Gerard George

Gerard George
Georgetown University | GU · McDonough School of Business

PhD
Georgetown University McDonough School of Business

About

158
Publications
188,107
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
27,250
Citations
Introduction
Gerard George is Tamsen and Michael Brown Family Endowed Chair Professor of Entrepreneurship and Innovation at Georgetown University.
Additional affiliations
July 2021 - present
Georgetown University
Position
  • Chair
January 2015 - July 2021
Singapore Management University
Position
  • Chair
January 2007 - December 2014
Imperial College London
Position
  • Deputy Dean and Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose is a concept often used in managerial communities to signal and define a firm’s benevolent and pluralistic approach to its stakeholders beyond its focus on shareholders. While some evidence has linked purpose to positive organizational outcomes such as growth, employee satisfaction, innovation, and superior stock market performance, the def...
Chapter
Full-text available
Business is redefining itself with purpose and declaring their intentions to restructure core activities in line with sustainable development goals. Yet, scholarly evidence in the management literature to guide practice remains limited. Part of the challenge in sustainability research and practice is that it has interdependencies and interconnected...
Article
Full-text available
The strategy literature views novel business model design as a universally positive antecedent of high performance in entrepreneurial ventures. Not only do scholars emphasize novelty as a necessity, but they almost consider it a sufficient condition for performance. Challenging this assumption, we hypothesize that novelty can produce high performan...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss how environmental and pandemic crises in combination with digitization are presenting the multinational enterprise (MNE) with increasing geopolitical, organizational, and market tensions. Institutional pluralism is creating a more complex global environment. The organization of productive work is shifting, which challenges how MNEs struc...
Article
Full-text available
Coordinating collective work and communicating a shared understanding of tasks is necessary to accomplishing organizational goals. Stigma could exacerbate coordination challenges between public and private organizations by further widening differences in goals and incentives among employees. Using relational coordination theory, we explore how stig...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the relationship between innovation and performance in the agricultural industry by studying how a firm's patent portfolio position in the knowledge landscape moderates the relationship between three firm search dimensions (scope, specialization, and commitment) and the firm’s financial performance. To represent dynamism in the knowledge...
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurial resourcefulness is a concept that resonates with practitioners and scholars alike from a diverse set of theoretical and empirical backgrounds. Despite the prevalence and promise of this concept, the literature on entrepreneurial resourcefulness is fragmented and lacks cohesion in how it is labeled, conceptualized, measured, and depl...
Article
Full-text available
Business-model research has largely focused on business models as real entities, as cognitive and linguistic schema, and as formal representations. Although research within these themes has made important contributions to the management literature, it has largely ignored the inter-relationship between business models as schemas and business models...
Article
Full-text available
As the pandemic forced the entire world to a virtual standstill, nature revived a little. The US emitted 10.3% less CO2 in 2020 than in 2019 and other regions similarly experienced emission declines. Depending on the source, global carbon emissions were down between 4 and 8% in 2020. Consumers globally have expressed more concern about sustainabili...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas the pandemic has tested the agility and resilience of organizations, it forces a deeper look at the assumptions underlying theoretical frameworks that guide managerial decisions and organizational practices. In this commentary, we explore the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on technology and innovation management research. We identify key a...
Article
Full-text available
While several practice-based approaches of business model design suggest ways to create new business models, there is limited understanding of why and how business models change. This exploratory study employs neural network analysis to simulate business model design and business model change. We conceptualize business model design as a schema of t...
Article
Full-text available
Inventors are triply embedded. They are embedded in a network of knowledge components that they can reuse in future inventions. They are embedded in an inventor network, where internal embeddedness (the strength of relationships between focal inventors and their colleagues upon whose knowledge the team builds) and network centrality influence acces...
Article
Full-text available
We explore how digital technologies are helping address grand challenges to tackle climate change and promote sustainable development. With digital technologies, entrepreneurial organizations have adopted innovative approaches to tackle seemingly intractable societal challenges. We refer to these broadly as digital sustainability activities. By foc...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social inclusion is at the heart of sustainable development. Innovation in the ideation, development, and implementation of solutions is necessary to improve social inclusion by systematically addressing the barriers that disenfranchise individuals and communities. We synthesize the 26 contributions in this Handbook to provide a framework for acade...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the salience of expertise in creating high impact inventions and question experts’ ability to deploy novel ideas. Specifically, we examine the relationships between expertise, component originality, and a team's structural holes’ position in the collaborative network and propose that, in relative terms, expert teams create lower impa...
Article
Full-text available
University-centered entrepreneurial ecosystems (UCEEs) are complex webs of entrepreneurs, researchers, institutional support structures, and the built environment. We study the relationship between the built environment and the dynamism of the behavior of ecosystem agents in the evolution of UCEEs. Drawing upon data from interviews with ecosystem a...
Article
Full-text available
Firms consider multiple reference points simultaneously to assess performance, yet often these referents may be inconsistent in signaling success or failure. Consequently, decision makers use two contrasting decision rules when responding to inconsistent feedback: problem-solving or self-enhancement. So far, disparate theoretical logics and mixed e...
Article
Full-text available
Electrical mini-grids can provide electrification to rural communities far from the national network. However the benefits of such schemes are disputed. We observed changes in two matched trading-centres in Makueni County, Kenya, neither of which were initially electrified. During the study a solar photovoltaic mini-grid scheme (13.5 kWp) was const...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the impact of rural electrification on individuals and businesses within a community in order to test a resource-based theory of entrepreneurship. We show that access to electricity increases average households’ income and entrepreneurial activities. The impact of electricity on entrepreneurial activity has wide-ranging implications for...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the impact of rural electrification on individuals and businesses within a community in order to test a resource-based theory of entrepreneurship. We show that access to electricity increases average households’ income and entrepreneurial activities. The impact of electricity on entrepreneurial activity has wide-ranging implications for...
Article
Full-text available
For nearly 30 years, absorptive capacity (ACAP) has been the bedrock of theories of innovation; and, a meta-analysis is necessary to glean insights from the rich empirical evidence to date and guide future work. We meta-analyze the antecedents and performance outcomes of ACAP using 241 studies. We find the firm size-ACAP relationship is positive fo...
Article
Full-text available
Public-private collaborations, or hybrid organizational forms, are often difficult to organize because of disparate goals, incentives, and management practices. Some of this misalignment is addressed structurally or contractually, but not the management processes and practices. In this study, we examine how the coordination of these social and work...
Article
this article is published and it is open-access to everyone, you can please download the article at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14479338.2018.1428105
Chapter
With the globalization of the world economy, interest in international entrepreneurship has increased rapidly over the past decade. One of the most important features of today's global economy is the growing role of young entrepreneurial new ventures. Through the 1990s, researchers' attention has centered on exploring the motivations for, the patte...
Article
Research has explored how embeddedness in small-world networks influences individual and firm outcomes. We show that there remains significant heterogeneity among networks classified as small-world networks. We develop measures of the efficiency of a network, which allow us to refine predictions associated with small-world networks. A network is cl...
Article
Full-text available
“Impact” for management scholars could be construed as the influence of our research on managerial practices or policies—and, if escalated further, the potential to create positive societal benefit.
Article
Full-text available
"Grand challenges" are formulations of global problems that can be plausibly addressed through coordinated and collaborative effort. In this Special Research Forum, we showcase management research that examines societal problems that individuals, organizations, communities, and nations face around the world. We develop a framework to guide future r...
Article
“Grand challenges” are formulations of global problems that can be plausibly addressed through coordinated and collaborative effort. In this Special Research Forum, we showcase management research that examines societal problems that individuals, organizations, communities, and nations face around the world. We develop a framework to guide future r...
Article
With the advent of big data, organizations are integrating powerful computing tools into their organizational processes to drive efficiencies and improve service delivery. Yet, at the heart of this conversation lies the role of analytics and big data in innovation within and across organizations. In this article, we provide a stylistic model of the...
Article
Full-text available
In this editorial, we address both the collection and handling of big data and the analytical tools provided by data science for management scholars.
Article
Full-text available
The authors reflect on ways increased prevalence of technology and digital natives entering the workplace influence how work is approached. They talk about competencies of the digital workforce and suggests both digital natives and digital immigrants could have the skills needed to utilize technology for manipulating data, problem solving, and new...
Article
Full-text available
Africa is beginning to capture the imagination of entrepreneurs, corporate executives, and scholars as an emerging market of new growth opportunities. Over 15 years, the continent has experienced an average growth rate of 5% (World Economic Forum, 2015: v). Out of its 54 countries, 26 have achieved middleincome status, while the proportion of those...
Article
Full-text available
An introduction to the journal is presented in which the editors discuss topics within the issue including the workforce diversity, online business-to-business (B2B) marketplaces, and social and psychological connections among chief executive officers (CEOs).
Article
Full-text available
We investigate how established professionals manage their identities in the face of identity threats from a contested shift in the professional logic that characterizes their field. To do so, we draw on interviews with 113 physicians from five European transition countries who faced pressure for change in their professional identities due to a shif...
Article
Full-text available
Our societal reliance on the consumption of natural resources grows unabated such that the discussion of sustainability of natural resources has taken primacy in policy and executive concerns. However, while scholarly research on business and the environment has been growing, our understanding of the management and the organization of natural resou...
Article
Full-text available
This introduction to the thematic issue on gender has a three-fold purpose: to reflect on AMJ’s role in publishing actionable gender research, to analyze key trends in this research, and to situate research published in AMJ in the transformative agenda to end gender inequality and discrimination.
Article
Full-text available
Why do some organizations and societies successfully adjust and even thrive amid adversity while others fail to do so? With this editorial, we would like to inspire management scholars to take up the “grand challenge” of studying the role and functioning of organizations during adverse natural or social events.
Article
Full-text available
More than five decades after the seminal works on how individuals process information and make decisions within organizations were published (Cyert & March, 1963; Simon, 1957), the thesis that individuals, groups, and organizations are bounded in their rationality and ability to attend to information continues to remain salient. Individuals and org...
Article
Research SummaryWe examine individuals’ collaboration preferences in the Knowledge Transfer Network (KTN) for the UK plastics electronics sector. Using conjoint analysis, we investigate how aspiration gaps and relational capability affect the value placed on potential organizational collaborations. Aspiration gaps reflect individuals’ perception of...
Article
Full-text available
Editor's note: This editorial is part of a series written by editors and co-authored with a senior executive, thought leader, or scholar from a different field to explore new content areas and grand challenges with the goal of expanding the scope, interestingness, and relevance of the work presented in the Academy of Management Journal. The princip...
Article
Full-text available
Management scholarship has grown tremendously over the past 60 years. Most of our paradigms originated from North America in the 1950s to the 1980s, inspired by the empirical phenomena and cultural, philosophical, and research traditions of the time. Here following, we highlight the contextual differences between the East and the West in terms of i...
Article
Full-text available
Ensuring that organizational innovation generates value increasingly requires effective marketing management. Prior studies, however, report conflicting effects of chief marketing officer (CMO) leadership on how well the firm exploits innovation. These inconsistencies may be associated with firm-level innovation effort, customer focus, and industry...
Article
In the context of desperate poverty, characterized by households at subsistence level that experience economic loss and social fracture, explanations for why individuals undertake entry into entrepreneurship are limited. We find that individuals rely on their social relationships to enable entrepreneurial activities that have the potential to creat...
Article
Firms create and capture value through innovation. In technology-driven firms, there has been an explicit emphasis on appropriability through imitation deterrence and cumulative inventions that build on prior firm innovation. We introduce systematic empirical evidence for a third mechanism of appropriability namely, knowledge retrieval, which is de...
Article
Full-text available
As a scholarly field matures, theories emerge that guide paradigms and shape consensus in academic discourse. Management theories reflect a shared consensus on how individual behaviors or organizational actions result in a certain set of outcomes and under specific conditions. Clearly, theory is paramount to guiding whether models of potential rela...
Article
We examine the relationship between infrastructure provision and poverty alleviation by analyzing 500 interviews conducted in serviced and non-serviced slums in India. Using a mixed-method approach of qualitative analysis and regression modeling, we find that infrastructure was associated with a 66% increase in education among females. Service prov...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past two decades, the importance of design and the value of design thinking as a tool for innovation have been recognized by both business and government. Firms such as Apple, Samsung, and Dyson have exploited design to translate technological innovation into products that deliver compelling customer experiences, and have come to dominate...
Chapter
In order to gain advantage from investments in alliances, acquisitions, R&D, and other activities aimed at bringing new knowledge into a firm's operations, companies must possess the requisite absorptive capacity, defined as the ability to identify potentially useful knowledge and then import, understand, assimilate, and exploit it into their opera...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of management, the study of gover-nance has primarily dealt with decision-making by boards of directors, chief executives, and senior managers. The corporate governance literature has generated important insights regarding incentive alignment, risk taking, and coordination challenges. Emerging trends, highlighted in this issue, raise n...
Article
We explore how old technologies can be recombined to generate new inventions. We consider four ways by which old technologies can serve as templates: subtraction, reconfiguration, addition, and replacement. Subtraction and reconfiguration do not require changing a prior combination of components, whereas for the latter two, new components are intro...
Article
Full-text available
Why do individuals allocate attention to specific problems in organizations? Viewing attention allocation as a matching process between knowledge providers and problems, we examine knowledge sharing in the context of an online discussion forum where knowledge providers respond to problems posted by other organization members. We argue that a knowle...
Article
Full-text available
Editor's note: This editorial is part of a series written by editors and co-authored with a senior executive, thought leader, or scholar from a different field to explore new content areas and grand challenges with the goal of expanding the scope, interestingness, and relevance of the work presented in the Academy of Management Journal. The princip...
Article
Full-text available
Editor's note: This editorial is part of a series written by editors and co-authored with a senior executive, thought leader, or scholar from a different field to explore new content areas and grand challenges with the goal of expanding the scope, interestingness, and relevance of the work presented in the Academy of Management Journal. The princip...
Article
Full-text available
The article focuses on how climate change may impact the management industry after 2014. Topics include the social impact of ocean acidification and coastal flooding, the transformation of the global economy in response to climate change, and the warnings on climate change issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Article
Full-text available
Governments around the world, but especially in Europe, have increasingly used private sector involvement in developing, financing and providing public health infrastructure and service delivery through public-private partnerships (PPPs). Reasons for this uptake are manifold ranging from rising expenditures for refurbishing, maintaining and operati...
Article
We examine the relationship between structural social capital, resource assembly, and firm performance of entrepreneurs in Africa. We posit that social capital primarily composed of kinship or family ties helps the entrepreneur to raise resources, but it does so at a cost. Using data drawn from small firms in Kampala, Uganda, we explore how shared...
Article
Full-text available
The authors reflect on management of big data by organizations. They comment on service level agreements (SLA) which define the nature and quality of information technology services and mention big data-sharing agreements tend to be poorly structured and informal. They reflect on the methodologies of analyzing big data and state it is easy to get f...
Article
Full-text available
We present an in-depth case study of GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute, an Indian public–private partnership (PPP), which successfully brought emergency medical response to remote and urban settings. Drawing insights from the case, we investigate how the organization established itself through institutional entrepreneurship using a pr...
Article
Full-text available