein-Gordon equations are directly derived from classical Lagrangians. The only inputs are given by the discreteness of energy (E=hbar.w) and momentum (p=hbar.k), respectively, as well as the assumed existence of a space-pervading field of "zero-point energy" (E_0=hbar.w/2 per spatial dimension) associated to each particle of...

A simple model of macroevolution is proposed exhibiting both the property of punctuated equilibrium and the dynamics of potentialities for different species to evolve towards increasingly higher complexity. It is based on the phenomenon of fractal evolution which has been shown to constitute a fundamental property of nonlinear discretized systems w...

Highly nonlinear behavior of a system of discrete sites on a lattice is observed when a specific feedback loop is introduced into models employing coupled map lattices, quantum cellular automata, or the real-valued analogues of the latter. It is shown that the combination of two operations, i.e. i) enhancement of a site's value when fulfilling a fe...

The Klein–Gordon equation is shown to be equivalent to coupled partial differential equations for a sub-quantum Brownian movement of a “particle”, which is both passively affected by, and actively affecting, a diffusion process of its generally nonlocal environment. This indicates circularly causal, or “cybernetic”, relationships between “particles...

It is shown that the evolution of physics canin several regards be described by elements of``regression'', i.e., that within a certaintradition of ideas one begins with theconstruction of most ``plausible'' statements(axioms) at hand, and then ``works onselfbackwards'' with respect to developmental terms.As a consequence of this strategy, the furth...

A realistic solution of the "relativistic EPR dilemma" is proposed. The stated dilemma refers to the fact that a realistic account of nonlocal correlations in quantum theory as in EPR-type experiments, for example is faced with the problem of an apparently ambiguous choice for the time-ordering of events. However, if one takes into consideration Ar...

The canonical example of a self-organized critical system exhibiting power law properties is the sandpile model of Per Bak, and in its evolutionary extension, a model of macroevolution. Avalanches of events, be they sandslides or mutational activities, are caused by a domino effect. The system's emerging new property, called self-organized critical...

1999 marks the year when the first “solar system” apart from our own was “discovered” [Butler et al.]: astrometrical data provide strong evidence that the star Upsilon Andromedae is surrounded by at least three dark companions, i.e., most probably, planets. The evidence is derived from the wiggly path of the star due to its gravitational interactio...

Most of theoretical physics in the twentieth century can be characterized by a reductionist attitude that has revealed a hierarchical structure of the physical world. However, instead of being “radically” reducible to one “basic” level only, each layer of the hierarchy has turned out as largely autonomous. The great success of this approach consist...

One of the main unresolved problems in the foundations of physics is the compatibility of quantum theory with the theory of relativity: although the latter seemingly excludes the propagation of information with velocities faster than the speed of light c in the vacuum, the nonlocality of quantum theory (as given by the EPR correlations, for example...

Quantum cybernetics is a relativistic aether theory that can accommodate quantum-mechanical nonlocality via the concept of organizational coherence. Whenever two highly nonlinear modifications (commonly called “particles”) of the subquantum aether with two characteristic frequencies, ω1 and ω2, have at one time interacted with each other, they may...

So far, we have mainly dealt with the consequences of quantum cybernetics at the level of the linear theory. However, in general, quantum cybernetics is characterized by a genuinely nonlinear feature in that “particles” are considered as nonlinear modifications of an otherwise linear wave field. In fact, the expressions (2.44) or (2.45), respective...

A recently introduced model of macroevoluton is studied on two different levels of systems analysis. Firstly, the systems dynamics and properties, above all the growth of complexity of the evolutionary units during the long-term evolution, are discussed, and, secondly, the complexity of the model itself, i.e. the richness of its various features, i...

An approach to quantum phenomena is reviewed that deals with the possibility of their realistic interpretation in the sense that they represent manifestations of hermeneutic circles between quantum “objects” and their experimental boundary conditions. Quantum cybernetics provides an evolutionary perspective in that all higher‐level organizations li...

One-dimensional coupled map lattices or quantum cellular automata with any additionally implemented temporal feedback operations (involving some memory of the system’s states) and a normalization procedure after each time step exhibit a universal dynamic property called fractal evolution [Fussy & Grössing, 1994]. It is characterized by a power-law...

Quantum cellular automata (QCA) have been introduced [G. Grössing and A. Zeilinger, Complex Syst. 2, 197 (1988); 2, 611 (1988)] as n-dimensional arrays of discrete sites characterized by a complex number whose absolute square lies between 0 and 1 such that each site represents a quantum-mechanical probability amplitude. The evolutions of one-dimens...

The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. Address to which reprint requests should...

The discussion of nonadiabatic changes of eigenstates of quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians leads to a straightforward interpretation
of pure quantum states as ordered structures on top of a (hypothetical) stochastic subquantum medium. A nonlinear wave equation
is derived in the context of quantum cybernetics, which is made responsible for the generat...

Classical and quantum lattice properties are compared by studying the effect of “local” rules applied simultaneously to all individual sites of a given array on the formation of structures on a more “global” level, where the latter are large scale patterns of evolution maps for such arrays. As a classical model, the rotation-representation matrix i...

For cellular automaton machines getting increasingly smaller in size, a regime will be entered where effects due to matter waves may become dominant. Studying the evolution of one-dimensional and locally interacting cellular automata governed by generalized quantum mechanical rules, we discuss irreversibility as it appears in the evolution of struc...

In the present study we identify various general features governing the evolution of quantum cellular automata which have been introduced as a means of extending general systems theory into the quantum domain. It is found that a conservation law connects the strength of the mixing of locally interacting states and the periodicity of the large-scale...

It is shown on the basis of quantum cybernetics that one can obtain the usual predictions of quantum theory without ever referring to complex numbered ``quantum mechanical amplitudes''. Instead, a very simple formula for transition and certain conditional probabilities is developed that involves real numbers only, thus relating intuitively understa...

A relativistically invariant wave equation for the propagation of wave fronts S = const (S being the action function) is derived on the basis of a cybernetic model of quantum systems involving “hidden variables”. This equation can be considered both as an expression of Huygens' principle and as a general continuity equation providing a close link b...

The form of the recombination function-R is varied phenomenologically,
and moment solutions are given for the fragmentation function implied by
these different R-functions. The fragmentation functions calculated from
their moments by the moment inversion method of Yndurain are
represented. A description is given of the quark recombination model,
an...