Gerald Mutungi

Gerald Mutungi
Ministry of Health, Uganda · Non Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control

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46
Publications
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Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To adapt a World Health Organization HEARTS-based implementation strategy for hypertension (HTN) control at a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda and determine six-month HTN and HIV outcomes among a cohort of adult persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Methods: Our implementation strategy included six elements: health education, medication a...
Article
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The ‘implementation gap’ between national plans and successful implementation is a central theme in addressing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It is a factor that has undermined Sustainable Development Goal 3.4, which aims to achieve a one-third reduction in premature mortality from four major NCDs by 2030. Responding to the potential of implemen...
Article
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Multi-month dispensing (MMD) is a patient-centered approach in which stable patients receive medicine refills of three months or more. In this pre-post longitudinal study, we determined hypertension and HIV treatment outcomes in a cohort of hypertensive PLHIV at baseline and 12 months of receiving integrated MMD. At each clinical encounter, one hea...
Article
Lockdown measures to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may adversely impact on diabetes supplies and metabolic control, especially in type 1 diabetes in low-resource countries. To address this, we conceptualized a service delivery model that incorporated a digitized tool. The digitized tool (UT1D-HIMAS) maintained electronic...
Article
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Background HIV, diabetes and hypertension have a high disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare is organised in separate clinics, which may be inefficient. In a cohort study, we evaluated integrated management of these conditions from a single chronic care clinic. Objectives To determined the feasibility and acceptability of integrated mana...
Article
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Introduction: HIV programmes in sub-Saharan Africa are well funded but programmes for diabetes and hypertension are weak with only a small proportion of patients in regular care. Healthcare provision is organised from stand-alone clinics. In this cluster randomised trial, we are evaluating a concept of integrated care for people with HIV infection...
Chapter
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are now the leading cause of death in most regions of the world and are on the increase in developing countries. The intermediate risk factors shared by these diseases are raised blood pressure, raised blood cholesterol, raised blood sugar and overweight or obesity. In Uganda, although infectious diseases contribute...
Article
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Background Integration of health services might be an efficient strategy for managing multiple chronic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, considering the scope of treatments and synergies in service delivery. Proven to promote compliance, integration may lead to increased economies-of-scale. However, evidence on the socio-economic consequences of in...
Article
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Health sector priorities and interventions to prevent and manage noncommunicable diseases and injuries (NCDIs) in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) have primarily adopted elements of the World Health Organization Global Action Plan for NCDs 2013-2020. However, there have been limited efforts in LLMICs to prioritize among conditions an...
Article
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Key Findings n National Noncommunicable Disease and Injury (NCDI) Poverty Commissions were established in 16 low-and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) to define local NCDI epidemiology, determine an expanded set of priority NCDI conditions, and recommend cost-effective, equitable health-sector interventions. n Commissions prioritized an averag...
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Background: Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is an important contributor to total physical activity and the focus of many interventions promoting activity in high-income populations. Little is known about LTPA in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and with expected declines in physical activity due to rapid urbanisation and lifestyle changes we aimed...
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The prevalence of non-communicable diseases including hypertension and obesity is rising and alcohol consumption is a predisposing factor. This study explored the effect of alcohol consumption patterns on the hypertension-age group and obesity-age group relationships. The data were extracted from the 2014 National NCD Survey of adults aged 18-69 ye...
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Introduction There is great interest for integrating care for non‐communicable diseases (NCDs) into routine HIV services in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA) due to the steady rise of the number of people who are ageing with HIV. Suggested health system approaches for intervening on these comorbidities have mostly been normative, with little actionable guid...
Article
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Introduction Despite growing enthusiasm for integrating treatment of non‐communicable diseases (NCDs) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and treatment services in sub‐Saharan Africa, there is little evidence on the potential health and financial consequences of such integration. We aim to study the cost‐effectiveness of basic NCD‐HIV inte...
Article
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Background: Dyslipidemia is a leading risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. There are few published epidemiological data regarding dyslipidemia in Africa. We determined full lipid and apolipoprotein profiles and investigated factors associated with lipid levels in urban and rural populations of north-western Tanzania and southern...
Article
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Introduction Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables has protective benefits against development of coronary heart disease, hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, approximately 2.7 million deaths annually can be attributed to inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. We analyzed data from a countrywide survey in Ug...
Article
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Background : Uganda is located in East Africa and is among the countries with the lowest income globally. The ten health centres in this project serve populations in the under-privileged communities of Kampala. The objective of the study was to implement diabetes mellitus (DM) screening among tuberculosis (TB) patients in a routine program setting...
Article
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Background : Uganda is located in East Africa and is among the countries with the lowest income globally. The ten health centres in this project serve populations in the under-privileged communities of Kampala. The objective of the study was to implement diabetes mellitus (DM) screening among tuberculosis (TB) patients in a routine program setting...
Preprint
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Introduction Uganda is experiencing a significant increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases including hypertension and obesity. Frequent alcohol use is also highly prevalent in Uganda and is a key risk factor for both hypertension and obesity. This study explores the association of alcohol with hypertension and obesity across differen...
Article
The management of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) includes setting up organised follow-up clinics. A programme for establishing such clinics in Uganda commenced in 2009. The clinics were established along the chronic care model and were integrated into the health structure of other chronic diseases. Web-based electronic medical records were utilised to esta...
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Background Overweight and obesity are associated with health complications the gravity of which, vary with the regional deposition of the excess fat. The Body Mass Index (BMI) is often used to measure obesity although is an inferior predictor of cardiovascular disease risk mortality and morbidity compared with measures of abdominal obesity. We anal...
Article
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The rising burden from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) poses a huge challenge for health care delivery in Africa, where health systems are already struggling with the long-term care requirements for the millions of people now on antiretroviral therapy requiring regular visits to health facilities for monitoring, adherence support and drugs. The HI...
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Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing in prevalence in low-income countries including Uganda. The Uganda Ministry of Health has prioritized NCD prevention, early diagnosis, and management. However, research on the capacity of public sector health facilities to address NCDs is limited. Methods: We developed a survey guided b...
Article
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Objective Although the WHO-developed Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool is a comprehensive and widely applied survey of health facility preparedness, SARA data have not previously been used to model predictors of readiness. We sought to demonstrate that SARA data can be used to model availability of essential medicines for tr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective Although the WHO-developed Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool is a comprehensive and widely applied survey of health facility preparedness, SARA data have not previously been used to model predictors of readiness. We sought to demonstrate that SARA data can be used to model availability of essential medicines for tr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective Although the WHO-developed Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool is a comprehensive and widely applied survey of health facility preparedness, SARA data have not previously been used to model predictors of readiness. We sought to demonstrate that SARA data can be used to model availability of essential medicines for tr...
Article
Background: Worldwide implementation of risk-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention requires risk prediction tools that are contemporarily recalibrated for the target country and can be used where laboratory measurements are unavailable. We present two cardiovascular risk scores, with and without laboratory-based measurements, and the corre...
Article
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Background Modification of known risk factors has been the most tested strategy for dealing with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The cumulative number of NCD risk factors exhibited by an individual depicts a disease burden. However, understanding the risk factors associated with increased NCD burden has been constrained by scarcity of nationally...
Article
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Background: There are limited data on levels of alcohol use in most sub-Saharan African countries. Objective: We analyzed data from Uganda's non-communicable diseases risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to identify alcohol use prevalence and associated factors. Design: The survey used the World Health Organization STEPS tool to collect data,...
Article
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Background Tobacco use and the exposure to tobacco smoke is one of the most preventable causes of death and disability globally. The risk is even higher among daily tobacco users. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that surveillance of major risk factors for Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) such as tobacco use is imperative to pred...
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Background: Being physically active is associated with lower risk of many non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We analyzed physical activity (PA) data collected as part of Uganda's countrywide NCD risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to describe PA levels in Uganda. Methods: PA data was collected on the domains of work, travel and leisure. We calc...
Article
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Despite the increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in sub-Saharan Africa, few community-based screenings have been conducted in Uganda. Opportunities to improve the management of CKD in sub-Saharan Africa are limited by low awareness, inadequate access, poor recognition, and delayed presentation for clinical care. Therefore, the Ugan...
Article
Objective: We analysed fasting blood glucose (FBG) and other data collected as part of a population-based nationwide non-communicable disease risk factor survey, to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and diabetes mellitus and to identify associated factors in Uganda. Methods: The nationwide cross-sectional survey was con...
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Background: Hypertension is an important contributor to global burden of disease and mortality, and is a growing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. However, most sub-Saharan African countries lack detailed countrywide data on hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors that would provide benchmark information for...
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The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in East Africa is rising rapidly. Although the epidemiologic, demographic, and nutritional transitions are well under way in low-income countries, investment and attention in these countries remain focused largely on communicable diseases. We discuss existing infrastructure in communicable disease manageme...
Article
Traditionally, health systems in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on acute conditions. Few data exist on the readiness of African health facilities (HFs) to address the growing burden of chronic diseases (CDs), specifically chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). A stratified random sample of 28 urban and rural Ugandan HFs was surveyed to documen...
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The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but data available for intervention planning are inadequate. We determined the prevalence of selected NCDs and HIV infection, and NCD risk factors in northwestern Tanzania and southern Uganda. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted, enrolling househ...
Article
Objective To explore the chronic disease services in Uganda: their level of utilisation, the total service costs, and unit costs per visit.Methods Full financial and economic cost data were collected from 12 facilities in two districts, from the provider's perspective. A combination of ingredients-based and step-down allocation costing approaches w...
Article
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The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is accelerating. Given that the capacity of health systems in LMICs is already strained by the weight of communicable diseases, these countries find themselves facing a double burden of disease. NCDs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, thereb...
Article
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There is much commonality between chronic noncommunicable and communicable diseases which is best exemplified by cancers of infectious origin. It provides the perfect opportunity for harnessing the advances that have been made in the control of communicable diseases to attempt the control of noncommunicable diseases. There are possibilities at vari...

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