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Western Pond Turtles (Actinemys marmorata) are endemic to western North America and are found in a diversity of aquatic habitats. To date, few studies have examined the ecology of populations in ephemeral or intermittent ponds. Here, we studied the terrestrial habitat requirements of Western Pond Turtles in an intermittent pond that dries in years...
Sticky plants - those producing adhesive glandular exudates - are typically thought to exclude predators. The sticky exudates are considered a direct defense that carry a cost of also inhibiting indirect defense. In common madia (Madia elegans), plant stickiness actually enhances indirect defense by entrapping insects which provision food for preda...
Background/Question/Methods Specialist herbivores of plants can overcome even extreme direct hostplant defenses, to which plants have adapted means of tolerating their damage, luring predators to kill them, and/or hiding from them in time and space. Using divergent populations of a species of tarweed (Asteraceae: Madia elegans) and its arthropod...
Evolutionary innovation can allow a species access to a new ecological niche, potentially reducing competition with closely related species. While the vast majority of Drosophila flies feed on rotting fruit and other decaying matter, and are harmless to human activity, Drosophila suzukii, which has a morphologically modified ovipositor, is capable...