Gerd Hentschel

Gerd Hentschel
Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg · Department of Slavic Studies

About

121
Publications
13,476
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383
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Introduction
Gerd Hentschel currently works at the Department of Slavic Studies, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg. Gerd does research in Sociolinguistics and Contactlinguistics. One current project is 'Russian - Belarusian / Ukrainian language contact' and corresponding code mixing. A second current project is a lexicographic one: German loans in Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian. A third field of interest is variation in morphology and morphosyntax. In (as a rule) corpus based analytic work quantitative methods are widely taken advantage of .
Additional affiliations
April 1993 - September 2021
Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 1981 - March 1993
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
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В данной статье речь идёт об истории названия спиртного напитка, появившегося на свет в Гданьске, в основанной голландцами в конце XVI века винокурне. При этом его название, Krambambuli, встречается в немецком языке только с середины XVIII века; в польском, русском и голландском оно в схожей форме появляется несколько позже. Сам напиток некоторые с...
Book
Zweisprachige Ausgabe - Wydanie dwujęzyczne: Der schlesische Regiolekt hatte unter deutscher Herrschaft eine Vielzahl von Germanismen aufgenommen. Dargestellt wird, inwieweit dieser Einfluss des Deutschen noch heute sichtbar ist. Das Schlesische wird nur noch von einer Minderheit der oberschlesischen Bevölkerung gesprochen, neben Polnisch. Analysi...
Article
This paper presents an application of interactive cluster heatmaps in sociolinguistics, a method hitherto scarcely employed in the field. To that end, we developed a statistical workflow to illustrate the method and analyse large-scale Silesian questionnaire data. In our quantitative-linguistic study we demonstrate how heatmaps can uncover informat...
Book
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Das Wörterbuch erfasst ca. 700 Germanismen, die zu denjenigen zählen, die in einer Vielzahl von Glossaren und populären Wörterbüchern zum schlesischen Lekt bzw. Regiolekt der Gegenwart berücksichtigt werden. Es zeigt sich, dass eine große Zahl von ihnen durchaus noch in Gebrauch sind, eine vergleichbare Zahl jedoch nicht. Das Wörterbuch hat neben d...
Article
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The Ukraine is a multilingual state, with a predominantly bilingual constellation: Ukrainian and Russian. Both languages function as donor languages for a mixed code called Surzhyk. This code may exist in two variants, reflecting the history of the Ukraine. “Prototype Surzhyk” stems from the times of Russian political dominance: Over almost two cen...
Article
Artykuł poświęcony jest fenomenowi przenikania germanizmów za pośrednictwem rosyjskiego do polskiego. Na wybranych przykładach autor pokazuje, że liczba w ten sposób zapożyczanych germanizmów jest najprawdopodobniej większa niż dotąd zakładano. Przy systematycznym uwzględnianiu wariantów danego słowa na poziomie wyrażenia oraz polisemii pojawiają s...
Article
The study investigates both the (declared) usage of Polish, Silesian and German among autochthon Silesians who regularly utilize Silesian as well as the question of their identity. The study is based on a survey of 2,000 respondents in the Upper Silesian industrial region and around Opole. The survey also asks respondents for their expectations reg...
Article
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The article presents initial findings from a research project that aims to investigate to what extent German loan words are still in use in Silesian today. Over the centuries, Silesian has adopted far more loan words from German than any other dialect on Polish territory. The project focuses on speakers of Silesian and analyses their so-called subj...
Article
This article investigates the relationship between linguistic preferences, religiousness and religious denomination in Central Ukraine. On the one hand, the Ukrainian linguistic situation is characterized by the co-existence of Ukrainian, Russian and substandard forms of Ukrainian Russian mixed speech, on the other hand, the Orthodoxy in Ukraine is...
Article
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The paper discusses the phenomenon of lexical borrowing of German words into Polish mediated by Russian during the time of the Partitions of Poland from the end of the 18th century to the First World War. Based on material from an ongoing research project devoted to the question of which path parallel Germanisms took into Polish on the one hand and...
Article
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Observations on the Spread of Lexical Germanisms in the Contemporary Silesian Regiolect The article analyses the extent to which Silesians who say that they regularly use the Silesian regiolect still actively use the numerous lexical Germanisms that have been described for Silesian. It is based on a survey of nearly 1,000 respondents about their “s...
Article
The following study provides evidence that the use of a high number of test items in a subjective rating task with a bipolar scale does not affect the outcome detrimentally, a question hitherto unexplored in quantitative linguistics. By ‘contrastive bipolar scale’ we have in mind a scale with two different, explicit ‘options’ (here words), one at e...
Article
The article analyses the extent to which Silesians who say that they regularly use the Silesian regiolect still actively use the numerous lexical Germanisms that have been described for Silesian. It is based on a survey of nearly 1,000 respondents about their “subjective frequency” of Germanism usage. Procedures are suggested for distinguishing bet...
Book
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Die Studie untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen Sprachverwendung, sozialer Positionierung und kollektiver Identitätsbildung in Weißrussland zwischen dem Weißrussischen, Russischen und der weißrussisch-russisch gemischten Rede (Trasjanka). Die soziodemographische und ökonomische Struktur der drei „Kodes“ wird mittels Umfrage und Interviews bei drei...
Chapter
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The paper discusses the contact- and sociolinguistic status of contemporary (Upper) Silesian on the background of a highly politicalized and emotional debate in Poland, taking into account the historical background. A special topic commentd upon is the influence of German on Silesian, especially in the lexicon. Proposals have been made as to the fu...
Article
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The article deals with the mixed types of speech in Ukraine and Belarus – Surzhyk and Trasyanka. On the basis of multidimensional research conducted by the scholars from Oldenburg University and their colleagues from Ukraine and Belarus, the author discusses the range of Russian influence on the hybrid languages. Both qualitative and quantitative a...
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i канструкцый той мовы, на якой спрабуюць размауляць'. Лiнгвiсты-трады­ цыяналiсты у Беларусi, Украгне, Pacii, атаксама многiя пicьменнiкi, лiтара­ турныя крытыкт i «лiнгвicты-палiтыкi» схiльны разглядаць гэтых моуцау у кантэксце культурнага заняпаду, выклiканага недахопам адукацыi. Для на­ шых мэт такiя палемiчныя погляды, безумоуна, не рэлевантны...
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Chapter
Die weißrussische 'Trasjanka' und der ukrainische 'Suržyk': grundlegende quantitativ-qualitative soziolinguistische Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede 1. Hintergrund In Weißrussland und der Ukraine liegen zwei Formen der gemischten, weißrus-sisch-bzw. ukrainisch-russischen Rede vor, die es sogar zu einem eigenen Namen gebracht haben: 'Trasjanka' und 'S...
Article
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(English one beneath) Эта статья является итогом исследовательского проекта по белорусско-русской смешанной речи (БРСР), которую обычно уничижительно называют «трасянкой». БРСР практикуют как субвариант миллионы людей в Беларуси, как правило, в дополнение к русскому. Результаты проекта будут представлены в формате вопросов и ответов. Речь идет об 1...
Article
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This paper concludes a research project on Belarusian-Russian Mixed Speech (BRMS), which is commonly referred to disrespectfully as ‘Trasjanka’. BRMS is practised as a subvariety by millions of people in Belarus, usually in addition to Russian. The findings of the project will be presented in a question and answer format. At issue are 11 questions,...
Article
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On the basis of a survey from June/July 2014, this article investigates the attitudes towards Ukrainian, Russian, and the widespread Ukrainian-Russian mixed speech in central areas of Ukraine. Although there are certain differences between areas that are differentiated by the amount of use of the three codes, all in all there are no hints at a prof...
Article
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Современные языковые субстандарты отличаются высокой степенью вариативности. В европейском языковом пространстве их часто рассматривают как смешанные диалекты (региолекты, городские диалекты и т. п.), сочетающие в себе элементы литературных языков (суперстрата) и «старых», исконных диалектов соответствующих регионов (автохтонного субстрата). Соврем...
Article
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Рассматривается положение белорусского языка в Беларуси, где он конкурирует с русским языком и белорусско-русской смешанной речью, так называемой «трасянкой». На основе национального опроса 1000 респондентов, проведенного в 2013 г., показано, какой молодые белорусы видят свою первичную языковую социализацию и как оценивают распределение разных язык...
Article
On the basis of a survey from June/July 2014, this article investigates the attitudes towards Ukrainian, Russian, and the widespread Ukrainian-Russian mixed speech in central areas of Ukraine. Although there are certain differences between areas that are differentiated by the amount of use of the three codes, all in all there are no hints at a prof...
Article
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Невдовзі після початку окупації Криму московська влада подала ук раїн- сько-російську двомовність в Україні як мовний конфлікт, у якому росій- ська або російськомовна частина населення зазнає утисків, якщо взагалі не переслідується діями націоналістичних «банд» та новою владою Києва. Незважаючи на пропагандистський характер таких висловлювань має п...
Book
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Белорусско-русская смешанная речь, т.е. частое чередование в речи элементов и структур, классифицируемых как «белорусские» и «русские», представляет собой явление, распространенное, по меньшей мере в определенных языковых ситуациях, среди большого количества белорусского населения. Ольденбургский корпус белорусско-русской смешанной речи (ОК-БРСР) я...
Article
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The paper discusses the influence of Russian on the inflectional morphology of the mixed Ukrainian-Russian of Belarusian-Russian subvarieties, which are very widespread in Ukraine and Belarus respectively. Special matters of discussion are, first, the correlation with lexical borrowing or tranfer, and second, whether there is evidence, that in cont...
Article
This Event Related Potentials (ERP) study investigates auditory processing of sentences with so-called code-switches in Russian learners of German. It has often been argued that switching between two languages results in extra processing cost, although it is not completely clear yet what exactly causes these costs. ERP presents a good method to (st...
Article
This article deals with the situation of the Belarusian language in Belarus in competition with the Russian language and Belarusian-Russian mixed speech, both of which are widely used by the young generation in the country. Based on a nationwide survey with 1,000 respondents carried out in 2013, we show how young Belarusians see their first linguis...
Article
Full-text available
It seems to be a truism that the language situation in Ukraine is highly conflictual. In May 2012 a parliamentary debate on language legislation and the future status of Ukrainian and Russian resulted in a scuffle. The government of the Russian Federation justified the separatists’ armed struggle in the Donbas region with the massive repression tha...
Article
The article addresses the linguistic situation in central parts of Ukraine, based on a survey of 1,400 respondents in cities within the respective districts. The focus lies on “Surzhyk”, the Ukrainian-Russian mixed speech, in particular on the usage of this variety in comparison with Ukrainian and Russian as well as on specific attitudes towards th...
Article
Full-text available
The article discusse the use of either adverbs or adjectivs for participant oriented secondary predicates in adjunct position.
Chapter
The chapter discusse the distribution of functional words in a mixed Belarusian-Russian subvariety, spoken by millions of people in Belarus. The datat presented indicate a transition from code mixing to a mexed code (fused lect). Futhermore, the general question of "systemicity" in such highly variative, oral subvarieties is commented upon.
Article
The study investigates the influence of Russian on the pronunciation of Belarusians (in Belarus). The central variety in which this influence can be observed is Belarusian-Russian mixed speech (BRMS). BRMS is practised by hundreds of thousands if not millions of speakers in non-official speech situations. Based on the analysis of two corpora, we wi...
Article
The language discusses the contemporary "linguistic architecture" in the Ukraine and in Belarus. The main point of interest is the distribution of the three central langauges or codes in the country, i.e. Russian, Ukrainian / Belarusian, and Russian-Ukrainian / Russian-Belarusian mixed subvarieteis. The analysis takes into account own data from pol...
Article
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The article discusses aspect of the impact of Russian on the one hand and Belarusian or Ukrainian on the infectional structures in the mixed subvarieties of Trasyanka in Belarus and Surzhyk in the Ukraine.
Article
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Zu Lautung und Lexik der weißrussisch-russischen gemischten Rede Wir sind bisher immer darauf aus gewesen die realen Vorgänge des Sprachlebens zu erfassen. Von Anfang an haben wir uns klar gemacht, dass wir dabei mit dem, was die deskriptive Grammatik eine Sprache nennt, mit der Zusammenfassung des Usuellen, überhaupt gar nicht rechnen dürfen als e...
Book
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Weißrussland, die Ukraine und Schlesien, genauer: Oberschlesien, sind Areale, die über viele Jahrzehnte durch extensiven und intensiven Kontakt zwischen Sprachen gekennzeichnet sind oder waren. Damit einher geht das Phänomen einer aus den kontaktierenden Sprachen gemischten Rede, die von sehr vielen Menschen in den jeweiligen Arealen in der alltägl...
Article
Č. 1. in: Rodnae slovo 7/2013, 36-40; č. 2. in: Rodnae slovo 11/2013, 29-32; č. 3. in: Rodnae slovo 3/2014, 30-33 [Belarussische Version von Hentschel & Zeller 2012]
Article
Full-text available
Contrary to common opinion that considers Belarusian-Russian mixed speech (BRMS), also known as «Trasyanka», to be highly irregular or even chaotic with respect to the distribution of Belarusian or Russian elements, i. e. expressions and constructions, a series of tendencies towards stabilisation of preferences of partially Russian (mostly), partly...
Chapter
Weißrussische Historiker_innen stehen vor dem Dilemma, dass ihr Land im Laufe seiner Entwicklung immer Bestandteil übergeordneter Herrschaftsverbände war. Während die Nationalhistoriker eine kulturelle Verortung im Westen anstreben und den Mythos eines »Goldenen Mittelalters« pflegen, betreiben die Hofhistoriker nach wie vor eine russophile Geschic...
Article
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In Polish and Russian, adjectives and adverbs occur in several syntactic functions, among others as adjuncts (i.e. as 'secondary predicates' and as adverbials) and, in copula clauses, as (primary) predicates. The choice between adjective and adverb is governed by certain syntacto-semantic factors: adjectives in these syntactic positions usually occ...
Article
This article reports findings from a survey on language usage in Belarus, which encompasses bilingual Belarusian and Russian. First, the distribution of language usage is discussed. Then the dependency of language usage on some sociocultural conditions is explored. Finally, the changes in language usage over three generations are discussed. We find...
Book
The dictionary describes German loans in (written) Polish from the 13th to the middle of the 20th century. It concentrates on such lexical borrowings that have a Germanic etymology and have passed dirctly from German to Polish. There are about 2.400 of such borrowings.The dictionary exists only in electronic form. The access is free under either:...
Chapter
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The paper discusses lexical borrowings from German to Polish. At issue are the quantities of such loans from the beginning of Polish writing to the middle of the 20th century, differentiated for different periods of Polish-German history. By "extensity" the mere number of borrowings in a certain periad is meant. "Intensity" of the borrowing process...
Article
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In the domain of adjectival adjuncts (i.e. outside the nominal phrase), Russian and Polish employ distinct coding-strategies to express the semantic orientation of adjuncts towards either the event or one of its participants. Event-orientation, characteristic for adverbials (in a narrow sense), is typically expressed by adverbs. Adjectives, on the...
Book
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This volume offers descriptive and theoretical studies on depictive secondaray predicates in a wide variety of languages.
Book
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This volume offers decriptive and theoretical studies on depictive secondary predicates in a wide variety of languages. While the focus is on the Middle and Eastern European area, including Slavic, Baltic, Finno-Ugric, Turkc and Caucasian languages, and on languages of the Balkan area, the scope of the collection is widened to staudies of secondary...
Article
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The paper deals with the morphosyntactic marking of the addressee in the context of the verbs mówić / powiedzieć. These two verbs show two types of morphosyntactic marking: dative and / or prepositional (do + genitive). As an introduction, the lexical-semantic structure of these verbs and its importance for the choice of the formal marker as descri...
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The paper discusses problems of classification of nominal scondary predicates (predicate nominals), complements and adjuncts. It concentrates on those marked bei in German and in Polish. At issue is first the delimitation of such constructions from adverbials on the one hand and appositions on the other. Second, - and -phrase are dicussed as depict...
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At issue are three cases of minor, minority or regional languaes in Poland: Kasubian, Silesian and Podhalean. Their status as a "language" has been debated for decades, in linguitics as well as in politics.
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The paper discusses the morphosyntactic marking of possessors in Russian by either dative case (dativus possessivus) or by the preposition plus genitive case. On grounds of a corpus analysis specific contexts for either the case or the prpositional construction are determined as well as certain contexts which allow for both.
Chapter
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The paper discusses the "surface-syntactic" function of the subject, as defined by nominative marking and control of aggreement, in copula sentences, i.e. in sentences with an argument noun (or pronoun) and a predicative noun. It is shown that there are similarities to active-passive phenomena.

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Projects (6)
Project
German lexical borrowings in Slavic languages have been a topic in historical linguitics since more than a century. But only today large historical dictionaris for Slavic langauges have been completed or are being completed. This means, that a much broader empirical basis for a new view on a already much debated phenomenon is possible taking advantage of these dictionaries (which unfortunately do often not make explcit the etymology of their items) or their very large card indices.