George B Stefano

George B Stefano
Charles University in Prague | CUNI · Department of Psychiatry (1. LF)

Doctor of Philosophy

About

576
Publications
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22,206
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Publications

Publications (576)
Article
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Background : Mind-body medicine (MBM) focuses on improving our understanding of how the interactions between the brain, mind, body, and behavior can be used to promote health. In this narrative review, we present the basic principles of MBM, including the introduction of a rational framework for the implementation of MBM-based interventions. We als...
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The incidence of infections from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has dramatically escalated following the initial outbreak in China in late 2019, resulting in a global pandemic with millions of deaths. Although the majority of infected patients survive, and t...
Article
Viruses have been classified as non-living because they require a cellular host to support their replicative processes. Empirical investigations have significantly advanced our understanding of the many strategies employed by viruses to usurp and divert host regulatory and metabolic processes to drive the synthesis and release of infectious particl...
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is the dynamically determined co-expression of wild type (WT) inherited polymorphisms and collective time-dependent somatic mutations within individual mtDNA genomes. The temporal expression and distribution of cell-specific and tissue-specific mtDNA heteroplasmy in healthy individuals may be functionally asso...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, research on the relationships between the virus and its human host has become fundamental to understand this pathology and its effects. Attaining this profound understanding is critical for the effective containment and treatment of infections caused by the virus. In this review, we present some possible mechanisms by...
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is classically associated with symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity together with a variety of other observable externalized symptoms. ADHD has also been associated with specific internalized cognitive symptoms, including restlessness and emotional impulsivity. This di...
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Persistent comorbidities occur in patients who initially recover from acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 'Long COVID' involves the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs, including cognitive impairment or 'brain fog' an...
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Trait anxiety is characterized as a constant and often subliminal state that persists during daily life. Interoception is the perception of internal states and sensations, including from the autonomic nervous system. This review aims to develop a predictive model to explain the emergence, manifestations, and maintenance of trait anxiety. The model...
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Long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are now recognized. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the terminology for this emerging chronic clinical syndrome, which includes long COVID, chronic COVID syndrome, post-COVID-19 syndrome,...
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Alterations in brain functioning, especially in regions associated with cognition, can result from infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and are predicted to result in various psychiatric diseases. Recent studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can directly or indire...
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Alterations in complex behavioral patterns during the extended period of the COVID-19 pandemic are predicted to promote a variety of psychiatric disease symptoms due to enforced social isolation and self-quarantine. Accordingly, multifaceted mental health problems will continue to increase, thereby creating a challenge for society and the health ca...
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Recent studies have shown a significant level of T cell immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and unexposed healthy individuals. Also, SARS-CoV-2-reactive T memory cells occur in unexposed healthy individuals from endemic coronaviruses that cau...
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Since the initial reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in late 2019, infections from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have spread rapidly, resulting in a global pandemic that has caused millions of deaths. Initially, the large number of infected people required the direction of global healthcare resour...
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Current critical thinking has displaced the elaborated beta amyloid theory as the underlying unitary mechanism of Alzheimer disease (AD) in favor of concerted, long-term disruption or dysregulation of broad-based physiological processes. We present a critical discussion in which a chronic state of systemic proinflammation sustained over the course...
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The primordial origin of abiotic nitrogen fixation, which is not dependent on prokaryotes, reflects the importance of available nitrogenous compounds as an essential requirement for the emergence of life and evolutionary biodiversity. It has been hypothesized that synthesis of oxidized nitrogen in the form of nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-), occu...
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Current critical thinking has displaced the elaborated beta amyloid theory as the underlying unitary mechanism of Alzheimer disease (AD) in favor of concerted, long-term disruption or dysregulation of broad-based physiological processes. We present a critical discussion in which a chronic state of systemic proinflammation sustained over the course...
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Integrated behavioral paradigms such as nociceptive processing coupled to anti-nociceptive responsiveness include systemically-mediated states of alertness, vigilance, motivation, and avoidance. Within a historical and cultural context, opium and its biologically active compounds, codeine and morphine, have been widely used as frontline anti-nocice...
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The emergence of the novel ß-coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical studies have documented that potentially severe neurological symptoms are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, thereby suggesting direct CNS penetration by the vi...
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Nitric oxide (NO) represents a key signaling molecule in multiple regulatory pathways underlying vascular, metabolic, immune, and neurological function across animal phyla. Our brief critical discussion is focused on the multiple roles of the NO signaling pathways in the maintenance of basal physiological states of readiness in diverse cell types m...
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The first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in late 2019. The subsequent COVID-19 pandemic rapidly affected the health and economy of the world. The global approach to the pandemic was to isolate populations to reduce t...
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Over the past two decades, a major goal of our research group has been elucidation of the functional roles of several key regulatory molecules in proinflammatory preconditioning involved in the pathophysiology of seemingly diverse human disease states. By necessity, operational definitions of proinflammation must be intrinsically fluid based on rec...
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The relaxation response derives its health benefits by reestablishing "normal" equilibria between the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Recent work suggests that this behavioral training provides positive effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics, insulin secretion, and reductions in pro-inflammatory and stress-...
Article
Background: Post-transplantation pharmacotherapies typically employ combinations of immunosuppressive agents that have been designed for targeted inhibition of T-cells and T-cell subsets. Studies of acute and chronic effects of clinically employed immunosuppressive agents on B-cells and B-cell subsets are significantly fewer in number and warrant...
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BACKGROUND Following renal transplantation, early-onset pneumonia is a frequent and severe infection-related complication. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been reported as a predictive marker among patients with infectious diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the significance of RDW in predicting prognosis, includin...
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BACKGROUND Burnout is a state of vital exhaustion that is manifested on physical, cognitive, and emotional levels. Teachers work in a field where they are exposed daily to high job-related stressors, which can result in job change, a higher rate of unhappiness, and even earlier retirement. This study explored the relationship between job stressors,...
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that can affect many areas of the daily life of individuals and is associated with poor health outcomes and with debilitating deficits in executive function. Recently, increasing numbers of research studies have begun to investigate the associations between ne...
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The objective of our concise review is to elaborate an evidence-based integrative medicine model that incorporates functional linkages of key aspects of cortically-driven mind-body training procedures to biochemical and molecular processes driving enhanced cellular bioenergetics and whole-body metabolic advantage. This entails the adoption of a uni...
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Stress affects cellular aging and inflammatory and chromosomal processes, including telomere length, thereby potentially compromising health and facilitating disease onset and progression. Stress-related diseases and strategies to manage stress usually require integrative or behavioral therapeutic approaches that also operate on cellular levels. Mi...
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Stress affects cellular aging and inflammatory and chromosomal processes, including telomere length, thereby potentially compromising health and facilitating disease onset and progression. Stress-related diseases and strategies to manage stress usually require integrative or behavioral therapeutic approaches that also operate on cellular levels....
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It has become apparent that the molecular and biochemical integrity of interactive families, genera, and species of human gut microflora is critically linked to maintaining complex metabolic and behavioral processes mediated by peripheral organ systems and central nervous system neuronal groupings. Relatively recent studies have established intrins...
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Today's medical service delivery platforms provide everything from small urgent care 'offices' to large medical centers. Since 2007, an intermediate entity for care has been established, namely, the micro-hospital. Micro-hospitals are 24-hour, small inpatient facilities with an average of 2 to 10 beds, designed to provide a diversity of healthcare...
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Typical alkaloids expressed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are small heterocyclic compounds containing weakly basic nitrogen groups that are critically important for mediating essential biological activities. The prototype opiate alkaloid morphine represents a low molecular mass heterocyclic compound that has been evolutionarily fashioned from...
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Ten thousand years ago, the foundation for agricultural development and animal domestication was laid. Neolithic founder crops were carbohydrate-laden cereal grasses that facilitated transformation of hunter-gather societies into ancient civilizations with realistic capabilities for population expansion. In the last 3-4 decades, however, debilitati...
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Over the course of history, human beings have never stopped seeking effective methods for information storage. From rocks to paper, and through the past several decades of using computer disks, USB sticks, and on to the thin silicon "chips" and "cloud" storage of today, it would seem that we have reached an era of efficiency for managing innumerabl...
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The molecular evolution of genomic DNA across diverse plant and animal phyla involved dynamic registrations of sequence modifications to maintain existential homeostasis to increasingly complex patterns of environmental stressors. As an essential corollary, driver effects of positive evolutionary pressure are hypothesized to effect concerted modifi...
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Single cells, as part of their evolution, acquired the ability to sense their internal and external environment, move to or away from a particular environment, the latter depending on the appropriate integration of the sensory input with motor ability. Clearly, the ability to sense stimuli must be a rapid process and one that has been selected upon...
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It is not surprising to find microbiome abnormalities present in psychiatric disorders such as depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, etc. Evolutionary pressure may provide an existential advantage to the host eukaryotic cells in that it survives in an extracellular environment containing non-self cells (e.g., bacteria). This phenomenon is both p...
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Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a comb...
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Recent trends in biomedical research have highlighted the potential for effecting significant extensions in longevity with enhanced quality of life in aging human populations. Within this context, any proposed method to achieve enhanced life extension must include therapeutic approaches that draw upon essential biochemical and molecular regulatory...
Chapter
Genetic polymorphisms, in concert with well-characterized etiology and progression of major pathologies, plays a significant role in aberrant processes afflicting human populations. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy represents a dynamically determined co-expression of inherited polymorphisms and somatic pathology in varying ratios within individual mitoch...
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Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality, tobacco is consumed by approximately 22% of the adult population worldwide. Smoking is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affects brain processing, and is a recognized risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Tobacco toxins (e.g., nicotine at high levels) inhaled in...
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Since the realization that certain maladies can be corrected via surgical techniques, we have been consumed by the desire to constantly advance the tools of surgery, as well as the techniques. In recent times, computer-assisted surgical tools have emerged and are growing in their use. The Puma 560 emerged in 1985 for brain biopsies and laparoscopic...
Article
Background Even though cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality, worldwide tobacco is consumed by approximately 22% of population. Smoking is also one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and it impacts our brain processing as well as being one of the recognised risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. The tobacco toxins...
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Clinical usage of several classes of antibiotics is associated with moderate to severe side effects due to the promotion of mitochondrial dysfunction. We contend that this may be due to perturbation of unique evolutionary relationships that link selective biochemical and molecular aspects of mitochondrial biology to conserved enzymatic processes de...
Article
The discovery of the ability of the nervous system to communicate through "public" circuits with other systems of the body is attributed to Ernst and Berta Scharrer, who described the neurosecretory process in 1928. Indeed, the immune system has been identified as another important neuroendocrine target tissue. Opioid peptides are involved in this...
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Purpose The severity of untreated or refractory diabetes mellitus has been functionally linked to elevated concentrations of free plasma glucose, clinically defined as hyperglycemia. Operationally, the pathophysiological presentations of prolonged hyperglycemia may be categorized within insulin-dependent and insulin-independent, type 1 and type 2 d...
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The mitochondrion exhibits biochemical and functional variations that emerged by random chance as an evolutionary survival strategy, which include enhanced energy production driven by anaerobic respiratory mechanisms. In invertebrates, this mitochondrial anaerobic respiration permits survival at a lower energy state suited for this type of environm...
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa,...
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The biomedical literature has extensively documented the functional roles of genetic polymorphisms in concert with well-characterized somatic mutations in the etiology and progression of major metastatic diseases afflicting human populations. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy exists as a dynamically determined co-expression of inherited polymorphisms and...
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Mitochondria and chloroplasts represent endosymbiotic models of complex organelle development, driven by intense evolutionary pressure to provide exponentially enhanced ATP-dependent energy production functionally linked to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Within the realm of translational medicine, it has become compellingly evident that m...
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The persistence of major medical disorders afflicting millions of humans worldwide involves a functional pathophysiological coupling of systemic pro-inflammatory processes and tissue hypoxia. Mechanistically, reciprocal triggering of multiple ischemic/hypoxic and pro-inflammatory events, if not corrected, will promote pathophysiological amplificati...
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Cognitive ability did not appear de novo in humans. Despite our ability to recognize limited cognitive behavioral characteristics in animals, there has been no outcry to proclaim this phenomenon. The notion that humans are the only animals to possess cognition has taken advantage of the illusory potential in inter-subjectivity and placed him outsid...
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The primacy of glucose derived from photosynthesis as an existential source of chemical energy across plant and animal phyla is universally accepted as a core principle in the biological sciences. In mammalian cells, initial processing of glucose to triose phosphate intermediates takes place within the cytosolic glycolytic pathway and terminates wi...
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Depression can be both normal and abnormal, and the balance of its expression determines the behavioral outcome/diagnosis. It is a complex pathophysiology based on a heterogeneous syndrome whose etiology is diverse as well. Within the context of a central nervous system, the nervous system blueprint can be found in single cells (sensory, motor, and...
Article
The expression of morphine by plants, invertebrate, and vertebrate cells and organ systems, strongly indicates a high level of evolutionary conservation of morphine and related morphinan alkaloids as required for life. The prototype catecholamine, dopamine, serves as an essential chemical intermediate in morphine biosynthesis, both in plants and an...
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Many commonalities between chloroplasts and mitochondria exist, thereby suggesting a common origin via a bacterial ancestor capable of enhanced ATP-dependent energy production functionally linked to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Accordingly, the molecular evolution/retention of the catalytic Qo quinol oxidation site of cytochrome b compl...
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The vital status of diverse classes of eukaryotic mitochondria is reflected by the high degree of evolutionary modification functionally linked to ongoing multifaceted organelle development. From this teleological perspective, a logistical enhancement of eukaryotic cellular energy requirements indicates a convergence of metabolic processes within t...
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Mitochondria have long been recognized as the main source of energy production for the eukaryotic cell. Recent studies have found that the mitochondria have a variety of dynamic functions aside from the production of energy. It communicates bidirectionally with other organelles in order to modulate its energy balance efficiently, as well as maintai...
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Abstract Personalized medicine's foundation rests on the use of molecular technologies, which are being used to identify genetic mutations, polymorphisms, and variants that can be associated with an individual's genetic make up, revealing risk factors and predictive data. Needless to say this same analysis can be performed on various types of cance...
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The mitochondrion represents a compelling biological model of complex organelle development driven by evolutionary modification of permanently enslaved primordial purple non-sulphur bacteria. As an evolutionary modification, the dynamic nature of the mitochondrion has been observed to exhibit biochemical and functional variation, including the capa...
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Endocannabinoids, and their respective receptors, are involved in a host of cellular regulatory activities. In part, some of these mediated effects occur by way of stimulating constitutive nitric oxide release. This occurs in endothelia, certain white blood cells, microglia, and in similar invertebrate tissues, demonstrating that this is a conserve...
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Microglia have selectively evolved as a morphologically and chemically distinct class of immuno-competent CNS resident cells with potent bidirectional signaling capabilities linked to induction of a macrophage-like phenotype following metabolic, microbiological, or viral insults. It has been empirically determined that a conserved set of shared che...
Patent
Methods and materials related to the use of morphine, morphine precursors (e.g., reticuline), and inhibitors of morphine synthesis or activity to treat diseases, to reduce inflammation, or to restore normal function are provided.
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Abstract Understanding the control of gene expression is critical for our understanding of the relationship between genotype and phenotype. The need for reliable assessment of transcript abundance in biological samples has driven scientists to develop novel technologies such as DNA microarray and RNA-Seq to meet this demand. This review focuses on...
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Abstract The endothelium performs a crucial role in maintaining vascular integrity leading to whole organ metabolic homeostasis. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key etiological factor leading to moderate to severe vasculopathies observed in both Type 2 diabetic and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. Accordingly, evidence-based epidemiological...
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Abstract DRG is of importance in relaying painful stimulation to the higher pain centers and therefore could be a crucial target for early intervention aimed at suppressing primary afferent stimulation. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a common pain condition with an unknown etiology. Recently added new information enriches our understandin...
Article
DRG is of importance in relaying painful stimulation to the higher pain centers and therefore could be a crucial target for early intervention aimed at suppressing primary afferent stimulation. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a common pain condition with an unknown etiology. Recently added new information enriches our understanding of CRPS...
Article
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Background: Stress-related, behavioral or chronic diseases require a holistic therapeutic approach. Mind-body medicine (MBM) uses the interaction between mind, body, behavior, and the environment to affect physical and psychological health and function. This integrative strategy can be applied in clinical settings, e.g., in an outpatient clinic, t...
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders. It is manifested in every part of an affected child's behavior, with multiple symptomatology and heterogenous etiology. Published studies report that ADHD children may show changes in growth and development. Most of the studies on...
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Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological/behavioral disorder characterized by inattention or hyperactivity and impulsivity, or combined symptomatology. Children with ADHD are predisposed to irregular and/or impulsive eating patterns often leading to compromised physical condition. The goal of the present study wa...
Data
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Summary The objective of this work was to investigate a possible (therapeutic) connection between the relaxation response (RR) and stress-related diseases. Further, common underlying molecular mechanisms and autoregulatory pathways were examined. For the question of (patho)physiology and significance of RR techniques in the treatment of stress-rela...
Data
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A b s t r a c t Stress can facilitate disease processes and causes strain on the health care budgets. It is responsible or involved in many human ailments of our time, such as cardiovascular illnesses, particularly related to the psychosocial stressors of daily life, including work. Besides pharmacological or clinical medical treatment options, beh...
Article
By operational criteria, burnout appears to be a multifaceted behavioral syndrome consisting of maladaptive individual responses subsequent to prolonged stressful situations. Given the intense physical and cognitive demands of providing high quality healthcare to a wide spectrum of patients, healthcare professionals are particularly susceptible to...
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A substantive literature has drawn a compelling case for the functional involvement of mesolimbic/prefrontal cortical neural reward systems in normative control of eating and in the etiology and persistence of severe eating disorders that affect diverse human populations. Presently, we provide a short review that develops an equally compelling case...
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A wealth of preclinical and clinical literature has established functional associations of CNS dopamine (DA) and its multiple G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) types in the integration of key neurological processes linked to complex behavioral activities. Conversely, an equivalent vast literature supports the role of aberrant CNS DA expression and...
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Previous studies have demonstrated that invertebrate neural tissues contain mammalian-like neurotransmitters, which activate specific cellular functions. Therefore, it was of interest to attempt to identify these molecules via Agilent gene expression microarrays. The array was used to analyze the transcriptional profiles of lobster and shrimp RNA s...
Article
For over 30 years, empirical studies have demonstrated expression of chemically authentic morphine by diverse animal tissues and organs systems. De novo biosynthesis of endogenous morphine by animal cells displays striking similarities to the multi-enzyme mediated biosynthetic pathway previously characterized in great biochemical and molecular deta...