George Karakiulakis

George Karakiulakis
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | AUTH · Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine

B.Sc. Pharmacol., M.Sc. Biochem., M.D., Ph.D.

About

97
Publications
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5,965
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
4009 Citations
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
Full-text available
Low-intensity shock wave therapy (LiST) improves erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED), probably by promoting angiogenesis as suggested by studies on animals with comorbidities as disease associated ED models. We aim to investigate the effects of LiST on erectile tissue of healthy, naturally aged rats. Twelve naturally aged m...
Article
Objective: To investigate the effects of LiST on erectile tissue of healthy, naturally aged rats. Methods: Twelve naturally aged male Wistar albino rats (19-21 months)were randomized into two groups: a control group (OC, n:6) and a LiST treatment group (OSWT, n:6). Another control group of young rats (8 weeks) (n:6) was also used (YC). Each rat in...
Article
Background and objective: We have previously shown that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) from COPD patients exhibit an abnormal metabolism of hyaluronic acid (HA) and that COPD exacerbations are associated with pro-inflammatory degradation of HA. In the present study, we investigated the effect of glucocorticoids and long-acting β2-agonists (LABA...
Poster
Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of the lung with a key role in airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) HA is elevated in the BAL as compared to the stable state of the disease. Aims and objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate if serum HA can be used a...
Poster
Background: Exacerbations of COPD (ECOPD) accelerate the deterioration of lung function, affecting the quality of life of COPD patients and moreover, remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are essential extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules that regulate the viscoelastic and biomechanical properties of the lung. M...
Article
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and remodeling, with serious modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an abundant ECM molecule in the lung with various biological functions that are depended on its molecular weight (MW). High-MW HA exhibits anti-inflammator...
Article
Full-text available
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) are associated with accelerated aggravation of clinical symptoms and deterioration of pulmonary function. The mechanisms by which exacerbations may contribute to airway remodeling and declined lung function are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated if AE-COPD are ass...
Article
Objective: Hypertension is related, with the atherosclerosis, as well as with disturbances in the system of hemostasis /fibrinolysis and continues to be associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disorders, mainly thrombotic. The purpose was to make a research concerning the effect of the antihypertensives, such as the Converting Enzyme Inh...
Article
Full-text available
Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. The kinase inhibitor nintedanib specific for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) significantly reduced the rate of decline of forced vital cap...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To identify any possible relation between glycaemic control and previous laser photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Seventy-two patients with diabetes were included in the study and were separated into 2 groups according to previous treatment (group A) or not (group B) with argon laser photocoagulation. Glycaemic control...
Article
INTRODUCTION: The full extent of IL-6 involvement in PVR pathophysiology has not yet been comprehensively investigated. The aim of this study was the comparison of the IL-6 effect on MMP expression between SRF and the vitreous in the context of RRD complicated by PVR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one SRF samples from 31 eyes of 31 consecutive pati...
Article
Background: Prolonged exposure to infrared (IR) radiation is associated with different types of damage to cornea and lens. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic exposure to IR radiation on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 and on the expression of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the rabbit c...
Article
Unlabelled: Abstract Context: Although opiate abuse is known to affect matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), data on these enzymes and their tissue inhibitors in heroin addicts are scarce. Objective: In the present study, we determined serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in heroin users, a...
Article
Full-text available
Muscarinic receptors are expressed by most cell types and mediate cellular signaling of their natural ligand acetylcholine. Thereby, they control numerous central and peripheral physiological organ responses to neuronal activity. In the human lung, muscarinic receptors are predominantly expressed by smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, and fibrob...
Article
Full-text available
Glycosaminoglycans (GAG), especially hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate tissue flexibility, cell motility and inflammation. Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) of asthma patients exhibit abnormal HA metabolism, which contributes to inflammation and remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of glucocorticoids and long acting β2-agonists (LABA) on GAG s...
Article
Full-text available
SKIN AGING IS A MULTIFACTORIAL PROCESS CONSISTING OF TWO DISTINCT AND INDEPENDENT MECHANISMS: intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Youthful skin retains its turgor, resilience and pliability, among others, due to its high content of water. Daily external injury, in addition to the normal process of aging, causes loss of moisture. The key molecule involve...
Article
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) represent a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders, characterized by accumulation of glycosaminoglycans within the lysosomes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the serum of pediatric patients with MPS. Serum gelatinase activity was assesse...
Article
The Internet is an ever expanding means for information, communication, entertainment and trade. With greater and greater frequency, patients are using the Internet to access health related information and purchase of drugs. The benefit is that on line sales of drugs by legal, reputable pharmacies has provided significant lowering of cost to patien...
Article
Glycosaminoglycans are linear acidic polysaccharides, comprising hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparan sulfate and heparin, which differ in their specific composition. These molecules are encountered in the extracellular matrix and play a major role in the development of tissues physiological properties. W...
Article
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most frequent forms of malignancy in humans. Although BCC is a tumour of low degree of malignancy, if left untreated, it can be locally aggressive, eat away at tissues and cause ulceration. Nodular is the most common subtype of BCC (>50%). Although apparently non-invasive, micronodular, a certain subgroup of...
Article
Juvenile Hyaline Fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, histologically characterized by the production and deposition of an unidentified hyaline material in the skin and other organs. Extracellular matrix molecules are implicated in the development of skin lesion which is debilitating and recurrent and, so far, no treatment is s...
Article
To investigate the levels of IL-6 in the vitreous of patients with RRD complicated with PVR and correlate the IL-6 levels with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1,-2,-3,-8,-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 with respect to RRD extent, duration and PVR grade. Cohort study. Twenty-eight vitreous samples from 28 eyes of 28 patients wi...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetic retinopathy is considered one of the vision-threatening diseases among working-age population. The pathogenesis of the disease is regarded multifactorial and complex: capillary basement membrane thickening, loss of pericytes, microaneuryms, loss of endothelial cells, blood retinal barrier breakdown and other anatomic lesions might contribu...
Article
Diabetic retinopathy is considered one of the vision-threatening diseases among working-age population. The pathogenesis of the disease is regarded multifactorial and complex: capillary basement membrane thickening, loss of pericytes, microaneuryms, loss of endothelial cells, blood retinal barrier breakdown and other anatomic lesions might contribu...
Article
Abstract Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most frequent forms of malignancy in humans. Although BCC is a tumour of low degree of malignancy, if left untreated, it can be locally aggressive, eat away at tissues and cause ulceration. Nodular is the most common subtype of BCC (>50%). Although apparently non-invasive, micronodular, a...
Article
To investigate possible correlations between vitreous and/or serum levels of platelet-derived growth factor isoforms (PDGF-AA, -AB and -BB) with parameters associated with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and clinically significant macula oedema (CSMO); to compare the results to relevant results regarding vascular endothelial growth fa...
Article
We investigated the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 and their latent pro-forms (proMMP-2, -9), and protein levels of MMP-1, -3, -8 and tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 in the subretinal fluid (SRF) and vitreous of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Potential correlations with proliferative vitreoretinopathy...
Article
Extrinsic skin ageing or 'photoageing', as opposed to intrinsic skin ageing, is the result of exposure to external factors, mainly ultraviolet irradiation. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and particularly hyaluronic acid (HA) are major components of the cutaneous extracellular matrix involved in tissue repair. However, their involvement in extrinsic skin...
Article
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a significant role in the structure and function of the lung. The ECM is a three-dimensional fibre mesh, comprised of various interconnected and intercalated macromolecules, among which are the glycosaminoglycans (GAG). GAG are long, linear and highly charged, heterogeneous polysaccharides that are composed of a...
Article
Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized histologically by deposition of hyaline material and clinically by multiple skin lesions. Clarification of the molecular and structural changes involved in JHF skin lesions may unravel targets for pharmacotherapy. We sought to investigate the expression of glyco...
Article
Full-text available
Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are essential extracellular matrix molecules which regulate tissue flexibility, a parameter that is reduced in airways of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the expression of GAG and their metabolising enzymes in primary human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) obtained fro...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated possible correlations between vitreous and/or serum levels of platelet derived growth factor isoforms (PDGF-AA, -AB, -BB) with parameters associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and compared the results to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is an established growth factor affecting PDR. Thirty-one pat...
Article
World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that tobacco use is the main risk factor related to premature death in Europe, causing around 1.3 million deaths per year. The American Psychiatric Association defines tobacco (smoking) dependence as nicotine addiction, whereas WHO (ICD-10) defines it as a cluster of behavioral, cognitive and physiological...
Chapter
Heparin was discovered in 1916 and a purified product was first used in humans as an anticoagulant in 1935, and despite the fact that the structure of hyaluronic acid was reported back in 1950, it was not until the 1970s that the molecular structure of most GAGs was unraveled and not before the 1980s that the involvement of GAGs in tissue structure...
Article
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a fatal disease characterised by elevated blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation. Initial vasoconstriction, proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) contribute to pathological remodelling of pulmonary arterioles in...
Article
Investigation of the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 and protein levels of MMP-1, -3, -8, and the tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 in the vitreous of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and establishment of potential correlations of MMPs with clinical parameters. Thirty-two vitreous samples from patients with...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 and the protein levels of MMP-1, -3, -8 and the tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 in the subretinal fluid (SRF) of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and establishment of potential correlations with clinical parameters. Thirty-seven SRF from RRD patients and...
Article
Objectives: We have investigated the effects of terazosin on the content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, and the content of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) in the ventral prostate of Wistar rats. Methods: Rats were treated with terazosin (0.12, 1.2mg/kg orally every second day) for 120...
Article
Full-text available
Hypoxia is associated with extracellular matrix remodeling in several inflammatory lung diseases, such as fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. In a human cell culture model, we assessed whether extracellular matrix modification by hypoxia and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) involves the action of matrix metalloproteina...
Article
Glycosaminoglycans are extracellular matrix molecules which mediate a number of cellular functions such as proliferation, migration and response to growth factors. We have previously shown that hyaluronic acid (HA) enhances vascular smooth muscle cell migration via stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. In the present study, we investigat...
Article
Hypoxia, a common manifestation in various lung pathologies, is linked to extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix in the affected tissue, and involves, among others, disrupted homeostasis of collagenous proteins. In this study we demonstrated that hypoxia upregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 in human pulmonary vas...
Article
Full-text available
Acne vulgaris is a skin disorder of the sebaceous follicles, involving hyperkeratinization and perifollicular inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have a predominant role in inflammatory matrix remodeling and hyperproliferative skin disorders. We investigated the expression of MMP and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) in facial sebum specime...
Article
Patients with long-standing arterial hypertension are at significantly increased risk to suffer sustained thromboembolic complications, such as ischemic stroke and myocardial infarctions. In addition, hypertension has been associated with impaired fibrinolysis and the fibrinolytic system has been recognized as playing a crucial role in the pathogen...
Article
Tuberous sclerosis complex lesions of the skin may be disfiguring to patients and can only be treated by laser or cosmetic surgery. Clarification of the molecular and structural changes involved in skin hamartomas may unravel targets for pharmacotherapy. We investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and its tissue inhibitor (TIMP...
Article
Asthma is characterized by airway remodelling, involving changes in deposition of extracellular matrix molecules. First-line therapy of persistent asthma involves the combination of inhaled corticosteroids and β 2 adrenergic agonists. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of corticosteroids, β2 agonists and their combination in the se...
Article
The clinical use of cyclosporin A (CsA) is limited due to its sever side effects such as nephrotoxicity and hypertension. It has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may mediate the described side effects of CsA. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CsA on the secretion of gelatinases by rat aortic smooth muscle cells (R...
Article
The aim of the present study is to examine whether ovariectomy is associated with functional changes in the bladder function, as evidenced by the micturition profile, and whether this is related to changes in the bladder expression of AQP3. The results show that modulation of the concentration of the female sex hormones caused by ovariectomy is ass...
Article
Chronic hypoxia is implicated in lung fibrosis, which is characterized by enhanced deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays a key role in fibroblast homeostasis and is involved in disease states characterized by excessive fibrosis, such as pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated...
Article
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a disorder of cell lineage, migration, proliferation and differentiation, characterized by the development of widespread benign hamartomas, which are particularly evident in hamartomatous lesions of the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in gene expression of certain proteoglycans (PGs) an...
Article
Interstitial lung diseases associated with hypoxia, such as lung fibrosis, are characterized by enhanced production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, including glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia (3% O(2)) on TGF-beta-induced GA...
Article
Disorders in the fibrinolytic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition are determinant factors in several pathologic manifestations of vascular and cardiac tissue. We used primary human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and studied the effects of losartan on angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated (a)...
Article
The complex cascade of events leading to the formation of atheromatous plaques depends on the interaction between several cell types, growth factors, cytokines, and molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) (1). Among different molecules of the ECM involved in atherogenesis, the glycosaminoglycan(GAGs) have been reported to contribute to key even...
Article
Chemotaxis is a critical event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions and in the restenosis that often occurs after surgical intervention and angioplasty (1). Chemokines involved in atherogenesis include colony-stimulating factors (2), oxidized low-density lipoproteins (3), transforming growth factor-β (4) and fibroblast growth factor (5), w...
Article
Hypoxia, a consequence of interstitial lung diseases, may lead to secondary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Hypoxia induces activation and proliferation of lung cells and enhances the deposition of extracellular matrix including glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To elucidate the cell biological mechanisms underlying the developme...
Article
The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the glycosaminoglycans present in the different tissue structures of the human penis in view of their potentially significant role in the physiology of erection. Penile tissue samples were obtained from patients who underwent penectomy and were subsequently dissected into individual tissue struct...
Article
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) involves qualitative and quantitative alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) components affecting stromal-epithelial interactions. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are polysaccharide components of the ECM whose role in the development of BPH is under investigation. GAGs were extracted from human prostates of normal an...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing evidence suggests that the pathological alterations observed in brains affected by neurodegenerative disorders such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer's disease also involve changes in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In the present study, we have isolated, purified, and characterized total GAGs from brain stems of healthy cows or thos...
Article
The formation of atherosclerotic lesions is characterized by invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) into the tunica intima of the arterial wall and subsequently by increased proliferation of VSMC, a process apparently restricted to the intimal layer of blood vessels. Both events are preceded by the pathological overexpression of several gr...
Article
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), under conditions of induced proliferation, similar to those involved in atherosclerosis, secrete an acidic glycan, 82% of which exhibits structural homology with hyaluronic acid (HA), has a molecular mass of 340 kDa (HA-340) and inhibits VSMC proliferation in vitro. In this study, the expression of glycans was i...
Article
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a specific mitogen for vascular endothelial cells and enhances vascular permeability and edemagenesis. VEGF is also a major regulator of angiogenesis and may be a key target for inhibiting angiogenesis in angiogenesis-associated diseases. Among the extensively studied angiostatic compounds are severa...
Article
The secretion of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is considered a prerequisite step for tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In the present study we investigated the expression of type IV collagen-degrading activity in primary tumors of the human colon in correlation to tumor grade and in comparison to activity expressed in arising metastas...
Article
Cardiac subacute toxicity induced by the antineoplastic drugs epirubicin (CAS 56390-09-1), chlorambucil (CAS 305-03-3), cisplatin (CAS 15663-27-1) and methotrexate (CAS 59-05-2) and the steroid alkylating agent 3 beta-hydroxy-13 alpha-amino-13,17-seco-5 alpha-androstan-17-oic-13, 17-lactam ¿p-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino] phenyl¿ acetate was investigat...
Article
There has been a tremendous amount of human epidemiological and experimental animal research on the characterization of the anomalies produced by chronic prenatal ethanol exposure. However, the general public in Greece, is not aware of the dangers involved, even at low alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The aim of this review, is to bring the is...
Article
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is involved in the pathogensis of various inflammatory diseases. Subconfluent cultures of human VSMC, obtained lung arteries, secrete a 340-kDa highly acidic glycan molecule 24 hours after stimulation with PDGF-BB (10 ng/ml). The 340-kDa glycan shares common structure homologies (80%) with hyaluronic acid (HA)....
Article
Full-text available
Total glycans from the cell layer and the culture medium of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that had been cultivated in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were isolated and purified by gel filtration after Pronase and DNase digestion and alkaliborohydride treatment. Measurements of the content of neutral hexoses and uro...
Article
1. The effect of the nitric oxide (NO)-producing nitrovasodilators isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) were assessed on (a) the in vivo model of angiogenesis of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and (b) on the growth and metastatic properties of the Lewis Lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. 2. Isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IS...
Article
Total glycans were isolated and purified from Lytechinus pictus embryos at early developmental stages by gel-filtration chromatography after pronase and DNase digestion, and alkali-borohydride treatment. Fractionation by Superose 6 and HPLC gel-filtration chromatography revealed three major glycan fractions of 580, 150 and 2 kDa consistently throug...
Article
Titanocene dichloride, which is an active antitumor agent against solid but not blood-borne tumors, suppresses angiogenesis and inhibits biosynthesis of collagenous proteins in the in vivo system of the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. The agent does not affect total protein biosynthesis in the same system. At non-toxic dose regimens t...
Chapter
The propensity of tumours to generate resistant clones is a major barrier to cytotoxic and hormone therapy. The vasculature of malignancies is a more appealing target, since tumour endothelial cells are not known to be tranformed or subject to somatic mutation or random phenotypic variation. Thus an effective anti-angiogenic therapy need not be vit...
Article
Hepatic and renal subacute toxicity induced by the antineoplastic drugs chlorambucil, cisplatin, epirubicin and methotrexate and the steroid alkylating agent 3 beta-hydroxy-13 alpha-amino-13,17-seco-5 alpha-androstan-17-oic-13, 17-lactam (p-[bis(2-chloroethyl) amino] phenyl) acetate was investigated in rats using serum biochemical parameters. Toxic...
Article
Type IV collagen-degrading activity was expressed in homogenates of Lytechinus pictus embryos during embryogenesis. Activity was concentrated 1,600-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange, and gel chromatography and could not be activated further upon trypsin or organomercurial treatment. This enzyme activity could also degrade gelatin...
Article
Basement membrane (BM) exerts profound influence on endothelial cell (EC) behavior. In addition BM is a structural element of blood vessels; in fact at some point of their formation blood vessels are bare EC tubes lined with the BM produced by these EC. We thought, therefore, that a quantitative relationship must exist between the rate of BM synthe...
Article
The collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum (EC 3.4.24.3) degrades type IV collagen with Km 32 nM, indicating a high affinity for this substrate. Ferrous and ferric ions can inhibit Clostridium collagenase. Inhibition by Fe++ was of the mixed, non-competitive type, with Ki 90 microM. The inhibitory effect of Fe++ may be due to Zn++ displacement f...
Article
Type IV collagenase activity was previously identified and purified to 7500-fold in homogenates from murine Walker 256 carcinoma, using acetylated [3H]-type IV collagen as a substrate. Anthracycline antibiotics daunorubicin, doxorubicin and epirubicin exhibited a non-competitive, reversible inhibition with Ki 92, 49 and 40 microM, respectively. Thi...
Article
Inhibition of angiogenesis offers an alternative approach to cancer chemotherapy, since solid tumor growth has an absolute dependency on angiogenesis. We have previously shown that 8,9-dihydroxy-7-methyl-benzo [b]quinolizinium bromide (GPA1734) is a basement membrane synthesis inhibitor, and that this compound acts as an antiangiogenic agent in the...
Article
Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthate (D609) was identified as an agent that caused selective killing of tumor cells by an unknown mechanism of action. We report an inhibition by D609 of basement membrane collagen biosynthesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane system in vitro. In the same system in vivo D609 inhibits angiogenesis. Also treatment of rats...
Article
Extracts of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) obtained from 7-20 day old embryos, contained enzyme activity that could degrade type IV collagen. Peak enzyme activity was observed on days 8-10 of embryogenesis, which coincides with the stage of maximum angiogenesis. This activity decreased to lowest values at days 13-15 and increased t...