Gerd Kvale

Gerd Kvale
University of Bergen | UiB · Department of Clinical Psychology

Dr.Psychol

About

143
Publications
30,220
Reads
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4,302
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - present
Haukeland University Hospital
Position
  • Project Manager
Description
  • Leader of the Bergen OCD-team
August 2005 - October 2010
University of Bergen
Position
  • Head of Faculty

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Full-text available
Background The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to its role in error processing, cognitive control and emotion regulation. OCD patients have shown altered concentrations in neurometabolites in the dACC, particularly Glx (glutamate+glutamine) and tNAA (N...
Article
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has led to major social and economic changes that could impact public mental health. The main aim of the current study was to investigate mental health in Norway during the COVID-19 outbreak (since the first confirmed case on 26 February 2020). Methods The results are from the first wave of the data collection (1 A...
Article
Full-text available
Key features COVIDMENT [www.covidment.is] is a NordForsk-funded research collaboration across six nations, with the overarching aim to significantly advance current knowledge on mental morbidity trajectories associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the general population and in specific risk groups. From March 2020 through Augus...
Article
Full-text available
Background: An ageing population with a growing burden of chronic, complex illnesses will seriously challenge the public health care system. Consequently, novel and efficacious treatment approaches are highly warranted. Based on our experiences with concentrated treatment formats for other health challenges, we have developed a highly concentrated...
Article
Full-text available
Insomnia is a substantial problem in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There is, however, a lack of studies investigating changes in concurrent symptoms of insomnia in OCD after concentrated treatment. A recent randomized controlled trial randomized participants to the Bergen 4-day treatment (B4DT, n = 16), or 12 weeks of unguided...
Preprint
BACKGROUND An aging population with a growing burden of chronic complex illnesses will seriously challenge the public health care system. Consequently, novel and efficacious treatment approaches are highly warranted. Based on our experiences with concentrated treatment formats for other health challenges, we developed a highly concentrated interdis...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The treatment of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment adherence predicts treatment outcome for patients with OCD, but there is little knowledge on its role in concentrated exposure treatment for OCD. Method: In the present study, 42...
Article
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Background: Subtle differences in white matter microstructure have been found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), but it is unclear if and how this change after treatment. The primary aim of this pre-registered study was to investigate white matter integrity between OCD patients and cont...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been related to worse performance, abnormal brain activity, and functional connectivity during response inhibition. Whether these findings are indications of stable traits that contribute to the development of the disorder, or whether they are a result of the state severity of obsessions and anxie...
Article
Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) are common mental disorders, which – especially without treatment – may take a chronic course. Although they often remain undetected, there is a lack of short and valid screening instruments. With the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale - Short Form (DOCS-SF) a screening instrument is available i...
Article
Full-text available
No diagnostic biomarkers are available for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we aimed to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers for OCD, using 46 data sets with 2304 OCD patients and 2068 healthy controls from the ENIGMA consortium. We performed machine learning analysis of regional measures of cortical thickness, surface are...
Article
Full-text available
No diagnostic biomarkers are available for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we aimed to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers for OCD, using 46 data sets with 2304 OCD patients and 2068 healthy controls from the ENIGMA consortium. We performed machine learning analysis of regional measures of cortical thickness, surface are...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Evidence is lacking for viable treatment options for patients with difficult-to-treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It has been suggested that D-cycloserine (DCS) could potentiate the effect of exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment, but the hypothesis has not been tested among patients with difficult-to-treat OCD. Obje...
Article
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Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. The authors sought to directly compare these disorders using structural brain imaging data from ENIGMA consortium data. Methods: Structural T1-weight...
Article
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The Bergen 4-Day Treatment (B4DT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) was recently tested in a randomized controlled trial, where the results showed that the B4DT was more effective than a self-help intervention (SH) and a waiting list condition (WL). Patients in the SH and WL condition who were still in need of treatment after the first interv...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroimaging has played an important part in advancing our understanding of the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). At the same time, neuroimaging studies of OCD have had notable limitations, including reliance on relatively small samples. International collaborative efforts to increase statistical power by combining samples from a...
Article
Background Exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but it is unclear how symptom reduction is related to changes in the brain. We aimed to determine the effects of a 4-day concentrated ERP program (Bergen 4-Day Treatment, B4DT) on the static and dynamic functional connectome in OCD p...
Article
Full-text available
Response inhibition has previously been suggested as an endophenotype for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), evidenced by studies showing worse task performance, and altered task-related activation and connectivity. However, it’s unclear if these measures change following treatment. In this study, 31 OCD patients and 28 healthy controls performed...
Article
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Findings suggest that increased levels of family accommodation are associated with a poorer treatment outcome in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). A concentrated treatment format, the Bergen 4-day treatment (B4DT), has previously demonstrated promising results in the treatment of adolescents with OCD. The present paper examined changes in family...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: The Bergen 4-day treatment (B4DT) is a concentrated exposure-based treatment for patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) delivered during four consecutive days. The B4DT has in a number of open trials demonstrated promising results as approximately 90% of patients gain reliable clinical change post-treatment and nearl...
Article
It has been debated whether concentrated exposure and response prevention (ERP) is too difficult to tolerate for some patients. This report therefore uses quality assurance data looking into whether sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) affects treatment outcome among patients with OCD. SPS is a personality trait regarding heightened levels of emotiona...
Article
Obsessive‐compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder, yet its etiology is unknown and treatment outcomes could be improved if biological targets could be identified. Unfortunately, genetic findings for OCD are lagging behind other psychiatric disorders. Thus, there is a pressing need to understand the causal mechanisms implica...
Article
Full-text available
Sørlandet Hospital in Norway has a history of offering patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cognitive behavior group therapy using 12 weekly sessions of 2.5 h each. A previous evaluation of this treatment has shown that 51.9% did not respond at post-treatment. Recently, a highly concentrated group-treatment format, the Bergen 4-day tre...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Lateralized dysfunction has been suggested in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it is currently unclear whether OCD is characterized by abnormal patterns of brain structural asymmetry. Here we carried out what is by far the largest study of brain structural asymmetry in OCD. METHODS We studied a collection of 16 pediatric dat...
Presentation
Background: Lateralized dysfunction has been suggested in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it is currently unclear whether OCD is characterized by abnormal patterns of brain structural asymmetry. Here we carried out what is by far the largest study of brain structural asymmetry in OCD. Methods: We studied a collection of 16 pediatri...
Article
There is a lack of research on the relation between obsessive‐compulsive disorder (OCD) and resilience. Dispositional resilience, as described and defined in literature on hardiness, consists of three facets, namely beliefs about having control in everyday living, having a sense of purpose or commitment, and a positive attitude toward challenges. T...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the first implementation outside of Norway of the Bergen 4-day treatment for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), an innovative and effective treatment format with high acceptance and basically no drop-out. Method: Nineteen patients with OCD underwent the treatment at the Icelandic Anxiety Cli...
Article
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Background: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalopathy (CFS/ME) is an incapacitating illness in which single treatment interventions seem to have variable effects. Based on an earlier study we have conducted a new study with a concentrated intervention program. The aims of this study were to: (1) explore the clinical course for patients with C...
Article
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Background: Oslo University Hospital, Norway, had by autumn 2016, accumulated a waiting list of 101 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had a legal right to receive treatment by a specialized OCD team. In this challenging situation, the Bergen OCD-team suggested to solve the problem by offering all patients an option for the rapi...
Article
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There are few long-term follow-up studies on psychological treatment of anxiety disorders carried out in clinical mental health settings, so called effectiveness studies. The present paper presents a four year follow-up of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder treated by the Bergen 4-day treatment (B4DT), a concentrated form of exposure and r...
Article
A previous effectiveness study (Riise et al., 2016) demonstrated promising findings from a 4-day concentrated exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment, the Bergen 4-day treatment (B4DT), for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study investigated whether the results reported in the original study were replicated...
Article
Full-text available
The current article reports on the findings from a pilot treatment study on panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia. Consecutively referred patients were included and treated with the Bergen 4-day treatment format. Twenty-nine patients were included, primarily from unsuccessful treatment courses in the Norwegian specialist mental health car...
Article
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The Bergen 4-day concentrated exposure treatment (cET) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has proven highly acceptable; with practically no drop-out and a 6 month remission rate of nearly 70%. The aim of the present study was to evaluate long term gains of the approach, and to compare the results to findings from our recent meta-analysis. Sixt...
Article
Full-text available
Recommended psychological treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) including exposure with response prevention (ERP). Previous studies have identified few consistent predictors of both short- and long-term treatment outcomes in CBT for OCD. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relation b...
Article
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Purpose of review: Specific symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been suggested as an approach to reduce the heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder, predict treatment outcome, and relate to brain structure and function. Here, we review studies addressing these issues. Recent findings: The contamination and symme...
Article
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BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been suggested during executive tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether behavioral and neural responses during emotion processing and regulation also represent an endophenotype of OCD. METHODS: Forty-three unmedicated adult OCD patient...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience aversive emotions in response to obsessions, motivating avoidance and compulsive behaviors. However, there is considerable ambiguity regarding the brain circuitry involved in emotional processing in OCD, especially whether activation is altered in the amygdala. Methods We cond...
Article
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Research indicates that patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) frequently suffer from comorbid sleep difficulties, and that these difficulties often are not clinically recognized and diagnosed. There has been limited research investigating if comorbid sleep difficulties impair treatment outcome for OCD and if the sleep difficulties chang...
Article
Full-text available
Accurately and reliably measuring the presence and severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms is essential for both routine clinical work and research. The current study investigated psychometric properties of the dimensional obsessive-compulsive scale-short form (DOCS-SF). DOCS-SF was developed and validated in Norwegian. DOCS-SF con...
Conference Paper
Introduction OCD symptoms have been associated with task-dependent alterations in brain activity implying dysregulation in limbic (e.g. the amygdala) and frontal-striatal circuits. Emerging evidence shows that there are functional neural endophenotypes in executive processing suggesting compensatory hyperactivation of fronto-parietal executive cont...
Article
Background: In a previous effectiveness study (Havnen et al., 2014), 35 obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients underwent Concentrated Exposure Treatment (cET), which is a newly developed group treatment format delivered over four consecutive days. Aims: The primary aims of the present study were to evaluate the treatment results for a new...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The importance of a strong working alliance is assumed to be important in exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). During the first sessions, the therapist aims to achieve agreement with the patient on the tasks and goals of therapy by formulating a treatment plan. The aims of the study we...
Article
Full-text available
Prevalence of Personality DisorDers in Patients with ocD anD relationshiP to treatment outcome espen handeland Øvrehus, anneli sund martinsen, Kristen hagen, Bjarne hansen, Gerd Kvale abstract Objective: as a rule of thumb 30-40% of patients with ocD do not experience clinically relevant change from exposure and response prevention (ERP), and 50% c...
Article
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a concentrated exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Twenty-two adolescents with OCD (range 11 – 17 years) received therapist-assisted ERP during four consecutive days, followed by a three week period of self-administered ERP. Treatment wa...
Article
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is ranked by the World Health Organization (WHO) among the 10 most debilitating disorders. The treatments which have been found effective are cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI). This meta-analysis includes all RCTs of CBT (25) and SRI (9) for OCD in youth using the Children’s...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) stepped care model (psychoeducation, guided internet treatment, and face-to-face CBT) compared with direct face-to-face (FtF) CBT. Patients with panic disorder or social anxiety disorder were randomized to either stepped care (n = 85) or direct FtF CBT (n...
Article
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is ranked by the WHO as among the 10 most debilitating disorders and tends to be chronic without adequate treatment. The only psychological treatment that has been found effective is cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). This meta-analysis includes all RCTs (N=37) of CBT for OCD using the interview-based Yale-Brown Obsessi...
Article
The aims of the present study were to evaluate the acceptability and long term gains of a highly concentrated exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment was individually tailored and delivered in a group format over four consecutive days in an outpatient OCD treatment unit, part of the ordinary special...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a severe condition tending to be chronic if untreated. Despite research indicating that OCD is a common co-morbidity in patients with psychotic disorders, there is sparse systematic knowledge about the clinical course in patients with psychosis and comorbid OCD. To compare, one year after the first...
Article
Objective: Sleep disturbances are frequently undiagnosed in patients with mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbances in a sample of treatment-seeking patients with obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD).
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Research on self-reported sleep quality and clinical experience indicate that comorbid sleep disorder is a common problem among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have investigated this issue. Recent research suggested that primary insomnia might be related to inhibition of arousal, which in turn may...