# George Em KarniadakisBrown University · Division of Applied Mathematics

George Em Karniadakis

PhD, MIT, 1987

## About

999

Publications

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Introduction

Visit my CRUNCH website, the true home of: Math + X + Machine Learning and learn how to tackle any problem in computational science, biomedicine and engineering.
https://www.brown.edu/research/projects/crunch/home

## Publications

Publications (999)

Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) have become a popular choice for solving high-dimensional partial differential equations (PDEs) due to their excellent approximation power and generalization ability. Recently, extended PINNs (XPINNs) based on domain decomposition methods have attracted considerable attention due to their effectiveness in mo...

Inspired by biological neurons, the activation functions play an essential part in the learning process of any artificial neural network commonly used in many real-world problems. Various activation functions have been proposed in the literature for classification as well as regression tasks. In this work, we survey the activation functions that ha...

Phase-field modeling is an effective but computationally expensive method for capturing the mesoscale morphological and microstructure evolution in materials. Hence, fast and generalizable surrogate models are needed to alleviate the cost of computationally taxing processes such as in optimization and design of materials. The intrinsic discontinuou...

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a localized dilatation of the aorta that can lead to life-threatening dissection or rupture. In vivo assessments of TAA progression are largely limited to measurements of aneurysm size and growth rate. There is promise, however, that computational modelling of the evolving biomechanics of the aorta could predict fu...

Iterative solvers of linear systems are a key component for the numerical solutions of partial differential equations (PDEs). While there have been intensive studies through past decades on classical methods such as Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, conjugate gradient, multigrid methods and their more advanced variants, there is still a pressing need to develo...

Uncertainty quantification (UQ) in machine learning is currently drawing increasing research interest, driven by the rapid deployment of deep neural networks across different fields, such as computer vision, natural language processing, and the need for reliable tools in risk-sensitive applications. Recently, various machine learning models have al...

Many genetic mutations adversely affect the structure and function of load-bearing soft tissues, with clinical sequelae often responsible for disability or death. Parallel advances in genetics and histomechanical characterization provide significant insight into these conditions, but there remains a pressing need to integrate such information. We p...

Purpose:
Accurate segmentation of microaneurysms (MAs) from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) images is crucial for identifying MA morphologies and assessing the hemodynamics inside the MAs. Herein, we introduce AOSLO-net to perform automatic MA segmentation from AOSLO images of diabetic retinas.
Method:
AOSLO-net is composed...

Microthrombi and circulating cell clusters (CCCs) are common microscopic findings in patients with COVID-19 at different stages in the disease course, implying that they may function as the primary drivers in disease progression. Inspired by a recent flow imaging cytometry study of the blood samples from patients with COVID-19, we perform computati...

Standard neural networks can approximate general nonlinear operators, represented either explicitly by a combination of mathematical operators, e.g., in an advection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equation, or simply as a black box, e.g., a system-of-systems. The first neural operator was the Deep Operator Network (DeepONet), proposed in 2...

We study the dynamic evolution of COVID-19 caused by the Omicron variant via a fractional susceptible–exposed–infected–removed (SEIR) model. Preliminary data suggest that the symptoms of Omicron infection are not prominent and the transmission is, therefore, more concealed, which causes a relatively slow increase in the detected cases of the newly...

Physics-informed machine learning (PIML) has emerged as a promising new approach for simulating complex physical and biological systems that are governed by complex multiscale processes for which some data are also available. In some instances, the objective is to discover part of the hidden physics from the available data, and PIML has been shown...

Dynamic graph embedding has gained great attention recently due to its capability of learning low-dimensional and meaningful graph representations for complex temporal graphs with high accuracy. However, recent advances mostly focus on learning node embeddings as deterministic "vectors" for static graphs, hence disregarding the key graph temporal d...

Accurate solutions to inverse supersonic compressible flow problems are often required for designing specialized aerospace vehicles. In particular, we consider the problem where we have data available for density gradients from Schlieren photography as well as data at the inflow and part of the wall boundaries. These inverse problems are notoriousl...

We present the analysis of approximation rates of operator learning in Chen and Chen (1995) and Lu et al. (2021), where continuous operators are approximated by a sum of products of branch and trunk networks. In this work, we consider the rates of learning solution operators from both linear and nonlinear advection–diffusion equations with or witho...

Understanding real-world dynamical phenomena remains a challenging task. Across various scientific disciplines, machine learning has advanced as the go-to technology to analyze nonlinear dynamical systems, identify patterns in big data, and make decision around them. Neural networks are now consistently used as universal function approximators for...

Electrolyte solutions play an important role in energy storage devices, whose performance relies heavily on the electrokinetic processes at sub-micron scales. Although fluctuations and stochastic features become more critical at small scales, the long-range Coulomb interactions pose a particular challenge for both theoretical analysis and simulatio...

We study the dynamic evolution of COVID-19 cased by the Omicron variant via a fractional susceptible-exposedinfected-removed (SEIR) model. Preliminary data suggest that the symptoms of Omicron infection are not prominent and the transmission is therefore more concealed, which causes a relatively slow increase in the detected cases of the new infect...

One of the main broad applications of deep learning is function regression. However, despite their demonstrated accuracy and robustness, modern neural network architectures require heavy computational resources to train. One method to mitigate or even resolve this inefficiency has been to draw further inspiration from the brain and reformulate the...

Physics-informed machine learning (PIML) has emerged as a promising new approach for simulating complex physical and biological systems that are governed by complex multiscale processes for which some data are also available. In some instances, the objective is to discover part of the hidden physics from the available data, and PIML has been shown...

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a localized dilatation of the aorta resulting from compromised wall composition, structure, and function, which can lead to life-threatening dissection or rupture. Several genetic mutations and predisposing factors that contribute to TAA have been studied in mouse models to characterize specific changes in aortic m...

In 1986, Dixon and McKee (Z Angew Math Mech 66:535–544, 1986) developed a discrete fractional Gronwall inequality, which can be seen as a generalization of the classical discrete Gronwall inequality. However, this generalized discrete Gronwall inequality and its variant (Al-Maskari and Karaa in SIAM J Numer Anal 57:1524–1544, 2019) have not been wi...

We propose a new approach to the solution of the wave propagation and full waveform inversions (FWIs) based on a recent advance in deep learning called physics‐informed neural networks (PINNs). In this study, we present an algorithm for PINNs applied to the acoustic wave equation and test the method with both forward models and FWI case studies. Th...

Multiscale modeling is an effective approach for investigating multiphysics systems with largely disparate size features, where models with different resolutions or heterogeneous descriptions are coupled together for predicting the system’s response. The solver with lower fidelity (coarse) is responsible for simulating domains with homogeneous feat...

Traditional machine learning algorithms are designed to learn in isolation, i.e. address single tasks. The core idea of transfer learning (TL) is that knowledge gained in learning to perform one task (source) can be leveraged to improve learning performance in a related, but different, task (target). TL leverages and transfers previously acquired k...

Phase-field modeling is an effective mesoscale method for capturing the evolution dynamics of materials, e.g., in spinodal decomposition of a two-phase mixture. However, the accuracy of high-fidelity phase field models comes at a substantial computational cost. Hence, fast and generalizable surrogate models are needed to alleviate the cost in compu...

Modeling uncertainty propagation in anomalous transport applications leads to formulating stochastic fractional partial differential equations (SFPDEs), which require special algorithms for obtaining satisfactory accuracy at reasonable computational complexity. Here, we consider a stochastic fractional diffusion-reaction equation and combine a Gale...

Deep learning has been shown to be an effective tool in solving partial differential equations (PDEs) through physics-informed neural networks (PINNs). PINNs embed the PDE residual into the loss function of the neural network, and have been successfully employed to solve diverse forward and inverse PDE problems. However, one disadvantage of the fir...

Neural operators can learn nonlinear mappings between function spaces and offer a new simulation paradigm for real-time prediction of complex dynamics for realistic diverse applications as well as for system identification in science and engineering. Herein, we investigate the performance of two neural operators, which have shown promising results...

Constructing accurate and generalizable approximators for complex physico-chemical processes exhibiting highly non-smooth dynamics is challenging. In this work, we propose new developments and perform comparisons for two promising approaches: manifold-based polynomial chaos expansion (m-PCE) and the deep neural operator (DeepONet), and we examine t...

DeepONets have recently been proposed as a framework for learning nonlinear operators mapping between infinite-dimensional Banach spaces. We analyze DeepONets and prove estimates on the resulting approximation and generalization errors. In particular, we extend the universal approximation property of DeepONets to include measurable mappings in non-...

Emerging clinical evidence suggests that thrombosis in the microvasculature of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) plays an essential role in dictating the disease progression. Because of the infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, patients’ fresh blood samples are limited to access for in vitro experimental investigations. Herein, we employ...

We consider strongly-nonlinear and weakly-dispersive surface water waves governed by equations of Boussinesq type, known as the Serre–Green–Naghdi system; it describes future states of the free water surface and depth averaged horizontal velocity, given their initial state. The lack of knowledge of the velocity field as well as the initial states p...

We propose a meta-learning technique for offline discovery of physics-informed neural network (PINN) loss functions. We extend earlier works on meta-learning, and develop a gradient-based meta-learning algorithm for addressing diverse task distributions based on parametrized partial differential equations (PDEs) that are solved with PINNs. Furtherm...

Multiscale modeling is an effective approach for investigating multiphysics systems with largely disparate size features, where models with different resolutions or heterogeneous descriptions are coupled together for predicting the system's response. The solver with lower fidelity (coarse) is responsible for simulating domains with homogeneous feat...

Accurate solutions to inverse supersonic compressible flow problems are often required for designing specialized aerospace vehicles. In particular, we consider the problem where we have data available for density gradients from Schlieren photography as well as data at the inflow and part of wall boundaries. These inverse problems are notoriously di...

Characterizing internal structures and defects in materials is a challenging task, often requiring solutions to inverse problems with unknown topology, geometry, material properties, and nonlinear deformation. Here, we present a general framework based on physics-informed neural networks for identifying unknown geometric and material parameters. By...

We propose the Poisson neural networks (PNNs) to learn Poisson systems and trajectories of autonomous systems from data. Based on the Darboux-Lie theorem, the phase flow of a Poisson system can be written as the composition of: 1) a coordinate transformation; 2) an extended symplectic map; and 3) the inverse of the transformation. In this work, we...

We consider strongly-nonlinear and weakly-dispersive surface water waves governed by equations of Boussinesq type, known as the Serre-Green-Naghdi system; it describes future states of the free water surface and depth averaged horizontal velocity, given their initial state. The lack of knowledge of the velocity field as well as the initial states p...

The dynamics of systems biological processes are usually modeled by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with many unknown parameters that need to be inferred from noisy and sparse measurements. Here, we introduce systems-biology informed neural networks for parameter estimation by incorporating the system of ODEs into the neural netw...

Aortic dissection progresses mainly via delamination of the medial layer of the wall. Notwithstanding the complexity of this process, insight has been gleaned by studying in vitro and in silico the progression of dissection driven by quasi-static pressurization of the intramural space by fluid injection, which demonstrates that the differential pro...

We develop a new Bayesian framework based on deep neural networks to be able to extrapolate in space-time using historical data and to quantify uncertainties arising from both noisy and gappy data in physical problems. Specifically, the proposed approach has two stages: (1) prior learning and (2) posterior estimation. At the first stage, we employ...

Despite the significant progress over the last 50 years in simulating flow problems using numerical discretization of the Navier–Stokes equations (NSE), we still cannot incorporate seamlessly noisy data into existing algorithms, mesh-generation is complex, and we cannot tackle high-dimensional problems governed by parametrized NSE. Moreover, solvin...

Neural networks (NNs) are currently changing the computational paradigm on how to combine data with mathematical laws in physics and engineering in a profound way, tackling challenging inverse and ill-posed problems not solvable with traditional methods. However, quantifying errors and uncertainties in NN-based inference is more complicated than in...

Modeling and prediction of the dynamic behavior of thermal systems operating under intermittent energy input and variable load requirements represent one of the greatest challenges in the development of efficient and reliable renewable-based power generation technologies. In this work, a data-driven machine learning modeling framework was developed...

Solving high-dimensional optimal control problems in real-time is an important but challenging problem, with applications to multi-agent path planning problems, which have drawn increased attention given the growing popularity of drones in recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel neural network method called SympOCnet that applies the Symple...

Microaneurysms (MAs) are one of the earliest clinically visible signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR). MA leakage or rupture may precipitate local pathology in the surrounding neural retina that impacts visual function. Thrombosis in MAs may affect their turnover time, an indicator associated with visual and anatomic outcomes in the diabetic eyes. In...

Failure trajectories, probable failure zones, and damage indices are some of the key quantities of relevance in brittle fracture mechanics. High-fidelity numerical solvers that reliably estimate these relevant quantities exist but they are computationally demanding requiring a high resolution of the crack. Moreover, independent simulations need to...

We propose a new type of neural networks, Kronecker neural networks (KNNs), that form a general framework for neural networks with adaptive activation functions. KNNs employ the Kronecker product, which provides an efficient way of constructing a very wide network while keeping the number of parameters low. Our theoretical analysis reveals that und...

W e employ physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) to quantify the microstructure of polycrystalline nickel by computing the spatial variation of compliance coefficients (compressibility, stiffness, and rigidity) of the material. The PINNs are supervised with realistic ultrasonic surface acoustic wavefield data acquired at an ultrasonic frequency...

Modelling multiscale systems from nanoscale to macroscale requires the use of atomistic and continuum methods and, correspondingly, different computer codes. Here, we develop a seamless method based on DeepONet, which is a composite deep neural network (a branch and a trunk network) for regressing operators. In particular, we consider bubble growth...

We develop a fast multi-fidelity modeling method for very complex correlations between high- and low-fidelity data by working in modal space to extract the proper correlation function. We apply this method to infer the amplitude of motion of a flexible marine riser in cross-flow, subject to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV). VIV are driven by an abso...

Time- and rate-dependent material functions in non-Newtonian fluids in response to different deformation fields pose a challenge in integrating different constitutive models into conventional computational fluid dynamic platforms. Considering their relevance in many industrial and natural settings alike, robust data-driven frameworks that enable ac...

Neural operators can learn nonlinear mappings between function spaces and offer a new simulation paradigm for real-time prediction of complex dynamics for realistic diverse applications as well as for system identification in science and engineering. Herein, we investigate the performance of two neural operators, and we develop new practical extens...

Various biological processes such as transport of oxygen and nutrients, thrombus formation, vascular angiogenesis and remodeling are related to cellular/subcellular level biological processes, where mesoscopic simulations resolving detailed cell dynamics provide a key to understanding and identifying the cellular basis of disease. However, the intr...

The spleen, the largest secondary lymphoid organ in humans, not only fulfils a broad range of immune functions, but also plays an important role in red blood cell’s (RBC) life cycle. Although much progress has been made to elucidate the critical biological processes involved in the maturation of young RBCs (reticulocytes) as well as removal of sene...

Deep learning has been shown to be an effective tool in solving partial differential equations (PDEs) through physics-informed neural networks (PINNs). PINNs embed the PDE residual into the loss function of the neural network, and have been successfully employed to solve diverse forward and inverse PDE problems. However, one disadvantage of the fir...

We analyze a plurality of epidemiological models through the lens of physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) that enable us to identify time-dependent parameters and data-driven fractional differential operators. In particular, we consider several variations of the classical susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model by introducing more compartmen...

Due to their compromised deformability, heat denatured erythrocytes have been used as labelled probes to visualize spleen tissue or to assess the ability of the spleen to retain stiff red blood cells (RBCs) for over three decades, e.g. see Looareesuwan et al. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) (1). Despite their good accessibility, it is still an open questio...

Nonlocal and fractional-order models capture effects that classical partial differential equations cannot describe; for this reason, they are suitable for a broad class of engineering and scientific applications that feature multiscale or anomalous behavior. This has driven a desire for a vector calculus that includes nonlocal and fractional gradie...