Gerhard Bönisch

Gerhard Bönisch
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena | BGC · Department of Biogeochemical Integration

PhD

About

65
Publications
68,701
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8,261
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
October 1999 - present
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena
Position
  • Scientific Data Manager
February 1992 - September 1999

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
Due to massive energetic investments in woody support structures, trees are subject to unique physiological, mechanical, and ecological pressures not experienced by herbaceous plants. Despite a wealth of studies exploring trait relationships across the entire plant kingdom, the dominant traits underpinning these unique aspects of tree form and func...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract Due to massive energetic investments in woody support structures, trees are subject to unique physiological, mechanical, and ecological pressures not experienced by herbaceous plants. When considering trait relationships across the entire plant kingdom, plant trait frameworks typically must omit traits unique to large woody species, there...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims The acquisitive-conservative axis of plant ecological strategies results in a pattern of leaf trait covariation that captures the balance between leaf construction costs and plant growth potential. Studies evaluating trait covariation within species are scarcer, and have mostly dealt with variation in response to environmental g...
Article
Full-text available
A large body of research shows that biodiversity loss can reduce ecosystem functioning. However, much of the evidence for this relationship is drawn from biodiversity–ecosystem functioning experiments in which biodiversity loss is simulated by randomly assembling communities of varying species diversity, and ecosystem functions are measured. This r...
Article
Nutrition has been hypothesized as an important constraint on brain evolution. However, it is unclear whether the availability of specific nutrients or the difficulty of locating high quality diets limits brain evolution, especially over long periods of time. We show that dietary nutrient content predicted brain size across 42 species of butterflie...
Article
Full-text available
Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large‐scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e., climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested whether associations of ITV with tem...
Article
Full-text available
Plant traits—the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants—determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research sp...
Preprint
Full-text available
A large body of research shows that biodiversity loss can reduce ecosystem functioning, thus providing support for the conservation of biological diversity. Much of the evidence for this relationship is drawn from biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments (hereafter: biodiversity experiments), in which biodiversity loss is simulated by randoml...
Article
Full-text available
Scientists have known for over a century that resource addition can lead to species loss from plant communities. Recent studies have also shown that resource addition can substantially restructure communities by altering their functional and taxonomic composition-even when species richness remains unchanged. Understanding which aspects of community...
Article
Full-text available
The origins of agriculture were key events in human history, during which people came to depend for their food on small numbers of animal and plant species. However, the biological traits determining which species were domesticated for food provision, and which were not, are unclear. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic distribution of livestock a...
Article
Full-text available
A substantial body of evidence has demonstrated that biodiversity stabilizes ecosystem functioning over time in grassland ecosystems. However, the relative importance of different facets of biodiversity underlying the diversity-stability relationship remains unclear. Here we use data from 39 grassland biodiversity experiments and structural equatio...
Article
We lack strong empirical evidence for links between plant attributes (plant community attributes and functional traits) and the distribution of soil microbial communities at large spatial scales. Using datasets from two contrasting regions and ecosystem types in Australia and England, we report that aboveground plant community attributes, such as d...
Article
Numerous studies have reported changes in first flowering day (FFD-changes) in response to changes in climate. However, regarding the direction (advances versus delays) and the intensity (number of days/decade) of FFD-changes, species show differences even when observed in the same location. Here, we examine the extent to which plant traits can exp...
Article
Full-text available
Our ability to understand and predict the response of ecosystems to a changing environment depends on quantifying vegetation functional diversity. However, representing this diversity at the global scale is challenging. Typically, in Earth system models, characterization of plant diversity has been limited to grouping related species into plant fun...
Article
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncerta...
Article
1.Ecological research produces a tremendous amount of data, but the diversity in scales and topics covered and the ways in which studies are carried out result in large numbers of small, idiosyncratic data sets using heterogeneous terminologies. Such heterogeneity can be attributed, in part, to a lack of standards for acquiring, organizing and desc...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic global vegetation models are used to predict the response of vegetation to climate change. They are essential for planning ecosystem management, understanding carbon cycle–climate feedbacks, and evaluating the potential impacts of climate change on global ecosystems. JULES (the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) represents terrestrial pro...
Data
A full text is currently unavailable. Suggest contact the lead author: sdiaz@efn.uncor.edu Kind regards, andy g
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic global vegetation models are used to predict the response of vegetation to climate change. They are essential for planning ecosystem management, understanding carbon cycleclimate feedbacks, and evaluating the potential impacts of climate change on global ecosystems. JULES (the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) represents terrestrial proc...
Article
Full-text available
Earth is home to a remarkable diversity of plant forms and life histories, yet comparatively few essential trait combinations have proved evolutionarily viable in today’s terrestrial biosphere. By analysing worldwide variation in six major traits critical to growth, survival and reproduction within the largest sample of vascular plant species ever...
Article
Plant functional types (PFTs) aggregate the variety of plant species into a small number of functionally different classes. We examined to what extent plant traits, which reflect species' functional adaptations, can capture functional differences between predefined PFTs and which traits optimally describe these differences. We applied Gaussian kern...
Data
Full-text available
Since 70% of global forests are managed and forests impact the global carbon cycle and the energy exchangewith the overlying atmosphere, forest management has the potential to mitigate climate change. Yet, none ofthe land-surface models used in Earth system models, and therefore none of today’s predictions of future climate, accounts for the intera...
Article
Full-text available
1. Soil carbon (C) storage is a key ecosystem service. Soil C stocks play a vital role in soil fertility and climate regulation, but the factors that control these stocks at regional and national scales are unknown, particularly when their composition and stability are considered. As a result, their mapping relies on either unreliable proxy measure...
Article
Full-text available
Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the...
Article
Full-text available
Leaf dark respiration (Rdark ) is an important yet poorly quantified component of the global carbon cycle. Given this, we analyzed a new global database of Rdark and associated leaf traits. Data for 899 species were compiled from 100 sites (from the Arctic to the tropics). Several woody and nonwoody plant functional types (PFTs) were represented. M...
Article
Full-text available
Since 70% of global forests are managed and forests impact the global carbon cycle and the energy exchange with the overlying atmosphere, forest management has the potential to mitigate climate change. Yet, none of the land surface models used in Earth system models, and therefore none of today’s predictions of future climate, account for the inter...
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: During the last years the TRY initiative has combined an unprecedented number of plant trait measurements and has made these data available for trait-based approaches in ecology and biodiversity science and for the improvement of vegetation models ( www.try-db.org ). Main conclusion: We presented recent progress with resp...
Article
Full-text available
Recent meta-analyses have revealed that plant traits and their phylogenetic history influence decay rates of dead wood and leaf litter, but it remains unknown if decay rates of wood and litter covary over a wide range of tree species and across ecosystems. We evaluated the relationships between species-specific wood and leaf litter decomposability,...
Article
Full-text available
In many current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), including those incorporated into Earth system models (ESMs), terrestrial vegetation is represented by a small number of plant functional types (PFTs), each with fixed properties irrespective of their predicted occurrence. This contrasts with natural vegetation, in which many plant traits va...
Article
1. The integrative research field of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) requires close collaboration between researchers from different disciplines working on different scales in time, space as well as taxon resolution. Data can describe anything from abiotic ecosystem components, to organisms, parts of organisms, genetic information or eleme...
Article
Full-text available
In current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), including those incorporated into Earth System Models (ESMs), terrestrial vegetation is represented by a small number of plant functional types (PFTs), each with fixed properties irrespective of their predicted occurrence. This contrasts with natural vegetation, in which many plant traits vary sy...
Article
Full-text available
Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. T...
Article
Full-text available
1. Plant traits are fundamental for understanding and predicting vegetation responses to global changes, and they provide a promising basis towards a more quantitative and predictive approach to ecology. As a consequence, information on plant traits is rapidly accumulating, and there is a growing need for efficient database tools that enable the as...
Article
Full-text available
Several recent studies have considered the potential impact of climate change on regional wind intensity. However, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present conflicting results for wind speed trends in relation to climate drivers. This study analyzes the percentiles (50th, 75th, and 95th) of the strongly positively skewed d...
Article
Full-text available
Several recent studies have considered the potential impact of climate change on regional wind intensity. However, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present conflicting results for wind speed trends in relation to climate drivers. This study analyzes the percentiles (50th, 75th, and 95th) of the strongly skewed distribution...
Article
Full-text available
Fifteen-minute Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) infrared dust index images are used to identify dust source areas. The observations of dust source activation (DSA) are compiled in a 1° × 1° map for the Sahara and Sahel, including temporal information at 3-hourly resolution. Here we use this dat...
Article
Full-text available
During the summer of 1996 the nuclear submarine USS Pogy occupied a line of stations extending through the middle of the Canadian Basin between about 88°N, 44°W (Lomonosov Ridge) and about 78°N, 144°W (center of the Canada Basin). CTD/Niskin bottle casts extending to 1600 m were carried out at eight stations, providing the first high-quality temper...
Article
During the past decades, a variety of transient tracers have been used to derive information on pathways and mean residence times of oceanic water masses. Here, we discuss how information obtained in such studies can be applied to studying the spreading of dissolved pollutants in the ocean. The discussion focuses on the transient tracers tritium/3H...
Article
We present long-term observations of temperature, salinity, tritium/3He, chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC11), and chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC12) for the central Greenland Gyre. The time series span the periods between 1952 and 1994 (temperature), 1981 and 1994 (salinity), 1972 and 1994(tritium/3He,) and 1982 and 1994 (CFCs). The correlation between hydrog...
Article
We present Δ14C data collected during three cruises to the Arctic Ocean that took place in the summers of 1987 (POLARSTERN cruise ARK IV/3), 1991 (ARCTIC 91 Expedition), and 1994 (Arctic Ocean Section 94). The cruise tracks of these three expeditions cover all major basins of the Arctic Ocean (Nansen, Amundsen, Makarov and Canada basins), and can b...
Article
Multi-tracer data sets collected in the Greenland/Norwegian seas and the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean in the 1970s and 1980s are used, together with temperature and salinity, to (1) constrain box model calculations of the deep water formation rates in the Greenland Sea and the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, and (2) estimate the exchange...
Article
The distributions of , 14C and 39Ar observed in the period between 1985 and 1987 in the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are presented. The data are used to outline aspects of the large-scale circulation and the exchange of deep water between the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin. Additionally, semi-quan...
Article
We present (delta 14) C and (39) Ar data collected in the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins during two expeditions to the central Arctic Ocean . The data are used, together with published (delta 14) C values, to describe the distribution of (delta 14) C in all major basins of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the (39) Ar distributions, we derive infor...
Article
The mean residence time of river-runoff on the shelves and in the halocline of the Arctic Ocean is estimated from salinity and tracer data (tritium, 3He and the 18O/16O ratio). These estimates are derived from comparison of apparent tracer ages of the halocline waters using a combination of tracers that yield different information: (1) the tritium...
Article
Full-text available
We present ΔA 14 C and 39 Ar data collected in the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins during two expeditions to the central Arctic Ocean (RV Polarstern cruises ARK IV/3, 1987 and ARK VIII/3, 1991). The data are used, together with published Δ 14 C values, to describe the distribution of Δ 14 C in all major basins of the Arctic Ocean (Nansen, Amund...
Article
Three separate tracer ratio-based water mass ages (CCl4/F11, tritium/3 He and F11/F12) are calculated for the 1987 oceanographic section by R.V. Polarstern across the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean. The CCl4/F11 ratio ages are shown to be in good agreement with the apparent tritium/3He ages throughout the age range studied (5\2—30 years) and with F11/F...
Article
Hydrographic observations and measurements of the concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have suggested that the formation of Greenland Sea Deep Water (GSDW) slowed down considerably during the 1980s. Such a decrease is related to weakened convection in the Greenland Sea and thus could have significant impact on the properties of the waters f...
Article
Full-text available
Tritium/3He-, 14C- and helium/neon data from a station located in the central Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are reported and discussed. It is demonstrated that 3He is a valuable tracer for studies of the upper water column and, together with tritium, 3He provides a rough time scale of the ventilation of these waters. The apparent tritium/3He age...
Book
Full-text available
1 Introduction.- 2 General Procedure.- 3 System Configuration.- 3.1 Gas Extraction Units.- 3.2 Inlet System.- 3.3 Mass Spectrometer.- 3.4 Computer Control.- 4 System and Handling Details.- 4.1 Gas Extraction Systems.- 4.1.1 Small Volume Samples.- 4.1.2 Large Volume Samples.- 4.2 Inlet System.- 4.2.1 Sample Inlet.- 4.2.2 Air Standards.- 4.2.3 Sample...
Chapter
Prior to operation, the system is baked for 1 hour at a temperature of ≈ 100°C and pumped to a pressure of ≈ 10−5 mbar. Cooling of cold trap CT1 with liquid nitrogen reduces the pressure to about 2 10−6 mbar. The sample is transferred from the copper tube to the glass bulb by removal of the lower pinchoff clamp, pressing of the copper seal and heat...
Chapter
To demonstrate the capability of the system a tritium profile from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) is shown in Fig. 21. These measurements clearly show that in the southern hemisphere the structure of the tritium profiles can be only resolved by measurement of tritium via 3He ingrowth. The good agreement of the duplicate samples is evidence for the ov...
Chapter
Gas extraction from the water samples for helium isotope measurement is done in an all metal vacuum extraction line (Fig. 1). Samples contained in copper tubes (CT, volume about 40 cm3) sealed by stainless steel pinch-off clamps (CL; Fig. 1 a) are connected to the extraction system via O-ring fitting (OF). A bulb for expansion of the water (EB) and...
Chapter
There are many potential sources of tritium and/or 3He blanks in all individual steps of the measurement procedure. These blanks have to be subtracted from the measured signal before it is converted to final data. To do the correction properly, the blank components have to be separated and the effect of the correction on the precision of the measur...
Chapter
The measurement of helium isotopes includes three steps. The first step is to collect water samples in the field and to store them in appropriate containers for shore based measurement. The second step is quantitative gas extraction from the water samples and storage of the extracted gases in special glass ampoules before they are measured mass spe...
Chapter
For small volume mass spectrometric tritium measurement an intercalibration with the Heidelberg low-level β-counting laboratory was done. For this purpose samples taken on a station in the Arctic Ocean were measured both mass spectrometrically and using the low-level counting technique. The accuracy of the βcounting results is ±5% with a detection...

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
With this project we are looking if differences in functional traits can explain different phenological reactions of plants to changes in climate.
Archived project