George Bush

George Bush
Stanford University | SU · Arthur and Toni Rembe Rock Center for Corporate Governance

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68
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Publications

Publications (68)
Article
We hypothesized that atomoxetine (ATMX) would produce similar brain effects in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as those of methylphenidate (MPH). Eleven ADHD adults performed the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT) during fMRI at baseline and after 6 weeks of ATMX treatment. ATMX was associated with increased fMRI activation of do...
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The ability to optimize behavioural performance when confronted with continuously evolving environmental demands is a key element of human cognition. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), which lies on the medial surface of the frontal lobes, is important in regulating cognitive control. Hypotheses about its function include guiding reward-b...
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Neuroimaging studies have revealed functional abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of this study was to determine whether hyperresponsivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate in PTSD is an acquired characteristic or a familial risk factor. Using a case-control twin design, the authors studie...
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Functional and structural neuroimaging have identified abnormalities of the brain that are likely to contribute to the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, hypofunction of the brain regions comprising the cingulo-frontal-parietal cognitive-attention network have been consistently observed across st...
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We sought to examine preliminary results of brain alterations in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in treatment-naïve adults with ADHD. The ACC is a central brain node for the integration of cognitive control and allocation of attention, affect and drive. Thus its anatomical alteration may give rise to impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention, whic...
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Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a b...
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Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated both with brain alterations in attention and executive function (EF) circuitry and with genetic variations within the dopamine system (including the dopamine transporter gene [SLC6A3]), few studies have directly investigated how genetic variations are linked to brain alterations...
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An emerging literature has demonstrated an association between the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and volumetric brain abnormalities in children with ADHD. However, these results have not been extended to adults and have not addressed the impact of comorbidity. Our objective was to examine the DRD4 7R gene and volumetric brain abnormalities in ad...
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Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) co-occur frequently and represent a particularly morbid clinical form of both disorders, neuroimaging research addressing this co-morbidity is scarce. Our aim was to evaluate the morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underpinnings of the co-morbidity of ADHD...
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is hypothesized to be due, in part, to structural defects in brain networks influencing cognitive, affective, and motor behaviors. Although the current literature on fiber tracts is limited in ADHD, gray matter abnormalities suggest that white matter (WM) connections may be altered selectively in neur...
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Recent advances in neuroimaging research have helped elucidate the neurobiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the mechanisms by which medications used to treat ADHD exert their effects. The complex nature and array of imaging techniques, however, present challenges for the busy clinician in assessing possible clinical uses...
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Previous studies have reported hypofunction, structural abnormalities, and biochemical abnormalities of the dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulant medications are effective treatments for ADHD, but their neural effects have not been fully characterized. To determine whether the meth...
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Previous neuroimaging research has shown diminished anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with most of these findings occurring in pregenual/subgenual ACC. This study investigates whether dorsal ACC (dACC) function is also diminished in PTSD. The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study...
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with structural alterations in brain networks influencing cognitive and motor behaviors. Volumetric studies in children identify abnormalities in cortical, striatal, callosal, and cerebellar regions. In a prior volumetric study, we found that ADHD adults had significantly smaller o...
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Gray and white matter volume deficits have been reported in a number of studies of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is a paucity of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of adults with ADHD. This structural MRI study used an a priori region of interest approach. Twenty-four adults with DSM-...
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The counting Stroop is a validated Stroop task variant. Initially designed as a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task for identifying brain regions subserving cognition and attention (dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)), it has been used to study cognition in healthy volunteers and to...
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The emotional counting Stroop (ecStroop) is an emotional variant of the counting Stroop. Both of these tasks require a motor response instead of a spoken response for the purpose of minimizing head movement during functional MRI (fMRI). During this task, subjects report, by button press, the number of words (1-4) that appear on a screen, regardless...
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In this protocol we describe how to perform the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT), a validated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task that reliably and robustly activates the cingulo-frontal-parietal cognitive/attention network (CFP network) within individual subjects. The MSIT can be used to (i) identify the cognitive/attention netw...
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Over the past few decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have begun to provide unprecedented windows on the neurobiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the neural effects of medications used to treat the disorder. Convergent data from neuroimaging, neuropsychological, genetics, and neurochemical studies have implicated...
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Human functional imaging and neurocytology have produced important revisions to the organization of the cingulate gyrus and demonstrate four structure/function regions: anterior, midcingulate (MCC), posterior (PCC), and retrosplenial. This study evaluates the brain of a rhesus and 11 cynomolgus monkeys with Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry f...
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The human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been implicated in cognitive processes that have been proposed to play a role in integrating contextual information needed to select or modify appropriate motor responses. In humans, however, there has been little direct evidence tying the dACC to the integration of contextual information and be...
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The party conventions are over, and the candidates have been anointed. Now it's a straight race to the tape between President George W. Bush and his challenger John Kerry. Nature asked them where they stand on science.
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Cross-sectional data suggest that brain dysfunctions are a central component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, and a growing literature is suggesting the same for adults. This article reviews the current state of the literature pertaining to the structural and functional brain abnormalities that are found in adults wit...
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Previous studies have reported evidence of structural and functional abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia. The authors studied 19 male patients with chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy male comparison subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging and the novel Multi-Source Interference Task, a task de...
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Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays critical roles in cognitive processing, but group-averaging techniques have generally been required to obtain significant dACC activation in functional neuroimaging studies. Development of a task that reliably and robustly activates dACC within individuals is needed to improve imaging studies of neurops...
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A review of behavioral and neurobiological data on mood and mood regulation as they pertain to an understanding of mood disorders is presented. Four approaches are considered: 1) behavioral and cognitive; 2) neurobiological; 3) computational; and 4) developmental. Within each of these four sections, we summarize the current status of the field and...
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Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a brain region that subserves cognition and motor control, but the mechanisms of these functions remain unknown. Human neuroimaging and monkey electrophysiology studies have provided valuable insights, but it has been difficult to link the two literatures. Based on monkey single-unit recordings, we hypothe...
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Several recent neuroimaging studies have provided data consistent with functional abnormalities in anterior cingulate cortex in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In our study, we implemented a cognitive activation paradigm to test the functional integrity of anterior cingulate cortex in PTSD. Eight Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD (PTSD Group)...
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Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a part of the brain's limbic system. Classically, this region has been related to affect, on the basis of lesion studies in humans and in animals. In the late 1980s, neuroimaging research indicated that ACC was active in many studies of cognition. The findings from EEG studies of a focal area of negativity in scal...
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Meditation is a conscious mental process that induces a set of integrated physiologic changes termed the relaxation response. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and characterize the brain regions that are active during a simple form of meditation. Significant (p<10(-7)) signal increases were observed in the group-aver...
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Article
The anterior cingulate cognitive division (ACcd) plays a central role in attentional processing by: 1) modulating stimulus selection (i.e., focusing attention) and/or 2) mediating response selection. We hypothesized that ACcd dysfunction might therefore contribute to producing core features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), namely...
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Full-text available
BACKGROUND: The anterior cingulate cognitive division (ACcd) plays a central role in attentional processing by: 1) modulating stimulus selection (i.e., focusing attention) and/or 2) mediating response selection. We hypothesized that ACcd dysfunction might therefore contribute to producing core features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (A...
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Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that unilateral finger movements are normally accompanied by a small activation in ipsilateral motor cortex. The magnitude of this activation has been shown to be altered in a number of conditions, particularly in association with stroke recovery. The site of this activation, however, has received limited attention. To a...
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The emotional counting Stroop (ecStroop) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation paradigm was designed to recruit the anterior cingulate affective division (ACad). Nine normal, healthy male and female subjects (mean age 24.2 years) reported via button press the number of neutral and negative words that appeared on a screen while rea...
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The Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict invited five world leaders, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, George Bush, Jimmy Carter, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Desmond Tutu, to consider leadership and preventing deadly conflict. Each offers a different perspective, yet all conclude that an individual leader's choices are crucial to creating the conditio...
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George Bush and Brent Scowcroft's Oval Office memoir shows how Bush's genius for friendship and gentlemanly instincts helped usher out the Cold War.
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The anterior cingulate cortex has been activated by color Stroop tasks, supporting the hypothesis that it is recruited to mediate response selection or allocate attentional resources when confronted with competing information-processing streams. The current study used the newly developed "Counting Stroop" to identify the mediating neural substrate...
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The anterior cingulate cortex has been activated by color Stroop tasks, supporting the hypothesis that it is recruited to mediate response selection or allocate attentional resources when confronted with competing information-processing streams. The current study used the newly developed "Counting Stroop" to identify the mediating neural substrate...
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To determine the motor characteristics of chronic catatonia, catatonia and other motor disorders were systematically rated in a long-term hospitalized sample. Chronically hospitalized psychiatric inpatients (N = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of catatonic schizophrenia (295.2X) were rated for catatonia with a novel 23-item catatonia rating scale, an...
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and lorazepam are effective treatments for catatonia. ECT combined with benzodiazepines has been associated with reduced efficacy and efficiency and therefore is not recommended in the routine practice of ECT. We report 5 prospectively identified cases of catatonia treated either sequentially or concurrently with lor...
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We define the catatonic syndrome and review the history of the concept of catatonia, including its recent acceptance as a syndrome. Diagnosis of the catatonic syndrome, with its associated extensive differential diagnoses related to systemic and mental disorders, is addressed. Catatonia is related to variants of the syndrome, such as lethal (malign...
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This study examined the consistency of symptom profiles across episodes of catationia. A recently developed standardized examination and symptom scale systematically rates 23 motor signs of catatonia, permitting symptom analysis of recurrent illness. Patients from the emergency room or inpatient unit were prospectively examined using the 23-item Bu...
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Prior research has repeatedly implicated the striatum in implicit sequence learning; however, imaging findings have been inconclusive with respect to the sub-territories and laterality involved. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied brain activation profiles associated with performance of the serial reaction time task (SRT)...
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To facilitate the systematic description of catatonic signs, we developed a catatonia rating examination, rating scale and screening instrument. We constructed a 23-item rating scale and a truncated 14-item screening instrument using operationalized definitions of signs ascribed to catatonia in published sources. Inter-rater reliability was tested...
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Case material and retrospective studies support the use of both lorazepam and ECT in treating catatonia, but few prospective investigations exist and none employ quantitative monitoring of response. In this study we test their efficacy in an open, prospective protocol, and define a "lorazepam test' with predictive value for treatment. Twenty-eight...
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Has not supported the Employee Free Choice Act: 20,000 workers each year are illegally fired or discriminated against for attempting to form a union. If enacted, this bill would improve the democratic rights of workers to form unions and bargain collectively by: • Enabling workers to more fairly and rapidly indicate whether they want a union throug...
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Provides information relevant to the conduct and interpretation of human brain mapping studies. Provides in-depth coverage of the physics of image formation, mechanisms of image contrast, and the physiological basis for image signals. Parenchymal and cerebrovascular neuroanatomy and application of sophisticated structural analysis algorithms for se...
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Traducción de: Looking forward Incluye bibliografía e índice