Gerardo Ceballos

Gerardo Ceballos
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México | UNAM · Institute of Ecology

40.96
 · 
PhD

About

311
Publications
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13,144
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Publications

Publications (311)
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing sixth mass species extinction is the result of the destruction of component populations leading to eventual extirpation of entire species. Populations and species extinctions have severe implications for society through the degradation of ecosystem services. Here we assess the extinction crisis from a different perspective. We examine 2...
Article
Full-text available
The Peruvian crevice-dwelling bat, Tomopeas ravus, is a rare, threatened, and endemic species to the coastal desert from Peru. Recently, new records of the species after almost 30 years of absence in inventories were made, in the north and center of its distribution at localities from Ica and Piura departments, which opens discussions about the kno...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Geographic gradients in species richness have been traditionally attributed to variation in environmental conditions. However, untangling the importance of human activities in explaining spatial patterns in raptor species richness, still remains a challenge. We evaluated the relative importance of how human impacts and ecogeographical condition...
Article
Full-text available
Many of the world's vertebrates have experienced large population and geographic range declines due to anthropogenic threats that put them at risk of extinction. The largest vertebrates, defined as megafauna, are especially vulnerable. We analyzed how human activities are impacting the conservation status of megafauna within six classes: mammals, r...
Article
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ResumenLa lechuza de campanario (Tyto alba) es considerada el ave terrestre con la mayor distribución mundial, por lo tanto sus hábitos alimentarios presentan variaciones en toda su área de distribución, esta lechuza también se encuentra en México. En este artículo se revisaron un total de 307 egagrópilas de dos localidades, “Rancho Ojitos” y “Ampl...
Article
Full-text available
Extinctions are occurring at an unprecedented rate as a consequence of human activities. Vertebrates constitute the best-known group of animals, and thus the group for which there are more accurate estimates of extinctions. Among them, freshwater fishes are particularly threatened and many species are declining. Here we report the extinction of an...
Article
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The vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus) is Mexico’s only endemic, and the world’s most endangered marine mammal. With a population of fewer than 30 individuals (Thomas et al. 2017; IUCN 2018), any delay in taking needed conservation actions will result in its extinction. A recent article (Manjarrez-Bringas et al. 2018) re-asserts, without providing a...
Article
Full-text available
ResumenRegistramos aquí la depredación del lince rojo (Lynx rufus escuinapae) en la serpiente gopher (Pituophis lineaticollis) y la ardilla gris (Sciurus aureogaster) en un bosque templado en el centro de México. La localidad se encuentra en el Parque Estatal Hermenegildo Galeana, Tenancingo, Estado de México, utilizando cámaras trampa.Palabras Cla...
Article
Understanding the consequences of biotic and abiotic variability on population dynamics is fundamental to assessing anthropogenic impacts, such as global climate disruption, on populations and species. Our understanding from studies to date is poor, although some long-term studies of small mammals in temperate ecosystems have elucidated the roles o...
Article
Full-text available
The northernmost Peruvian Andes, a unique biogeographic region characterized by the confluence of multiple distinct ecosystems (i.e. Amazon basin, Pacific rainforest, the Sechura Desert, the northern and central Andes), is the southernmost geographic range limit of the South American shrews representing the genus Cryptotis. In the northernmost Peru...
Article
ResumenLa nutria de río del norte (Lontra canadensis) se considera extinta en México porque no hay registros desde el siglo pasado. La nutria de río neotropical, en contraste, está ampliamente distribuida en las tierras tropicales y subtropicales del país. Existen registros recientes de nutrias, identificadas como L. longicaudis en el Río San Pedro...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in...
Data
Temporal dynamics of observed species richness (dots and lines) and 95% confidence interval predicted by the selected models (gray area). For the dry season, filled dots represent the dry season of 1992, characterized by unusually high levels of precipitation. For the wet season, filled dots are for the period 1990–1997, open dots are for the perio...
Data
Residual plots for the selected models for deviations of functional diversity from null model predictions according to species occurrence (dFDo). Black lines and dots represents data for upland forest, while gray lines and dots are those for arroyo forest. (PDF)
Data
Model selection for the dynamics of species richness in the dry season. Results for the 30 best-performing models (i.e., lowest AICc values) are shown; the selected model is highlighted in bold. R2: determination coefficient, ΔAICc: difference between model’s AICc and the lowest AICc value, k: number of parameters fitted, n: sample size (i.e., time...
Data
Model selection for the dynamic of deviations of functional diversity (according to biomass) from null model expectations in the dry season. Results for the 30 best-performing models (i.e., lowest AICc values) are shown; the selected model is highlighted in bold. R2: determination coefficient, ΔAICc: difference between model’s AICc and the lowest A...
Data
Abundance database arroyo forest. Abbreviations are: Bm (Baiomys musculus), Lp (Liomys pictus), Mg (Megasorex gigas), Ns (Nyctomys sumichrasti), Oc (Oryzomys mexicanus), Om (Oryzomys melanotis), Ob (Osgoodomys banderanus, Pp (Peromyscus perfulvus), Rf (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), Sm (Sigmodon mascotensis), Sp (Spilogale pygmaea), Tc (Tlacuatzin ca...
Data
Residual plots for the selected models for species richness. Black lines and dots are for upland forest and gray lines and dots are for arroyo forest. For the dry season, filled dots are for the dry season of 1992, characterized by unusually high levels of precipitation, the effect of which was statistically removed. For the wet season, continuous...
Data
Residual plots for the selected models for deviations of functional diversity from null model predictions according to number of individuals (dFDn). Black lines and dots represents data for upland forest, while gray lines and dots are those for arroyo forest. (PDF)
Data
Residual plots for the selected models for deviations of functional diversity from null model predictions according to biomass (dFDw). Black lines and dots represents data for upland forest, while gray lines and dots are those for arroyo forest. (PDF)
Data
Model selection for the dynamics of deviations of functional diversity (according to species’ occurrence) from null model expectations in the dry season. Results for the 30 best-performing models (i.e., lowest AICc values) are shown; the selected model is highlighted in bold type. R2: determination coefficient, ΔAICc: difference between model’s AIC...
Data
Model selection for the dynamics of deviations of functional diversity (according to species’ occurrence) from null model expectations in the wet season. Results for the 30 best-performing models (i.e., lowest AICc values) are shown; the selected model is highlighted in bold. R2: determination coefficient, ΔAICc: difference between model’s AICc and...
Data
Average weight of species. Abbreviations are: Bm (Baiomys musculus), Lp (Liomys pictus), Mg (Megasorex gigas), Ns (Nyctomys sumichrasti), Oc (Oryzomys mexicanus), Om (Oryzomys melanotis), Ob (Osgoodomys banderanus, Pp (Peromyscus perfulvus), Rf (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), Sm (Sigmodon mascotensis), Sp (Spilogale pygmaea), Tc (Tlacuatzin canescens...
Data
Temporal dynamics for the observed dFDn (dots and lines) and 95% confidence interval predicted by the selected models (gray area). (PDF)
Data
Thirteen species of small mammals identified during the 19-year study of tropical dry forests in Mexico. (PDF)
Data
Model selection for the dynamics of species richness in the wet season. Results for the 30 best-performing models (i.e., lowest AICc values) are shown; the selected model is highlighted in bold. R2: determination coefficient, ΔAICc: difference between model’s AICc and the lowest AICc value, k: number of parameters fitted, n: sample size (i.e., time...
Data
Model selection for the dynamics of deviations of functional diversity (according to number of individuals) from null model expectations in the dry season. Results for the 30 best-performing models (i.e., lowest AICc values) are shown; the selected model is highlighted in bold. R2: determination coefficient, ΔAICc: difference between model’s AICc a...
Data
Model selection for the dynamics of deviations of functional diversity (according to number of individuals) from null model expectations in the wet season. Results for the 30 best-performing models (i.e., lowest AICc values) are shown; the selected model is highlighted in bold. R2: determination coefficient, ΔAICc: difference between model's AICc a...
Data
Model selection for the dynamic of deviations of functional diversity (according to biomass) from null model expectations in the wet season. Results for the 30 best-performing models (i.e., lowest AICc values) are shown; the selected model is highlighted in bold. R2: determination coefficient, ΔAICc: difference between model’s AICc and the lowest A...
Data
Acronyms and short description of variables in S7 to S14 Tables. (PDF)
Data
Functional traits database. The traits on every category (habitat, habitat (stratum) use, diet and temporal activity) are multivariate variables standardized so the sum of the variables on every category sum 1. Habitat was obtained from IUCN (and its category numbers are included) [72], proportions of use were obtained from compilations, just as th...
Data
Temporal dynamics for the observed dFDo (dots and lines) and 95% confidence interval predicted by the selected models (gray area). (PDF)
Data
Temporal dynamics for the observed dFDw (dots and lines) and 95% confidence interval predicted by the selected models (gray area). (PDF)
Data
Plots for residuals of the selected models for the four variables, back-transformed to species richness. Lines represent the expected association with the same variable in the previous season, after accounting for the effects of other variables. Black lines and dots represents data for upland forest, while gray lines and dots are those for arroyo f...
Data
Abundance database upland forest. Abbreviations are: Bm (Baiomys musculus), Lp (Liomys pictus), Mg (Megasorex gigas), Ns (Nyctomys sumichrasti), Oc (Oryzomys mexicanus), Om (Oryzomys melanotis), Ob (Osgoodomys banderanus, Pp (Peromyscus perfulvus), Rf (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), Sm (Sigmodon mascotensis), Sp (Spilogale pygmaea), Tc (Tlacuatzin ca...
Article
Full-text available
To date, only one record of mineral licking exists for sloths (i.e., Choloepus didactylus) from Ecuador. Here we present the first record of mineral licking for C. hoffmanni from a tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. This behavior has been mainly associated with detoxification in herbivores, but no evidence exists for such needs in sloths. Hasta la...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacki...
Data
Variable importance plot from the random forest model. Plot shows rank order of importance of all predictors included in the model. Because we used raw (non-imputed) data to build the conditional inference forest, variables with lots of missing data were biased against in terms of their relative importance. However, two of the top three most import...
Data
Cohen’s kappa distribution for the random forest holdout sample and full model. (PDF)
Data
Performance statistics for random forest model of mammal extinction risk. (DOCX)
Data
Geographic distribution of landcover types used in the random forest model, based on the ESA GlobCover 2009 project (28). (GIF)
Data
Area under ROC-curve plots showing true positive rates versus false positive rates for the random forest holdout sample and full model. (PDF)
Data
Species at risk, according to the IUCN Red List and random forest model predictions. IUCN Red List Status is listed for each species: CR = Critically Endangered, DD = Data Deficient, EN = Endangered, EX = Extinct, EW = Extinct in the Wild, LC = Least Concern, NT = Near Threatened, VU = Vulnerable. Species already identified as threatened by the Red...
Article
Full-text available
Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Na...
Article
Full-text available
The population extinction pulse we describe here shows, from a quantitative viewpoint, that Earth’s sixth mass extinction is more severe than perceived when looking exclusively at species extinctions. Therefore, humanity needs to address anthropogenic population extirpation and decimation immediately. That conclusion is based on analyses of the num...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change may modify the spatial distribution of reservoirs hosting emerging and reemerging zoonotic pathogens, and forecasting these changes is essential for developing prevention and adaptation strategies. The most important reservoir of bovine paralytic rabies in tropical countries, is the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). In Mexico, the cat...
Article
Full-text available
Functional diversity represents a measure of diversity that incorporates the role of species in an ecosystem, and therefore its dynamics and resilience. Assessing its drivers and spatial variation represents an important step forward in our understanding of functional ecosystem dynamics and it is also necessary to achieve a comprehensive conservati...
Data
Neotropical ecoregions classified by biome (i.e. major habitat type), including ecoregion size (area), species richness (SR) and functional diversity index values (FD), and classified according to priority based on the influence of threatened species over mammal functional diversity. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
The IUCN Red List is widely used to guide conservation policy and practice. However, in most cases the evaluation of a species using IUCN Red List criteria takes into account only the global status of the species. Although subpopulations may be assessed using the IUCN categories and criteria, this rarely occurs, either because it is difficult to id...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: The pace and magnitude of human-caused global change has accelerated dramatically over the past 50 years, overwhelming the capacity of many ecosystems and species to maintain themselves as they have under the more stable conditions that prevailed for at least 11,000 years. The next few decades threaten even more rapid transformations be...
Article
I describe here the first observation of an attempted predation of a wholly opossum (Caluromys derbianus) by a tayra (Eira barbara). I observed the incident in the Macal River, close to San Ignacio town in west central Belize.Key words: predation, tayra, wholly opposum, Belize.
Article
RESUMENLas selvas secas son uno de los ecosistemas más diversos y amenazados en Latinoamérica. Se realizó un muestreo de la mastofauna terrestre en dos localidades de las selvas secas del estado de Guerrero en el Pacífico mexicano. En total se registraron 44 especies de mamíferos terrestres que pertenecen a 20 familias y 8 órdenes, lo que represent...
Article
Full-text available
Specimens of the Peromyscus boylii species group occurring in the montane regions of Michoacán, México, historically have been assigned to P. levipes. However, previous studies have shown that some specimens from eastern Michoacán possessed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and karyotypes that were distinct from P. levipes and other members of the P. bo...
Article
Full-text available
The widespread encroachment of woody plants throughout the semi-arid grasslands in North America has largely resulted from overgrazing by domestic livestock, fire suppression, and loss of native large and small mammalian herbivores. Burrowing-herbivorous mammals, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), help control shrub encroachment through clipping...
Data
Mesquite abundance database. Number of mesquite shrubs (ind/plot and ind/hectare) observed in 2006 and 2011. (DOCX)
Data
Mesquite height and canopy cover database. Mesquite shrubs observed and measured in 2011. (DOCX)
Data
Prairie dog database. Number of prairie dogs observed (ind/plot and ind/hectare) from 2006 to 2011. (DOCX)
Article
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Including complementary diversity measures into ecological and conservation studies should improve our ability to link species assemblages to ecosystems. Recent measures such as phylogenetic and functional diversity have furthered our understanding of assemblage patterns of ecosystems and species, allowing improved inference of ecosystem function a...
Article
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RESUMENEl estado de Aguascalientes es uno de los más pequeños de la república, y ocupa el lugar 29 por su extensión territorial. Dada su superficie territorial, su diversidad de mamíferos es una de las menores entre los estados del país. Aguascalientes no cuenta con una lista actualizada. Aquí reportamos 86 especies de mamíferos. El orden con mayor...
Poster
Full-text available
Jaguar conservation in Mexico dates back in 90´s year, however the first solid initiative that brought together experts and government was in 2000, with the creation of the jaguar experts subcommittee. Since then, actions were carried out in several regions from Mexico and divided into several sectors, but despite being a species classified as enda...
Article
AimFunctional diversity is a relatively recent approach to quantify species diversity and may provide a better understanding of the linkages between biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. Understanding the relationships between mammal species richness and functional diversity, the factors that influence these relationships, and the spatial...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past century, human activities and their side effects have significantly threatened both ecosystems and resident species. Nevertheless, the genetic patterns of large felids that depend heavily on large and well-conserved continuous habitat remain poorly studied. Using the largest-ever contemporary genetic survey of wild jaguars (Panthera o...
Book
his book shows us the face of Earth’s sixth great mass extinction, revealing that this century is a time of darkness for the world’s birds and mammals. In The Annihilation of Nature, three of today’s most distinguished conservationists tell the stories of the birds and mammals we have lost and those that are now on the road to extinction. These tra...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo habla sobre las especies de mamíferos presentes en el estado de Aguascalientes, México.
Article
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Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease and parasitic zoonosis that occurs worldwide (i.e., Latin America, Africa and Eurasian countries; Desjeux 2005, Dahroug et al. 2010, 2011, Otranto et al. 2013). It is caused by parasitic kinetoplastids of the Leishmania genus transmitted by arthropod vectors (i.e. sandflies such as Lutzomyia spp.) and present...
Article
RESUMENSon pocas las áreas de selva baja caducifolia y selva mediana subcaducifolia en México y en este tipo de vegetación se encuentra uno de los pocos géneros monotípico de roedores, Hodomys alleni, una especie endémica de los bosques secos tropicales del Pacífico mexicano y también es una especie amenazada debido a la pérdida de su hábitat. El e...
Article
Full-text available
The oft-repeated claim that Earth's biota is entering a sixth " mass extinction " depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the " background " rates prevailing in the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severit...