Gerhard Brügmann

Gerhard Brügmann
Curt Engelhorn Zentrum Archäometrie | CEZ Archäometrie

PhD

About

139
Publications
33,261
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3,589
Citations
Citations since 2017
44 Research Items
1158 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Introduction
Gerhard Brügmann currently works at Curt Engelhorn Zentrum Archäometrie. Gerhard does research in Analytical Chemistry, Geochemistry and Environmental Chemistry. His current project is 'Bronze Age tin - Tin isotopes and the sources of Bronze Age tin in the old World (ERC project).'
Additional affiliations
April 2007 - November 2013
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (139)
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a new synthesized protocol for cassiterite reference material for in situ Sn isotope measurement using fsLA-MC-ICP-MS.
Conference Paper
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Determining the origin of archaeological bronzes and their metal sources is one of the great desiderata of archaeologists. Answersing these questions is often difficult with archaeological and typological methods alone, which is why isotope and elemental compositions of metals have since become important components. While the methods for the analys...
Article
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This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the beginnings of tin and bronze metallurgy in Central Asia by investigating a hitherto unique piece of a bronze slag. The object was originally discovered as a stray find only 4 km away from the large copper-tin deposit of Mušiston in Tajikistan. It contains many prills of bronze and cop...
Article
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Since the mid-1970s a Bronze Age assemblage of metal objects has been recovered from the seabed off the south Devon coast at Salcombe, southwest England. The assemblage spans two suspected shipwreck events and comprises nearly 400 pieces of raw materials and finished artefacts, primarily in copper, tin, bronze and gold. Among these are 280 copper a...
Article
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This pilot study addresses the analytical characterisation of 26 well‐known bronze objects of the Early and Middle Bronze Age of Central and Northern Europe. Besides swords and axes of the hoards from Apa, Téglás and Hajdúsámson, the investigation includes the famous Sky Disc and its accompanying finds from the Nebra hoard and several full‐hilted s...
Article
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Gold parting enabled the production of very pure gold for various purposes from the sixth century BC onwards, but analytical proof of this pyrotechnical process is difficult. We describe a new analytical approach for the identification of purified gold combining silver and copper isotopic with trace element analyses. Parting experiments were perfor...
Chapter
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The tin beads from the Early Bronze Age (BzA1) graves in Schwabmünchen, district Augsburg, and Buxheim, district Eichstätt are strong candidates for scientific examination as the metal is in a rare unalloyed form. In the foreground are questions regarding their composition and origin. However, the finds are also interesting in terms of how they wer...
Article
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Jahresschrift für Mitteldeutsche Vorgeschichte 98, 2021, 9-62. Abstract Why the Nebra Sky Disc Dates to the Early Bronze Age. An Overview of the Interdisciplinary Research Results It is not unusual that archaeological finds come under renewed scrutiny. This is an important part in the progress of scientific research. All the more so when importan...
Article
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It is not unusual that archaeological finds come under renewed scrutiny. This is actually an important part in the progress of scientific research. All the more so when important and ground-breaking discoveries are involved, like the Nebra Sky Disc, which is listed among the UNESCO “Memory of the World”. However, in most cases a new assessment is b...
Book
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The complex detailed analysis and publication of archaeological and anthropological data and the results of numerous science analyses of archaeological and anthropological material (palaeopathology, epigenetics, isotope analysis, 14C, analyses of metal, amber, stone tools, Sr, O, C and N isotopy etc.) form an essential foundation of the first-rate,...
Chapter
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Grave 50 contained three simple annular tin rings with open ends, two of which were in fragments (Fig. 279; Chap. 11.2.11). The fragments were analysed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and afterwards with a multi collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) in order to determine the tin isotope composition. The same proce...
Chapter
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The origin of Bronze Age tin has long been one of the greatest mysteries of archaeological research. Although the metal in the form of bronze already appeared in the late 4th and 3rd centuries in Anatolia, the Aegean and the Middle East, the sources of supply are still practically unknown. This is mainly due to the fact that there are no rich tin d...
Article
The paper focuses on isotopic data of bronzes from the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC. The sample sets comprise bronzes from hoards, graves, and settlements from Central and Southeastern Europe as well as the Aegean and Mesopotamia. The analytical determination of tin isotopic compositions and a possible use of tin from different ore sources between the...
Article
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The origin of the tin used for the production of bronze in the Eurasian Bronze Age is still one of the mysteries in prehistoric archaeology. In the past, numerous studies were carried out on archaeological bronze and tin objects with the aim of determining the sources of tin, but all failed to find suitable fingerprints. In this paper we investigat...
Article
We describe a technique for high-precision analysis of ¹⁰⁹ Ag/ ¹⁰⁷ Ag ratios in natural and archaeological gold (1.0–120 mg/g Ag) with particular emphasis on the control of Ag yield and effects of instrumental mass bias. After dissolution of mg-sized gold samples in aqua regia and conversion to chlorides, a miniature column filled with the anion ex...
Article
We report the first Ag isotope data for the Paleozoic orogenic Au deposits in the Victorian Goldfields, southeast Australia, a world-class province with a historic production of 2,400 tonnes of Au. Despite their relatively uniform geology—similar host-rock types, age, mineralization style—deposits in Victoria show a wide range in 107Ag/109Ag ratios...
Article
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Tin isotope ratios may be a useful tool for tracing back the tin in archaeological metal artefacts (tin metal, bronze) to the geological source and could provide information on ancient smelting processes. This study presents the results of laboratory experiments, which reduced (smelted) synthetic stannic oxide, natural cassiterite and corroded arch...
Chapter
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"BronzeAgeTin" - das vom European Research Council mit einen Advanced Grant geförderte Projekt zur Erforschung der Verwendbarkeit der Zinnisotopenanalyse für Herkunftsbestimmungen in der Archäologie neigt sich nach viereinhalb Jahren seinem Ende entgegen - Zeit, eine kurze Bilanz der experimentellen Arbeiten zu ziehen. Abgesehen von neuen Erkenntni...
Chapter
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Die Schwerter vom Typ „Apa“ werden als die ältesten frühbronzezeitlichen Schwerter Europas angesehen. Sie haben eine weite Verbreitung vom nördlichen Karpatenbecken (Rumänien, Ungarn), über Mitteleuropa bis nach Skandinavien, was auf ein weitreichendes Austauschnetz in der frühen und der beginnenden mittleren Bronzezeit hindeutet. Ihr Ursprungsgebi...
Research
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BRONZE AGE TIN is a multidisciplinary project funded by the European Research Council comprising archaeology, history, geochemistry, and geology, conducted by scientists from the University of Heidelberg and the Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Archäometrie in Mannheim. The objective is to decipher the enigma of the origin of tin in the early bronzes by comb...
Chapter
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The sources and origin of tin, and the dispersion of bronze technology in the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC, are the central research topics of our multi-disciplinary research project, funded by an Advanced Grant of the European Research Council (ERC). It has the general goal to establish the tin isotopic composition of tin ores and tin-bearing artefac...
Article
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This study uses MC-ICP-MS for the precise analysis of the stable tin isotopic composition in ore minerals of tin (cassiterite, stannite), tin metal and tin bronze. The ultimate goal is to determine the provenance of tin in ancient metal objects. We document the isotope compositions of reference materials, and compare the precision of different isot...
Article
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New rhenium–osmium data for high-MgO (>9 wt.%) basalts from the Galápagos Archipelago reveal a large variation in $^{187}$Os/$^{188}$Os (0.1304 to 0.173), comparable with the range shown by primitive global ocean island basalts (OIBs). Basalts with the least radiogenic $^{187}$Os/$^{188}$Os occur closest to the Galápagos plume stem: those in wester...
Article
We used Os isotopic systematics to assess the geochemical relationship between the lithospheric mantle beneath the Balkans (Mediterranean), ophiolitic peridotites and lavas derived from the lithospheric mantle. In our holistic approach we studied samples of Tertiary post-collisional ultrapotassic lavas sourced within the lithospheric mantle, placer...
Article
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Am Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Archäometrie Mannheim und der Universität Heidelberg wird seit Mitte 2013 im Rahmen eines von der EU geförderten Projektes einer Frage nachgegangen, die wie kaum eine andere Archäologen, Historiker und Naturwissenschaftler gleichermaßen beschäftigt: Woher kam das Zinn für die frühesten Bronzen der Menschheit?
Article
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Clinopyroxene and apatite are found to trace metasomatic processes in nepheline-bearing clinopyroxenites (tilaites) from the igneous, mafic-ultramafic Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes of Kytlym and Nizhny Tagil, Ural Mountains, Russian Federation. The clinopyroxenites consist predominantly of coarse-grained, partially to totally altered clinopyroxene...
Article
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This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lak...
Article
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Diagenetic carbonates, metamorphic carbonates, primary hydrothermal carbonates, and secondary remobilized carbonates (including sinters) from the Schwarzwald ore district in SW Germany formed in various tectonic settings and hydrothermal environments over a period of almost 300 Ma. They were investigated in order to define sources of carbon, disper...
Article
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For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar...
Article
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Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim i...
Article
Platinum solubility was determined in a haplobasaltic, diopside–anorthite melt at 1523K and 0.2GPa as a function of oxygen fugacity and chlorine content. Synthetic glass powder of an An42Di58 composition was sealed in a platinum or platinum–iridium alloy capsule and equilibrated with a solid CaCl2 and MgCl2 chlorine source, water and the noble-meta...
Article
Full-text available
Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The...
Article
Full-text available
The Neogene was a period of long-term global cooling and increasing climatic variability. Variations in African-Asian monsoon intensity over the last 7Ma have been deduced from patterns of eolian dust export into the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea as well as from lake level records in the East African Rift System (EARS). However, lake systems n...
Article
The partitioning of Pt, Ir, Ru and Au between sulfide and silicate melts was the partitioning in high-pressure gas apparatus at temperatures of 1200-1350° C and pressures of 1-4 kbar, under reducing conditions. The partition coefficients that were obtained show that splitting of sulfide liquids is an efficient mechanism of formation of ores of the...
Article
The Neogene of East Africa is regarded as a period of long-term increasing aridity. It has been proposed that this is the result of a cooling of Indian Ocean surface waters or is caused by tectonic processes leading to the updoming of East Africa. However, mesoclimatic effects induced by the dynamics of the formation of rifts involving uplift of th...
Article
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Uralian-Alaskan-type mafic–ultramafic complexes are recognized as a distinct class of intrusions regarding lithologic assemblage, mineral chemistry and petrogenetic setting. In the present study, we discuss new data on the distribution of major elements in minerals of the spinel group in rocks from Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes in the Ural Mountai...
Article
Constraints on the highly siderophile element (HSE: including Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd and Re) budget of the upper mantle upwelling beneath mid-ocean ridges have until now been based on samples that have experienced varying degrees of alteration, partial melting and secondary igneous processes. Here we present results from a set of abyssal peridotites th...
Article
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The partitioning of trace elements between rock forming minerals in igneous rocks is largely controlled by physical and chemical parameters e.g. temperature, pressure and chemical composition of the minerals and the coexisting melt. In the present study partition coefficients for REE between hornblende, orthopyroxene, feldspars, apatite and clinopy...
Conference Paper
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Mantle xenoliths of lherzolite composition from Mesozoic alkaline-ultramafic intrusions of Jetty Peninsula represent the section of the East Antarctic craton mantle to the depths of 60-80 km and demonstrate the abnormally high heat flow which is connected with rifting and destruction of lithosphere (Foley et al., 2006). Os isotope composition of ma...
Article
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We report a detail study of Highly Siderophile Elements (HSE) and Re-Os isotopes of lithologies from the Voykar Ophiolite (Polar Urals) which formed in a suprasubduction tectonic environment. Our data suggest that refractory harzburgite exhausted by melting more than 2 Ga ago was then reactivated by suprasubduction melts at about 0.6 Ga. These melt...
Article
The Neogene was a period of long-term global cooling and increasing climatic variability on astronomical time scales. Lake systems strongly depend on rainfall patterns and size or geographical distribution of river networks. To unravel environmental change and watershed dynamics in the western branch of the East African Rift (Lake Albert, Uganda) d...
Article
Recycling of subducted oceanic crust is widely thought to explain much of the chemical and isotopic heterogeneity of Earth's present-day mantle (1). Recycled subducted ocean crust has been traced by elevated 187Os/188Os in some studies (2-4) and by high Ni and low Mn contents in others (5,6). Recently, we have linked these tracers for the first tim...