George Markowsky

George Markowsky
Kennesaw State University | KSU · Department of Software Engineering and Game Development

PhD in Mathematics, Harvard University

About

137
Publications
47,969
Reads
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3,570
Citations
Citations since 2016
18 Research Items
807 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
Introduction
George Markowsky currently works at the Department of Computer Science, Missouri University of Science and Technology. George does research in Algorithms, Computers and Society, Computer Security, Combinatorics, Bioinformatics, Modeling, and Quantum Computing.
Additional affiliations
September 2004 - June 2005
Ternopil National Economic University
Position
  • Founding Dean
January 1984 - present
University of Maine
Position
  • Professor
September 1973 - June 1974
Harvard University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 1969 - June 1973
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Mathematics
September 1968 - June 1969
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Mathematics
September 1964 - June 1968
Columbia University
Field of study
  • Mathematics

Publications

Publications (137)
Presentation
Full-text available
This is a program for our Dick Morley Celebration
Code
Zip file contains a short description of the contents, a Python program in PDF format, and an Excel worksheet. This code is based on the presentations Modeling and Battling COVID-19.
Presentation
I gave 3 talks surveying various aspects of election security.
Research
Full-text available
Examples of sImple models that people can experiment with.
Preprint
Full-text available
This talk will describe a simple model that can be used to model epidemics and present its relevance to the COVID-19 Pandemic. The model is complex enough to describe some key strategies for managing a pandemic and can be easily used by anyone interested in understanding the dynamics of COVID-19. The relevance of the model to the developments in Ge...
Chapter
The paper proposes the architecture of a distributed malware detection system based on decentralized architecture in local area computer networks. Its feature is the synthesis of its requirements of distribution, decentralization, multilevel. This allows you to use it autonomously. In addition, the feature of the components of the system is the sam...
Article
Full-text available
We have developed a computerized adaptive test (an app), based on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI), that can rapidly gauge infant and toddler language development based on parent report. The app can be very useful in screening for developmental disabilities in IDEA Part C or Section 619. We will demonstrate the app an...
Conference Paper
We describe the recent developments of an open-source project called RATCHET that can be used by groups of users to collectively construct attack trees. We present the RATCHET framework as well as a model for testing and evaluation of the produced attack trees. RATCHET has been tested in classroom settings with positive results and this paper prese...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many smart, resource-constrained, and seldom-updated devices in the Internet of Things present unanticipated vulnerabilities. The Internet Census 2012 scanned for such devices to construct its Carna Botnet, which then surveyed the entire IPv4 address space. This census provides an order of magnitude for the number of devices vulnerable to just one...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Misdirected communication has obvious security and privacy ramifications and is an age old problem that predates the Internet. In recent years it has been exacerbated by the arrival of electronic communication and the multitude of ways that communication can be misdirected. A new chapter in this age old problem is being written with the proliferati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Northeast Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (NECCDC) [2] is a regional competition that feeds the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) [1]. Since RIT organized the first NECCDC in 2008, the NECCDC has selected a representative to compete in the CCDC. It has been relatively successful and has produced the national champion twi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The National Security Agency (NSA) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in response to an unmet workforce need for cybersecurity program graduates, jointly sponsor a program by which a post-secondary education institution may achieve recognition as a Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance/Cyber Defense (CAE IA/CD). The program...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Much in cyber defense is done reacting to an event, typically perpetrated by attackers who have found some new vulnerability in a system. Ideally, system defenders could find flaws in systems before attackers and shore up their weak spots. We believe that introducing verification tools can be of great benefit to defenders. This paper provides an in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines the 2013 Target Data Breach in detail with the intent of developing some lessons learned that can serve security educators. The Target Data Breach originated in the network of a trusted vendor and then spread to Target's network. The rush to put more objects on the Internet is introducing many vulnerabilities into networks, so T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The FAA is well on its way to replacing the current air traffic control surveillance system with a new system known as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). As with many projects, the focus is on performance and getting the system operational, with security having secondary importance. This paper describes some of the vulnerabilities...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Big Data tools can give "explanations" of complex and elaborate data sets. There is the danger that we might be content with the explanations that these tools produce. It is important to bear in mind that truly understanding something often requires simplifying the initial explanation. Indeed, the well-known "Occam's Razor" states roughly that the...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we examine the history of using random numbers in computer programs. Unfortunately, this history is sad because it is replete with disasters ranging from one of the first pseudo-random number generators, RANDU, being very bad to the most recent efforts by the NSA to undermine the pseudorandom number generator in RSA's BSAFE cryptograp...
Conference Paper
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This paper discusses ways that crowdsourcing can help homeland security. It reviews some successes in this area, suggests some directions and points out some obstacles. Short abstract.
Conference Paper
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Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems currently used by American businesses are unsuitable for adoption by small and medium size Chinese businesses. Cross-cultural issues include not only the obvious localization and interface language differences, but also bearable implementation costs, culturally-specific management styles, and financial rep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we examine in detail the Debian OpenSSL Debacle from the perspective of a system accident, a concept derived from the work of Charles Perrow [1]. This event left users of Debian and its derivatives with seriously compromised cryptographic capabilities. We identify some common failings that might be problematic in other software develo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The old adage "a picture is worth a 1,000 words" is relevant to cybersecurity because professionals must deal with large amounts of data in a very short period. It is also relevant to cybersecurity educators who must convey the complexity of cybersecurity events to students and to members of the general public who might have little or no background...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
After having run the 2010 NECCDC at the University of Maine, we had an opportunity to run the 2013 NECCDC at the University of Maine. In the process, we rediscovered some lessons we had learned the first time along with a number of new lessons. We feel that the NECCDC and similar cyber defense competitions are very important for motivating students...
Article
This article gives some background information on the authors’ forthcoming book, The State of Learning. There are many challenges facing educators who want to bring education into the 21st century. At the same time, the explosion of technology has the potential to make education more available and influential than ever before. Education is taking p...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores how to use the castle as a metaphor to help students and non-technical users understand some basic concepts of cybersecurity. Castles are symbols of security that are familiar to and easily understood by most people. Important defensive structures for many centuries, castles were designed and built using much ingenuity and effor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security the author presented a paper entitled “Comparing Apples to Oranges” which showed the fundamental problem of ranking assets on multiple-factors. In particular, the talk showed that programs like Carver2 cannot consistently order targets. In particular, the author contend...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Individuals are not electrons. But in some situations, they behave very much alike. When it comes to many social and political questions, individuals' complex attitudes and beliefs must be boiled down to a simple yea (“spin up”) or nay (“spin down”). Although human societies, like physical materials, are very complex, some of their properties can b...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to determine the source of a cyber-attack is very helpful in stopping such attacks. If this ability were well developed, it would act as a deterrent against such attacks since accurate knowledge of the source of such attacks can be used for legal, criminal, economic or military sanctions [1]. The process of tracing an attack back to its...
Conference Paper
This paper describes hardware implementations of crypto protocol elements for secured data communication in two wired networks of security system detectors. Those elements are basic to crypto protocol development for that type of network. In addition, hardware tools for the network controller and the network server that support this protocol were d...
Article
There are several target selection systems that use multiple factors to select the most probable targets. Factors can be such things as replacement costs, strategic importance, and psychological importance. These systems use these factors to rank potential targets in some order. It is clear that comparing disparate factors is very much like compari...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes two algorithms for optimizing the design of distributed perimeter security systems. The first algorithm is a straightforward algorithm whose primary purpose is to help us formulate the problem formally. The second algorithm, is a genetic algorithm. Both algorithms were incorporated into a new module for our distributed security...
Conference Paper
There are many inexpensive and capable monitoring and information gathering systems available today. They can collect video, sense motion, monitor temperature and humidity, along with a variety of other quantities. This monitoring can be used both for security purposes and for environmental monitoring and control. Security is a serious concern thes...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses the use of genetic algorithms (GA) in a perimeter security CAD system (PSCAD). In this paper we compare the performance of a PSCAD system that uses exhaustive search for optimization with one that uses a genetic algorithm.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The authors believe that providing security for supercomputer clusters is different from providing security for stand-alone PCs. The types of programs that supercomputer clusters run and the sort of data available on supercomputer clusters are fundamentally different from the programs and data found on stand-alone PCs. This situation might attract...
Chapter
Full-text available
In [6], Scott introduced continuous lattices as the correct setting for an abstract theory of computation. The motivation and definition of continuous lattices was primarily in topological terms. In [7], Scott discussed continuous lattices primarily from a topological point of view. However, buried in [7] is an indication (without proof) of how to...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, several relations between members of a chain-complete poset (weaker than the relations relatively compact and IN introduced by Scott in his study of bases) are considered, with an eye toward examining whether all the properties of bases can be obtained from weaker axioms. It turns out that for all but one relation (relatively chain c...
Article
The problems of American-Ukrainian School of Computer Sciences establishment are discussed in this paper.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the design of a low-cost network controller that can be used to interface sensors to security systems. This controller can use either a two-wired network interface with reconfigurable structure or an open optical channel for data communication with the network server. This design reduces the cost of data communication channels...
Article
Approximately 90% of the world's cargo is transported by container - some 200 million cargo containers are transported between the world's seaports each year, constituting the most critical component of global trade. Since $12.5 trillion worth of merchandise is traded worldwide, the task of protecting cargo containers is critical. Given that some c...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the development of a network capable application processor (NCAP) compatible with the IEEE1451 standard. Its features are an online, remote, real-time reprogramming mode and support of high-speed interfaces. The high-speed interfaces are implemented using a FPGA (field-programmable gate array). A novel design using a configurati...
Article
We introduce a method based on time delays between among Internet protocol packages is proposed and software for determination of attacking computer status is developed within its virtual connection with a victim computer. An attacking computer functioning in two modes is considered: direct connecting to the victim computer and connecting through t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We considered an approach to identify vehicle through recognizing of it license plate using image fusion, neural networks and threshold techniques as well as some experimental results to recognize the license plate successfully.
Article
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Abstract The state of a plant affects its chlorophyll content, which inturn, affects the way the plant reflects light. Consequently, the characteristics of the reflected light can beused,to determine,the health of a plant. This raises the possibility of monitoring ,large areas of vegetation ,by analyzing the reflectance of the plants ,in the ,area....
Conference Paper
The main components of a distributed sensor network for perimeter security are described in this paper. We describe in detail how we pre-process data associated with sensors in order to create the database for our sensor network CAD system. We also describe the user interface of our CAD system.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe the smart vehicle screening system, which can be installed into a tollbooth for automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automated system could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges or tunnels, etc. There are considered an approach to id...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We explore the problem of geographically locating IP addresses. Identifying the location of Web content on the Internet has several applications in the field of homeland security. A solution is proposed that uses the traceroute utility as a tool for collecting network information surrounding the target IP address, and the WHOIS database and hostnam...
Article
In this paper, we show that every incline consisting of Boolean matrices of a given finite size is a subincline of a specific family of such inclines, and consider the question whether every finite incline is embeddable in the semiring of Boolean matrices.
Article
This paper shows how to compute efficiently meets and joins of permutations. The algorithms presented here have a worst case time of O(N2) and a space requirement of O(N). The paper discusses how to adapt these algorithms for computing the meets and joins in the Newman commutativity lattices of Bennett and Birkhoff (1990).Every element in the latti...
Article
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Without Abstract
Article
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This paper studies certain types of join and meet-irreducibles called coprimes and primes. These elements can be used to characterize certain types of lattices. For example, a lattice is distributive if and only if every join-irreducible is coprime. Similarly, a lattice is meet-pseudocomplemented if and only if each atom is coprime. Furthermore, th...
Article
Bacteria are susceptible to phage (viral) infections. One of the most important properties of phages is host specificity. Phages can be so selective that they will distinguish varieties among apparently identical organisms. By exposing an isolate growing on the surface of an agar plate to a battery of different phages a pattern develops contingent...
Article
Full-text available
The golden ratio, also called by different authors the golden section [Cox], golden number [Fi4], golden mean [Lin], divine proportion [Hun], and division in extreme and mean ratios [Smi], has captured the popular imagination and is discussed in many books and articles. Generally, its mathematical properties are correctly stated, but much of what i...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the problem of bounding fault detection probabilities in combinational circuits. Two algorithms, the complete cutting algorithm and the gate blocking algorithm, are presented that always produce true lower bounds on the detection probability of a fault. Both algorithms can be used to identify difficult-to-test faults and to qu...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses two very interesting variations of Tic-Tac-Toe that use numbers instead of X’s and O’s. Analyses of both games are presented along with several open problems that can be fruitfully explored at many different levels. The article also presents the history of these games to the extent that the author was able to determine.
Technical Report
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I sketched the resources that would be required for computing the cardinality of FDL(8). The conclusion was that we were on the verge of computing this number, and in 1991 Doug Wiedemann published a number for |FDL(8)| (Order 8, 5-6, 1991).
Article
Full-text available
A phage typing set composed of 13 phages is described for characterizing Staphylococcus epidermidis. Isolates (372) from cases of bovine mastitis were used in this study. Of these, 350 or 94% were successfully delineated, and 63 phage types were observed. Twenty two cultures were not typeable.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The question of how to learn rules, when those rules make probabilistic statements about the future, is considered. Issues are discussed that arise when attempting to determine what a good prediction function is, when those prediction functions make probabilistic assumptions. Learning has at least two purposes: to enable the learner to make predict...
Article
Full-text available
In [2] Savir, Ditlow, and Bardell presented an algorithm for estimating the signal probability of a line in combinational circuits, but were unable to show that the algorithm always produced correct results. This paper shows that their algorithm for cutting reconvergent fan-out lines in a circuit eventually produces a circuit without reconvergent f...
Article
Full-text available
A phage typing set composed of 32 phages is described for differentiating Escherichia coli. Eight hundred sixty-six isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were used in this effort. Of these cultures 829, or 96%, were characterized successfully, and 178 phage types were observed. Thirty-seven isolates were not typable.
Article
Full-text available
We show that the semilattice extension problem raised by Arbib and Manes in [2] isNP-hard, implying that no simple solution is likely to be forthcoming.
Article
The problem of whether it is theoretically possible to determine antigens and antibodies in a cross-reacting serological system is analyzed. Conditions are listed which will insure that the serological operations of absorption, elution, blocking, and counterblocking uniquely determine antigens and antibodies. There is no restriction on cross-reacti...
Article
Full-text available
Given a set, S, of Boolean n-vectors, one can choose k of the n coordinate positions and consider the set of k-vectors which results by keeping only the designated k positions of each vector, i.e., from k-projecting S. In this paper, we study the question of finding sets S as small as possible such that every k-projection of S yields all the 2 k po...
Article
This paper presents an algorithm for determining whether a phenotype system has a factor-union representation, i.e., whether sets of properties (factors) can be assigned to alleles so that the phenotype of each genotype is determined by the union of the factor sets of the alleles. If such a representation is possible, the algorithm can construct on...
Article
In two recent papers the authors introduced some new approaches to the problem of modeling the phenomena underlying immunological reaction tests. These approaches allow one to easily construct the best possible models for a given amount of immunological test data. In the first paper the authors used a purely Boolean approach, i.e., it was assumed t...
Article
This paper summarizes approaches to developing mathematics that can act as a language for immunogenetics. The need for this has been documented by showing inadequacies of the standard symbolism. Apparent distinctions in symbolizing and conceptualizing factors involved in immunogenetics are seen to disappear in the mathematical models presented here...
Article
Mathematical Immunogenetics I argued for the development of mathematics as a language for immunogenetics. A three-fold factorization of a reaction matrix was seen to be the important form of a model of a first order immunogenetic system. In the present paper, results of the authors on determining this factorization are reworked from a physical pers...