Gerard Guthrie

Gerard Guthrie

BAHons, DipT, MSocScHons, PhD

About

118
Publications
44,871
Reads
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637
Citations
Citations since 2016
20 Research Items
326 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080
Introduction
Gerard's career has mainly been as an academic & Australian aid official. He worked in universities, aid management & consultancy in Asia, Africa & the S. Pacific, including Australian aid Counsellor Beijing 1988-90, Foundation Prof Education UGoroka PNG2002-3, consultant to World Bank & AusAID 2003-9. He has conducted research in migration, comparative education, aid activity evaluation & crime victimization. In retirement in New Zealand, he publishes as an independent researcher.
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - February 2022
-
Position
  • Independent Researcher
Description
  • Conducts research on teaching styles, pedagogy in comparative education literature;authored two research methods textbooks.
October 2003 - December 2008
Educo
Position
  • Principal Consultant
Description
  • Team Leader, Advisor, Consultant to World Bank and AusAID projects, Japan, PNG, Africa, USA, including Director 16 urban crime victimization surveys, PNG 2004-8.
March 2002 - October 2003
University of Goroka
Position
  • Foundation Professor of Education
Description
  • Provided academic leadership in postgraduate and undergraduate teaching, research and consultancy. Conducted research on teaching styles.
Education
April 1978 - November 1982
February 1972 - November 1975
University of New England (Australia)
Field of study
  • Social Science, Aboriginal migration
February 1969 - November 1969
Christchurch Teachers College
Field of study
  • Geography, Social Studies

Publications

Publications (118)
Preprint
Full-text available
Southern Africa Review of Education, Vol. 26: in press.
Chapter
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A brief introduction to the contents and scope of the book.
Article
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Into a cross-cultural minefield comes 'Teach', which is a World Bank classroom observation tool launched in January 2019 that is intended for primary schools in low- and middle-income countries. This essay review identifies that the rating scales may be reliable, but that some items are pervaded by Anglo-American conceptions of good teaching that a...
Book
Full-text available
Progressive education, derived mainly from Anglo-American culture, has been the primary frame of reference for student-centred classroom change in developing countries for over 50 years. Evidence from 32 statistically representative developing countries shows that progressivism has not replaced teacher-centred formalistic classroom practice. 'Class...
Chapter
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By the time the worldviews underlying formalism and progressivism transmute into classroom practice considerable variety in classroom behaviour may ensue. A Teaching Styles Model posits five teaching styles from more to less teacher-centred. The Authoritarian, Formalistic, Flexible, Liberal and Democratic styles are not intended as 'better' than on...
Chapter
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The progressive paradigm has been the primary frame of reference for student-centred classroom change in 'developing' countries for some 50 years. Derived mainly from Anglo-American culture, the paradigm has been a central tenet in comparative education, aid agency travelling policies, and locally supported educational reforms. Classroom Change in...
Chapter
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Underlying the projection of soft power by Western countries is a clash of cultures. One vehicle is progressive education, a paradigm that derives mainly from Anglo-American culture. Progressivism is the primary frame of reference for curriculum and teaching reforms targeting classroom change in ‘developing’ countries. It is heavily entwined with W...
Chapter
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An extensive research and evaluation literature sustains the progressive paradigm. Does evidence support long-term progressive success in ‘developing’ country classrooms? If not, has progressive theory aligned with classroom reality or does progressivism usually remain axiomatic? This chapter classifies the literature about progressive reforms into...
Chapter
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The ancient Confucian education tradition is a well-researched example of successful formalistic teaching delivering high levels of student achievement. Confucianism did not lead to scientific epistemology, but its moral philosophy gave rise to a pedagogical paradigm based on teaching of truths revealed in classical texts. The heritage of formalist...
Chapter
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Five decades of progressive reforms in Papua New Guinea (PNG) provide a longitudinal country study of the interrelationship between cultural epistemology and formalistic paradigms. Formalism in PNG is grounded in epistemological constructs, originally from pre-colonial formal education, based on transmission of given knowledge. It was reinforced by...
Chapter
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Is the progressive paradigm still appropriate as the primary frame of reference for classroom change in 'developing' countries? The shift to the paradigm that occurred in the academic and official policy literature after the mid-20 th century was not followed by paradigm shift inside the prevalent formalistic classrooms. Yet progressive theory has...
Chapter
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The two main areas of literature on education in 'developing' countries are the school effectiveness field, which is narrowly driven by economic theory, and the classroom improvement field, which is driven especially by subject specialists and by educational sociologists concerned with classroom interaction and the influence of context. Theoretical...
Chapter
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Africa's many formalistic, teacher-centred traditions require students to learn revealed knowledge. Reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa since the 1990s have usually attempted to move from teacher-centred to child-centred pedagogy. Widespread evidence from 12 Anglophone countries demonstrates that progressive influences have been strong at policy level bu...
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Deep-rooted revelatory epistemologies about the nature of truths provide the philosophical foundations for formalistic educational paradigms centrally concerned with the inter-generational transmission of knowledge in ‘developing’ country classrooms. The progressive paradigm has been a theoretical and policy cage that has not generated paradigm shi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Deep-rooted revelatory epistemologies about the nature of truths provide the philosophical foundations for formalistic educational paradigms centrally concerned with the inter-generational transmission of knowledge in ‘developing’ country classrooms. The progressive paradigm has been a theoretical and policy cage that has not generated paradigm shi...
Chapter
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Teachers, the evidence and analysis in this book indicates, are the most important element in classroom change. Rather than blaming teachers for failure to innovate, recognition is needed that the influence of context-specific cultural paradigms on teachers' and students' formalistic constructs may well outweigh-quite rationally from their perspect...
Chapter
Full-text available
An extensive research and evaluation literature sustains the progressive paradigm. Does evidence support long-term progressive success in ‘developing’ country classrooms? If not, has progressive theory aligned with classroom reality or does progressivism usually remain axiomatic? This chapter classifies the literature about progressive reforms into...
Article
Full-text available
Free downloads should be available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/h2TBpmmhQmbUCZnBsRF4/full The student-centred, progressive paradigm has not had sustained success in changing teacher-centred, formalistic practices in ‘developing’ country classrooms. Does ‘Gestalt-switch’ and paradigm reversal demonstrate that progressive theory has realign...
Article
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Progressivism is an international travelling policy often supported by national governments and local innovators in ‘developing’ countries. Despite a lack of methodologically sound evidence demonstrating long-term survival of progressive reforms in primary and secondary schools, ‘paradigm reversal’ has not occurred and progressive theory has not re...
Article
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The phenomenon of child soldiers provides a metaphor for the role of pupils in ‘developing’ country classrooms who are cast in the frontline of the culture wars implicit in progressive educational reforms that project a worldview which often runs counter to local educational cultures. This commentary uses this perspective to explore some traps thro...
Article
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A major issue generating classroom problems for some 50 years in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been a continual series of confusing curriculum reforms that have failed to replace formalistic classroom teaching with progressive teaching. Failures included Outcome-Based Education (OBE), which was condemned in Vision 2050 and the Development Strategic Pl...
Article
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The types of curriculum, classroom teaching and teacher education that are appropriate for ‘developing’ country classrooms are increasingly contested. The complexities are illustrated from a regional exchange about ‘zero pedagogy’, an alleged absence of pedagogical knowledge brought by students to teacher education, which is a Eurocentric concept b...
Article
Full-text available
Some 38 years since Independence in Papua New Guinea (PNG), eight major progressive primary and secondary classroom reforms have failed to change teaching styles. Several were based on the Matane Report, including Outcome-Based Education (OBE). This article reviews research on these progressive curriculum reforms. It finds that they have had no app...
Article
Full-text available
Africa’s many formalistic, teacher-centred traditions require students to learn revealed knowledge. This paradigm contrasts with the internationally encouraged progressive paradigm, which is based on incongruent epistemological assumptions and educational values that are widely regarded as embedded in Western notions of political and cultural super...
Article
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This article explores data on levels, location and perceptions of violent crime from 16 urban household crime victimization surveys in Papua New Guinea in 2004-2008. Violence was highly feared. It was about half the level of property crime, but created emotional trauma. Total victimization differed considerably among towns, but within them men and...
Article
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Progressive education has been an article of educational faith in Papua New Guinea during the last 50 years but the best available evidence indicates that major reforms to formalistic curriculum and teaching in primary and secondary classrooms have failed during this period despite large-scale professional, administrative and financial support. In...
Article
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This article briefly summarises the educational context generated by the ancient Confucian educational paradigm that still pervades modern classrooms in China. Relevant research findings on classroom teaching are reviewed from the English language literature since 2001. Despite progressive advocacy, research in Chinese classrooms is consistent with...
Article
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The purpose of AusAID’s 2003-2009 Law and Justice Sector Program (LJSP) was to develop the capacity of Papua New Guinea’s law and justice agencies to implement consistent policy, priorities and plans. This article assesses whether the approach had a flow-on effect by contributing to a reduction in community crime victimization. Extensive urban crim...
Book
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Basic Research Methods for Papua New Guinea is a short, clear, and practical textbook specifically oriented to PNG. It maps research methods for undergraduate and postgraduate students undertaking their first research course or project. The book provides a cafeteria of research techniques that can be drawn on in all social science subjects, as well...
Chapter
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Beeby’s conjectures included that the key to a school’s movement through the stages is the ability of its teachers to promote change, but he saw formalistic teachers, in particular, as obstructive. Chapter 4 considers teachers’ perceptual constructs, systemic barriers to change and the roles of different types of teacher in change. Failure of teach...
Book
Full-text available
This highly controversial book challenges half a century of conventional educational wisdom. The Progressive Education Fallacy in Developing Countries: In Favour of Formalism argues that progressive teacher education and curriculum reforms in developing countries are wrong in principle and widespread failures in practice. The book is essential read...
Chapter
This is a chapter from 'The Progressive Education Fallacy in Developing Countries, which can be downloaded in full. The remnants of attempts to change formalistic teaching litter the schools of developing countries. Papua New Guinea is a prime example. Education there has seen a continual process of change over the last 50 years. The reformers of...
Chapter
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In the main, Beeby’s 1966 book generalised from his practical experience as a high level educational administrator in an attempt to promote the development of educational theory that would provide justification for educationalists’ attempts to improve the quality of education in developing countries. As a later autobiographical book explained, the...
Chapter
In the Popperian sense, the case of Papua New Guinea provides a refutation of Beeby’s stages model because it demonstrates that the model does not have universal application. But, with a population of some 5 million, Papua New Guinea contains under one-tenth of one per cent of the world’s population. Arguably the refutation could be of little conse...
Chapter
Analysis of teaching styles has gone through three overlapping phases in the last 50 years. The first phase, typified by Beeby, was to blame teachers for inability to change away from formalism to more progressive teaching styles, with more preservice and in-service teacher education as the perceived remedies. The second phase was to blame lack of...
Chapter
Clearly, a formalistic teaching style has prevailed in primary and secondary schools in Papua New Guinea and progressive attempts to replace a formalistic paradigm have failed. Curriculum reformers have often attributed the failure to formalistic teachers and teacher training, but what are the underlying reasons for their persistence? One major fac...
Chapter
Few colonisers introduced anything approximating teacher training on a large scale in their colonies. Typically, indigenous teachers came from the families of people employed in minor colonial positions, such as police, army or clerical services, or from the ranks of religious converts. Most often, these teachers had very basic levels of education...
Chapter
The concept of stages of development, as Beeby (1966, p. 51) acknowledged, “rouses the suspicion of any social scientist”. This was particularly true in the 1960s because W.W. Rostow’s book, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non- Communist Manifesto, had been a major focus of debate since its appearance in 1960. Beeby’s favourable citation of Rostow...
Chapter
A common educational fallacy is that the variously labelled ‘enquiry’, ‘meaning’, ‘student-centred’, ‘learner-centred’, ‘active learning’, ‘problem-solving’, ‘discovery’, ‘andragogic’, ‘participative’, ‘constructivist’, ‘liberal’, ‘democratic’ teaching methods are necessary in primary and secondary schools in developing countries to develop enquiry...
Chapter
In the absence of research testing systematically whether enquiry learning requires enquiry teaching methods, the Progressive Education Fallacy has led to the introduction of enquiry teaching styles in developing countries that are wide open to the criticism that the countries are being used naïvely as testing grounds for untried theories. A damnin...
Chapter
An issue of fundamental importance to those involved in teaching, curriculum and teacher education in multicultural settings is which teaching styles should be promoted. Should teaching be formalistic or progressive, should it be teacher-centred or student-centred? Careful consideration needs to be given to such questions, not only where teacher tr...
Chapter
In small developing countries, a few training institutions without many teacher trainers can have a rapid and long-lasting impact on the school system. In setting up courses, teacher trainers make decisions on type and level of education to be included, partly in response to the style of teacher that they wish to shape. However, tertiary courses th...
Article
This highly controversial book challenges half a century of conventional educational wisdom. The Progressive Education Fallacy in Developing Countries: In Favour of Formalism argues that progressive teacher education and curriculum reforms in developing countries are wrong in principle and widespread failures in practice. The book is essential read...
Book
This book offers a comprehensive and well-rounded view of research as a tool for problem-solving in a wide range of social sciences. It is built on the foundation of philosophical pragmatism, postulating that the value of knowledge and research methodologies lie in their usefulness in engaging with the real world. The approach synthesizes both posi...
Book
Full-text available
Papua New Guinea has attempted to address its widespread problems of crime through a range of reforms by the Law & Justice Sector agencies. Since 2003, the reforms have included a more integrated approach to law and justice policy, changes to agency management systems, and increases in agency budgets. Reliable crime statistics have not been availab...
Book
Full-text available
Like 2005, this 2008 survey found high levels of crime victimisation in Lae. Lae is the country’s second largest city and the most important one on the northern, New Guinea, side of the country. Because Lae is connected to many other provinces by relatively low cost road and sea routes, it is an easy destination for migrants and visitors. Lae settl...
Book
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The 2008 surveys of Goroka and Kainantu identified the nature, frequency, and location of crime affecting urban households. The surveys were statistically representative of the adult populations, quantifying crime from the perspective of the victims in the community. The surveys found very high and similar levels of crime victimisation. Kainantu, i...
Book
Full-text available
Extensive surveys of crime victimisation in Port Moresby in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 gave a full picture of the nature, frequency and location of crime victimisation affecting the community. All surveys were statistically representative of the Port Moresby adult population. With data from four years in a row, it was possible in 2007 to see long-te...
Book
Full-text available
The 2006 community crime victimization survey in Mt Hagen interviewed 328 people aged 15 years and over in 124 households. The sample was statistically sound and permits generalizations to the adult populations of Mt Hagen. Mt Hagen residents reported higher victimization levels than found in seven previous surveys in other PNG towns in 2004 and 20...
Book
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The over-riding findings in Kokopo in 2007 were that: • Crime victimisation levels were considerably higher than Buka (and also Arawa), and often higher than Port Moresby. • Kokopo was especially prone to property crime, such as theft. • Overall, attitudes to the police were more positive than in Buka and Port Moresby. Kokopo residents tended to w...
Book
Full-text available
The 2005 crime victimisation survey in Lae collected base line data from interviews with 404 people aged 15 years and over in 145 households. The sample was statistically representative and permitted generalisations to the adult population of Lae. The survey was about crime victimisation as reported by household members, rather than crime for which...
Book
Full-text available
Extensive surveys in Arawa and Buka in 2004, 2005 and 2006 quantified crime victimisation in the community. With data for three years in a row, it was possible in 2006 to see whether victimisation increased, decreased, or stayed similar. The overriding findings were that: major reductions in crime victimisation occurred in both towns from 2004 to 2...
Book
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High levels of highway crime in Papua New Guinea affect transport security and costs, not only for exporters, but also for importers and for internal trade. Crime on the Highlands Highway is a widespread daily matter for the transport industry. This study aimed to provide an independent reliable picture of Highway crime so that it can be responded...
Book
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Yumi Lukautim Mosbi (YLM) in Tok Pisin means “Let’s Look After Port Moresby”. The project has operated since early 2005 to enhance urban safety and is very much a work in progress. Project impact is limited so far to small areas within the NCD. Two simple, low cost service delivery elements have community recognition: street cleaning and market cle...
Technical Report
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The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of establishing a Regional Multidisciplinary Center of Excellence in Mauritius (possibly as one of several in the region) to serve as a capacity building hub for the COMESA, EAC, IOC, IGAD and SADC regions. The study was required to assess several key issues: regional capacity building needs...
Technical Report
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The PNG Primary and Secondary Teacher Education Project (PASTEP) commenced in 1999 after a long design phase that began in 1996. The project contributed to the Education Reform Agenda in PNG, which had major implications for teacher supply and demand, teacher quality, and teacher’s college capacity. The expectation was that the quality of teaching...
Article
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In considering the views held by different educational stakeholders, how do we weigh up their knowledge? One way of doing this is to assess people’s knowledge of formal educational theory and methods; to assess what is known by the knower. This article provides a typology of educational knowledge. The six knower divisions in the typology are naïve...
Technical Report
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Border management and coordination are key issues for Papua New Guinea and Australia. The two countries share similar national interests in enhancing border management. The current context is international concerns over terrorism and crime that affect both countries. In PNG, internal governance and international security have been major problems, f...
Article
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“Cultural Continuities in Teaching Styles” put the view that the long cultural history behind formalism in Papua New Guinea provides reasons to work within it rather than to attempt to replace it. The apparent unanimity of the five commentators on most of the key propositions was somewhat surprising because almost anything written in favour of form...
Article
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This paper addresses the long-term cultural issues associated with the prevalence of a formalistic teaching style in primary and secondary schools in PNG. The contention is that formalistic teaching is culturally congruent with traditional pedagogy that predated European colonization in the 1870s, that was reinforced by the teaching style introduce...
Article
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The literature on comparative education mainly derives from developed countries and reflects western interests that may not correspond with the interests of people in developing countries. This paper reviews the proceedings of the last two conferences of the Australia and New Zealand Comparative and International Development Education Society (ANZC...
Chapter
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Internationalisation of higher education in Australia has become a trade driven sub-set of globalisation. While economic growth, to which international trade contributes, is a major cause of reduction of absolute poverty, it is equally clear that pro-poor policies are needed to countervail relative poverty and the negative impacts of globalisation,...
Article
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The last ten years have seen a major restructuring of secondary teacher education at the University of Goroka. UOG has expanded and diversified its education offerings. Secondary school teacher programs still predominate, but UOG is adapting to new circumstances, especially in the upgrading of qualifications for teachers and other educational profe...
Technical Report
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The project addresses the very large demand for tertiary education by Africans from countries who lack the financial resources to maintain existing higher education facilities and are unable to expand to meet current and projected demand. Tertiary education delivery via the AVU will lower unit course costs, improve course quality and improve studen...
Article
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This paper outlines a number of issues associated with the economics of distance education. First, it outlines the main international findings relevant to PNG. Second, it defines some basic economics concepts around which such findings revolve. Third, recent research from other countries is summarized. The analysis shows that distance education pro...
Article
There is a dearth of research evidence to inform educational decision making in many developing countries. It seems necessary to attempt to use all available sources of research, including higher degree research, noting that most thesis research is now occurring in the developing countries themselves. Major issues in the role of higher degree studi...
Article
Current research in developing countries on the inservice education and training of teachers (INSET) and on the effects of examinations on classroom practice is reviewed. Major issues on each topic are outlined, research findings are summarized, and selected abstracts of current empirical research in five developing countries are provided, along wi...
Article
Current research on curriculum reform in developing countries and its effects on teachers and the classroom is reviewed. Major issues are outlined, research findings are summarized, and selected abstracts of current empirical research publications and a brief annotated reference list are provided. Major findings are that: (a) curriculum change stra...
Article
Current research is reviewed on two aspects of educational efficiency in ‘developing’ countries: the effect of teacher credentials on student achievement and the cost-effectiveness of distance education. Major research findings on each topic are reviewed, followed by selected abstracts of current research publications and a brief annotated referenc...
Article
This study evaluated the five most important sources of trained secondary teachers in Papua New Guinea from 1976-78: two "progressive" 4-year degrees at UPNG and three "formalistic" 1- and 2-year diplomas at Goroka Teachers' college. In manpower terms, the diploma programs were far more effective. In terms of the teachers' professional acceptabilit...
Article
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The effects of teacher training and qualifications on teacher and student performance in developing countries have been matters of considerable interest recently. A forerunner to this debate was a relationship hypothesized by C.E. Beeby between levels of general education and professional training of teachers and passage through stages of education...
Article
Full-text available
Beeby's model of stages of educational change in developing countries has been accepted into the educational literature with remarkably little critical analysis. Though valuable for a large number of experiential insights, the author argues that the model has certain weaknesses which should restrict its application. The stages have a teleological b...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
Have you used the textbook, Foundations of Classroom Change in Developing Countries by Gerard Guthrie, and do you have any feedback, suggestions to improve it, or material that could be included in future editions?
The Preface is posted below. The book is available for download at:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gerard_Guthrie/publications
Your collaboration will be suitably acknowledged in future editions when they are updated.
Gerard Guthrie

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Projects (2)
Project
This project is a free two volume textbook that includes evidence about progressive curriculum and classroom adoption in all 142 'developing' countries. The book is published for download on ResearchGate at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gerard_Guthrie/publications As aa quick overview, attached are the chapter titles and the preface. Any feedback can be posted at: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Classroom_change_in_developing_countries Regards Gerard Guthrie
Project
A new book with a cutting edge synthesis of the research and evaluation literature: The progressive paradigm has been the primary frame of reference for student-centred classroom change in ‘developing’ countries for some 50 years. Derived mainly from Anglo-American culture, the paradigm has been a central tenet of international and bilateral aid agency policies and of locally supported educational reforms. The book finds that progressive reforms have not generated paradigm shift from teacher-centred formalistic classroom practice. A cutting edge synthesis of nearly 600 publications includes studies from 32 statistically representative developing countries that show reforms were inappropriate and/or had major implementation difficulties. The extensive research and evaluation literature that sustains the progressive paradigm despite the evidence has widespread methodological limitations. Also apparent are axiomatic maintenance of the progressive worldview, cognitive dissonance over the evidence, and little reversal of the progressive paradigm. These blind spots lead to compounding errors of judgement such that the progressive grip on educational theory and policy has become a cage rather than a frame. Rather, a theoretical foundation for formalistic pedagogy in revelatory epistemologies takes it seriously as a legitimate cultural paradigm instead of an obstacle to change. The sensible conclusion from the failure of progressivism outside its cultural hearth is that formalism should be the primary frame of reference for upgrading classroom teaching in developing countries.