Gerard Giraud

Gerard Giraud
The University of Edinburgh | UoE · Division of Pathway Medicine

Phd

About

25
Publications
2,925
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1,230
Citations

Publications

Publications (25)
Article
Current approaches to molecular diagnostics rely heavily on PCR amplification and optical detection methods which have restrictions when applied to point of care (POC) applications. Herein we describe the development of a label-free and amplification-free method of pathogen detection applied to Escherichia coli which overcomes the bottleneck of com...
Article
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An MRSA assay requiring neither labeling nor amplification of target DNA has been developed. Sequence specific binding of fragments of bacterial genomic DNA is detected at femtomolar concentrations using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This has been achieved using systematic optimisation of probe chemistry (PNA self-assembled monolaye...
Article
Antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms is emerging as a major human healthcare concern. While there are a variety of resistance mechanisms, many can be related to single nucleotide polymorphisms and for which DNA microarrays have been widely deployed in bacterial genotyping. However, genotyping by means of allele-specific hybridizati...
Article
Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) the sensitive and specific detection of the antibiotic resistance gene mecA has been demonstrated. The gene sequence was obtained from clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Initially a mecA specific probe was selected from hybridisation tests with a 3' and 5' version of a previously published pr...
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A method for label-free, electrochemical impedance immunosensing for the detection and quantification of three infection biomarkers in both buffer and directly in the defined model matrix of mock wound fluid is demonstrated. Triggering Receptor-1 Expressed on Myeloid cells (TREM-1) and Matrix MetalloPeptidase 9 (MMP-9) are detected via direct assay...
Article
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and liver cancer, and remains a large health care burden to the world. In this study we developed a DNA microarray test to detect HCV RNA and a protein microarray to detect human anti-HCV antibodies on a single platform. A main focus of this study was to evaluate possibilities to red...
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The manipulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) extracted from E. coli cells by dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been demonstrated over the range of 3 kHz-50 MHz using interdigitated microelectrodes. Quantitative measurement using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of the time dependent collection indicated a positive DEP response characterized...
Article
DNA microarrays are powerful tools for gene expression analysis and genotyping studies in research and diagnostic applications. A high sensitivity and short time-to-result are prerequisites for their practical application in the clinic. The hybridization efficiency of DNA microarrays depends on the probe density and the probe orientation and thus t...
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Fluorescence lifetime of dye molecules is a sensitive reporter on local microenvironment which is generally independent of fluorophores concentration and can be used as a means of discrimination between molecules with spectrally overlapping emission. It is therefore a potentially powerful multiplexed detection modality in biosensing but requires ex...
Article
Machine learning and statistical model based classifiers have increasingly been used with more complex and high dimensional biological data obtained from high-throughput technologies. Understanding the impact of various factors associated with large and complex microarray datasets on the predictive performance of classifiers is computationally inte...
Article
Intracellular imaging is a key tool in the investigation of host-pathogen interactions. Advances in this area are particularly sought to understand the effect of viral infection processes on the host cell and its metabolic functions including those cases where host cell lipid metabolism is modulated as a result of infection. We demonstrate the use...
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In this Letter, we demonstrate the application of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements to detect solution state hybridization of streptavidin conjugate (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots (QD). The study was performed on samples containing 10nM QD incubated with 800nM DNA. We show that the rotational correlation time of QD–DNA constructs increases...
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Quantum dot (QD) labeling combined with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy is proposed as a powerful transduction technique for the detection of DNA hybridization events. Fluorescence lifetime analysis of DNA microarray spots of hybridized QD labeled target indicated a characteristic lifetime value of 18.8 ns, compared to 13.3 ns obtained for...
Article
Infectious diseases are still a main cause of human morbidity and mortality. Advanced diagnostics is considered to be a key driver to improve the respective therapeutic outcome. The main factors influencing the impact of diagnostics include: assay speed, availability, information content, in-vitro diagnostics and cost, for which molecular assays ar...
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Full-text available
We have found that the efficiency of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Cy3 and Cy5 terminally attached to the 5' ends of a DNA duplex is significantly affected by the relative orientation of the two fluorophores. The cyanine fluorophores are predominantly stacked on the ends of the helix in the manner of an additional base pair, and th...
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The authors measured the elec. field induced linear dichroism for a wide range of sizes of CdSe nanocrystals. Large ground-state dipole moments were obsd., esp. for the smallest crystals. In these, the authors found a very large anisotropy of the absorption and most of the dipole strength is along the direction of the ground-state dipole moment. Fo...
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Full-text available
We describe a simple and low cost design for generating high voltage pulses using commercially available Ruhmkorff's coils. Our application is the biasing of large area photoconductive switches, used for THz generation, operating at kHz repetition rates. The described circuit produces 100 mus pulses of up to 60 kV.
Article
Dynamic solvation of charge-distribution rearrangements is often described using a (harmonic) solvent coordinate. It is not a priori clear whether such a solvent coordinate has a real physical meaning. We have studied five polar organic liquids (benzonitrile, benzyl alcohol, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol, and glycerol triacetate) with high...
Article
The low-frequency (1-200 cm(-1)) vibrational spectra of peptides and proteins in solution have been investigated with ultrafast optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy (OHD-RIKES). Spectra have been obtained for di-L-alanine (ALA(2)) and the alpha-helical peptide poly-L-alanine (PLA) in dichloroacetic acid solution. The p...
Article
Ultrafast solvent dynamics of room-temperature ionic liquids have been investigated by optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy (OHD-RIKES) by studying the effects of cation and anion substitution on the low frequency librational modes. The spectra of two series of imidazolium salts are presented. The first series is based...
Article
The low-frequency spectra of peptides and proteins in solution have been investigated with optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained for di-l-alanine ALA(2) and poly-l-alanine (PLA) in dichloroacetic acid solution. The conformational dependence of those spectra at low frequency has been analyzed. ALA(...
Article
We describe the newly created free-electron laser facility situated at the University of Strathclyde in Scotland, which will produce ultra-short pulses of high-power electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz frequency range. The FEL will be based on a 4 MeV photoinjector producing picosecond 1 nC electron pulses and driven by a frequency tripled T...

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