George Jiaozhi Lu

George Jiaozhi Lu
California Institute of Technology | CIT · Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

PhD

About

37
Publications
3,124
Reads
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837
Citations
Education
January 2009 - June 2014
University of California, San Diego
Field of study
  • Biochemistry
August 2007 - December 2008
The Scripps Research Institute
Field of study
  • Biochemistry
September 2006 - May 2007
The University of Hong Kong
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (37)
Preprint
Full-text available
Gas vesicles (GVs) are gas-filled protein nanostructures employed by several species of bacteria and archaea as flotation devices to enable access to optimal light and nutrients. The unique physical properties of GVs have led to their use as genetically-encodable contrast agents for ultrasound and MRI. Currently, however, the structure and assembly...
Article
Gas vesicles (GVs) are cylindrical or spindle‐shaped protein nanostructures filled with air and used for flotation by various cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, and Archaea. Recently, GVs have gained interest in biotechnology applications due to their ability to serve as imaging agents and actuators for ultrasound, magnetic resonance and severa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gas vesicles (GVs) are cylindrical or spindle-shaped protein nanostructures filled with air and used for flotation by various cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, and Archaea. Recently, GVs have gained interest in biotechnology applications due to their ability to serve as imaging agents and actuators for ultrasound, magnetic resonance and severa...
Article
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained wide adoption in biological research and medical imaging due to its exceptional tissue penetration, 3D imaging speed and rich contrast. However, OCT plays a relatively small role in molecular and cellular imaging due to the lack of suitable biomolecular contrast agents. In particular, while the green fl...
Preprint
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained wide adoption in biological and medical imaging due to its exceptional tissue penetration, 3D imaging speed and rich contrast. However, OCT plays a relatively small role in molecular and cellular imaging due to the lack of suitable biomolecular contrast agents. In particular, while the green fluorescent...
Article
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained wide adoption in biological and medical imaging due to its exceptional tissue penetration, 3D imaging speed and rich contrast. However, OCT plays a relatively small role in molecular and cellular imaging due to the lack of suitable biomolecular contrast agents. In particular, while the green fluorescent...
Article
Signal amplification strategies are critical for overcoming the intrinsically poor sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) reporters in non-invasive molecular detection. A mechanism widely used for signal enhancement is chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) of nuclei between a dilute sensing pool and an abundant detection pool. Howev...
Conference Paper
Genetically encoded optical reporters such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) have revolutionized biomedical research by enabling observations of specific biol. processes in engineered cells and transgenic animals. However, such optical agents are fundamentally limited by the ~ 1 mm penetration depth of light in opaque tissues. As cellular therapie...
Article
Visualizing and modulating molecular and cellular processes occurring deep within living organisms is fundamental to our study of basic biology and disease. Currently, the most sophisticated tools available to dynamically monitor and control cellular events rely on light-responsive proteins, which are difficult to use outside of optically transpare...
Article
Full-text available
Non-invasive biological imaging requires materials capable of interacting with deeply penetrant forms of energy such as magnetic fields and sound waves. Here, we show that gas vesicles (GVs), a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures with differential magnetic susceptibility relative to water, can produce robust contrast in magnetic reson...
Article
A long-standing goal of molecular imaging is to visualize cellular function within the context of living animals, necessitating the development of reporter genes compatible with deeply penetrant imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Until recently, no reporter genes for ultrasound were available, and most genet...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasound and hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging enable the visualization of biological processes in deep tissues. However, few molecular contrast agents are available to connect these modalities to specific aspects of biological function. We recently discovered that a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures known as gas vesicles...
Article
Gas vesicles (GVs) are a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures that are detectable at subnanomolar concentrations and whose physical properties allow them to serve as highly sensitive imaging agents for ultrasound and MRI. Here we provide a protocol for isolating GVs from native and heterologous host organisms, functionalizing these nan...
Article
Full-text available
Near-infrared surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) microscopy is used to detect and characterize the adsorption of single polymeric and protein nanoparticles (PPNPs) onto chemically modified gold thin films in real time. The single-nanoparticle SPRI responses, ∆%RNP, from several hundred adsorbed nanoparticles are collected in a single SPRI ads...
Article
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for observing the function of specific cells and molecules inside living organisms. However, compared to optical microscopy, in which fluorescent protein reporters are available to visualize hundreds of cellular functions ranging from gene expression and chemical signaling to biomechanics, to...
Article
Hyperpolarization The fundamentals of preparation of hyperpolarized gases are detailed with a focus on selected applications of hyperpolarized gases to provide illustrative examples of their utility in biomedicine and materials sciences: remote detection, pulmonary imaging, gas-phase imaging, time-of-flight imaging, brown-fat imaging, and other ima...
Article
Nuclear spin polarization can be significantly increased through the process of hyperpolarization, leading to an increase in the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments by 4–8 orders of magnitude. Hyperpolarized gases can be more readily separated from the compounds used to mediate the hyperpolarization processes. These pure hyperpola...
Article
Nuclear spin polarization can be significantly increased through the process of hyperpolarization, leading to an increase in the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments by 4–8 orders of magnitude. Hyperpolarized gases, unlike liquids and solids, can often be readily separated and purified from the compounds used to mediate the h...
Article
Nuclear spin polarization can be significantly increased through the process of hyperpolarization, leading to an increase in the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments by 4-8 orders of magnitude. Hyperpolarized gases, unlike liquids and solids, can be more readily separated and purified from the compounds used to mediate the hy...
Article
Full-text available
MerF is a mercury transport membrane protein from the bacterial mercury detoxification system. By performing a solid-state INEPT experiment and measuring chemical shift anisotropy frequencies in aligned samples, we are able to improve on the accuracy and precision of the initial structure that we presented. MerF has four N-terminal and eleven C-ter...
Article
Full-text available
Membrane proteins have always presented technical challenges for structural studies because of their requirement for a lipid environment. Multiple approaches exist including X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy that can give significant insights into their structure and function. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is unique in that...
Article
Full-text available
In the stationary, aligned samples used in oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR, (1)H-(1)H homonuclear dipolar couplings are not attenuated as they are in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR; consequently, they are available for participation in dipolar coupling-based spin-exchange processes. Here we describe analytically the pathways of (15)N-(15...
Article
Full-text available
Oriented sample solid-state NMR spectroscopy can be used to determine the three-dimensional structures of membrane proteins in magnetically or mechanically aligned lipid bilayers. The bottleneck for applying this technique to larger and more challenging proteins is making resonance assignments, which is conventionally accomplished through the prepa...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main applications of solid-state NMR is to study the structure and dynamics of biopolymers, such as membrane proteins, under physiological conditions where the polypeptides undergo global motions as they do in biological membranes. The effects of NMR radiofrequency irradiations on nuclear spins are strongly influenced by these motions. F...
Article
The three-dimensional structure of the 81-residue mercury transporter MerF determined in liquid crystalline phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions by Rotationally Aligned (RA) solid-state NMR has two long helices, which extend well beyond the bilayer, with a well-defined inter-helical loop. Truncation of the N-terminal 12 residues, wh...
Article
An NMR method for determining the three-dimensional structures of membrane proteins in proteoliposomes is demonstrated by determining the structure of MerFt, the 60-residue helix-loop-helix integral membrane core of the 81-residue mercury transporter MerF. The method merges elements of oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR and magic angle spinning (...
Article
'q-Titration' refers to the systematic comparison of signal intensities in solution NMR spectra of uniformly (15)N labeled membrane proteins solubilized in micelles and isotropic bicelles as a function of the molar ratios (q) of the long-chain lipids (typically DMPC) to short-chain lipids (typically DHPC). In general, as q increases, the protein re...
Article
Rotational Alignment (RA) solid-state NMR provides the basis for a general method for determining the structures of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions. Membrane proteins are high priority targets for structure determination, and are challenging for existing experimental methods. Because membrane proteins resid...
Article
A general method for assigning oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR spectra of proteins is demonstrated. In principle, this method requires only a single sample of a uniformly ¹⁵N-labeled membrane protein in magnetically aligned bilayers, and a previously assigned isotropic chemical shift spectrum obtained either from solution NMR on micelle or iso...
Article
A general sequential assignment strategy for uniformly (15)N-labeled uniaxially aligned membrane proteins is proposed. Mismatched Hartmann-Hahn magnetization transfer is employed to establish proton-mediated correlations among the neighboring (15)N backbone spins. Magnetically aligned Pf1 phage coat protein was used to illustrate the method. Exchan...
Article
The arginine repressor (ArgR) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a gene product encoded by the open reading frame Rv1657. It regulates the L-arginine concentration in cells by interacting with ARG boxes in the promoter regions of the arginine biosynthesis and catabolism operons. Here we present a 2.5-A structure of MtbArgR in complex with a 1...
Article
Full-text available
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene product encoded by open reading frame Rv1657 is an arginine repressor (ArgR). All genes involved in the L-arginine (hereafter arginine) biosynthetic pathway are essential for optimal growth of the Mtb pathogen, thus making MtbArgR a potential target for drug design. The C-terminal domains of arginine repres...
Article
Full-text available
The gene product of an open reading frame Rv1657 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a putative arginine repressor protein (ArgR), a transcriptional factor that regulates the expression of arginine-biosynthetic enzymes. Rv1657 was expressed and purified and a C-terminal domain was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffract...

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