George A. Clum

George A. Clum
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | VT · Department of Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

110
Publications
6,826
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,864
Citations

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Some expressive writing (EW) interventions targeting posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) may reduce both PTSS and comorbid depression symptoms. The temporal associations between PTSS and depression symptom levels in response to EW interventions are unknown. This study examined the directionality of PTSS and depression symptom levels from baseline...
Article
The current study examined attentional bias toward threat in Hispanic college women exposed to lifetime sexual victimization in childhood, adulthood, and both childhood and adulthood. Response latencies and attention bias scores were compared between victimized and non-victimized individuals. Participants were 20 women exposed to adulthood sexual v...
Article
The US Hispanic population is large and rapidly growing, with serious healthcare disparities. Alarmingly, 67% of Hispanic adults with a mental illness go untreated. Attempts to increase treatment rates have had limited success, likely partly due to stigma beliefs. There is an urgent need to develop and utilize a Spanish language stigma assessment t...
Article
Objective: Although expressive writing (EW) appears efficacious for treating a range of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms including diagnosed PTSD, little is known about its efficacy when offered online and for ethnic/cultural minority populations such as Hispanic individuals. The current study examined the longitudinal effects of two online EW t...
Article
The psychometric properties of the paper-pencil and online versions of the Beliefs Toward Mental Illness Scale (BTMI) were examined in two studies with Latina/o individuals. In Study 1, 316 Latina/o participants completed the BTMI in a paper-pencil mode. The original three-factor model was found to be a poor fit model for the sample. Subsequent exp...
Article
Although Latinas/os report that conventional psychological treatments, such as outpatient and inpatient psychological interventions, are their preferred treatment option for psychological concerns, they also seek culturally relevant religious treatments (e.g., seeing a priest, using indigenous healers, seeking faith-based treatment). Previous resea...
Article
This study compared the efficacy of 2 online expressive writing protocols for a traumatic/stressful life event in a Hispanic student sample. Participants who had reported a traumatic event were randomly assigned to either the emotion-focused group or the fact-focused group. The emotion-focused group focused their written accounts on emotions and fe...
Article
The psychometric properties of the online versions of assessment instruments for phobias and related symptoms were compared to those of paper-pencil versions. The examined measures were the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS). Students (n = 514) completed the instruments either in a paper-pencil in lab condition or...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing where criminal justice-involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater su...
Article
The present study examined the effectiveness of self-help (SH) interventions for individuals with anxiety problems. Thirty-three studies, targeting a variety of anxiety disorders and problems, met criteria for inclusion with 1,582 clinical and subclinical participants. Self-help formats included books, audio/videotapes, and computer/Internet-based...
Article
This study compared the efficacy of an Internet-based, 8-week self-help program for traumatic event-related consequences (SHTC) (n = 13) to a wait-list (WL) condition (n = 14). The SHTC consisted of cognitive-behavioral modules that progressed from the least anxiety-provoking component (i.e., information) to the most anxiety-provoking (i.e., exposu...
Article
Examined the relative importance of diagnostic and psychosocial factors in the prediction of adolescent suicidal ideation. Seventy-three high school students exhibiting emotional disturbance in the school setting completed a diagnostic interview and self-report measures assessing social support, family environment, negative life events, and problem...
Article
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between childhood abuse, social support, and problem-solving appraisal within a juvenile delinquent sample. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess whether childhood abuse, social support, and problem-solving appraisal were independently predictive of suicidality, and fur...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a Panic Attack Frequency Calendar (PAFC), modeled after a time-line follow-back (TLFB) procedure (e.g., Sobell & Sobell, 1979). The latter has been used for years to reliably and validly assess daily alcohol use through self-report over extended periods of time. Seventy-fo...
Article
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the importance of diagnostic factors in the prediction of adolescent suicidal ideation in a high-risk community sample. Seventy-three high school students, aged 14 to 18 years, identified by school personnel as exhibiting emotional disturbance participated in the study. Psychiatric disorders were...
Chapter
Phobias are persistent, excessive fear responses to objects or situations that are for most people neutral or only mildly anxiety-arousing. Phobias typically involve fears of the commonplace situations involved in life and, if the feared situation is frequently encountered, can interfere greatly in the general conduct of life. The current classific...
Article
The present meta-analytic review examined revictimization rates and sources of variance among rates provided by 19 empirical studies of adult females. In this review, revictimization refers to the occurrence of at least one incident of childhood sexual abuse followed by a subsequent incident of adult sexual victimization. Studies were included in t...
Article
The present study examined a relapse prevention (RP) program delivered via bibliotherapy in the treatment of individuals with panic attacks. Compared with a wait list control group, individuals receiving RP exhibited significant reductions on measures of frequency of panic attacks, panic cognitions, anticipatory anxiety, avoidance, and depression....
Article
The present study describes the development of a new scale to measure Beliefs toward Mental Illness (BMI), which was designed to measure cross-cultural differences in such beliefs as well as to predict treatment-seeking behavior among different cultural groups. A total of 216 students participated in this study (114 Asian students and 102 American...
Article
The present study examined the etiology of suicidal behavior from cognitive and developmental perspectives in a sample of 181 suicidal and nonsuicidal college students. We hypothesized that cognitive functioning would serve as a mediator between early life events and suicidal behavior. The present study examined child maltreatment, family instabili...
Article
The present study examined the relative contribution of diagnostic and psychosocial factors to the prediction of severity of suicidal ideation in a sample of 78 college students. Using hierarchical regression analyses to control for each set of factors, psychosocial variables were found to consistently predict level of suicidal ideation. In contras...
Article
Research which has related scores on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) to suicidality have generally neglected to examine the possibility that specific depressive factors within the CDI may be more predictive of suicidality than the full scale score. Knowledge of such factors would help to explain the relationship between depression and sui...
Article
The present study compared the differential effectiveness of bibliotherapy with no therapist contact (bibliotherapy alone), and bibliotherapy plus daily self-monitoring and self-administered feedback (bibliotherapy plus monitoring), to daily self-monitoring and self-administered feedback (monitoring alone) and wait-list controls, in individuals wit...
Article
The present paper utilized meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of interventions in which components of self-regulation theories (e.g., self-monitoring, self-reinforcement) were the primary treatment intervention utilized in treating habit disturbances, depression, anxiety and health-related problems with adults. The effect size (ES)1 compari...
Article
This study tests both the stress/social support and the stress/problem-solving etiological models for suicidality while controlling for depression. To this end, a depressed, high-suicide-ideating sample (N=68) was compared to a depressed, low-suicide-ideating sample (N=64). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test the unique cont...
Article
This study examined the relationships of frequency and type of psychiatric diagnosis to suicidality within a sample of chronically and severely ideating college-aged students (N=78). The most common diagnoses were the depressive disorders, comprising 43% of all diagnoses, followed by anxiety disorders, comprising 17% of all diagnoses. Retrospective...
Article
The literature addressing the etiology of suicidal behavior was examined from cognitive and developmental perspectives. Empirical evidence was found linking early negative life events and suicidal behavior, early negative life events and cognitive variables, and cognitive variables and suicidal behavior. A comprehensive cognitive pathway is for the...
Article
Lifetime sexual and physical victimization histories were examined within a shelter and outpatient sample of battered women (N = 43). Rates of prior victimization were very high with 71% of women reporting a childhood experience of physical abuse and 53% of women reporting a childhood experience of sexual abuse. These experiences were then examined...
Article
The present study examined the validity of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and SPSI—Revised in differentiating 65 high-suicidal from 63 depressed, low-suicidal college students. Results from multivariate analyses indicated overall differences in problem-solving between these two groups as measured by the SPSI but not by the SPSI-R. Furt...
Article
The present meta-analytic review examined the relationship between interpersonal violence and psychological distress, utilizing 50 published or prepublication empirical studies. Studies were included in the review if they quantified psychological distress following childhood sexual or physical abuse, rape, criminal assault, or partner (domestic) ph...
Article
The present study investigated whether situational and cognitive dimensions of claustrophobia exist. To this end, the Claustrophobia Situations Questionnaire (CSQ) and the Claustrophobia General Cognitions Questionnaire (CGCQ) were developed and exploratory factor analyses were performed on these scales. Two-factor solutions for both the anxiety an...
Article
A self-help (SH) treatment for panic disorder was compared to a wait-list (WL) control. The SH treatment consisted of reading the book Coping With Panic, watching a 15-minute videotape providing information regarding panic attacks and instruction in diaphragmatic breathing, and being provided with a relaxation tape that taught progressive muscle re...
Article
We designed two new measures—the Index of Life Stress (ILS) and the Index of Social Support (ISS)—to assist in the prediction of cultural adjustment for an Asian international student population. In the present study, these two measures were administered to 101 Asian international students. Stability estimates over 1 month were high: .97 for the IL...
Article
The Modified Scale for Suicide Ideation (MSSI; I. W. Miller et al, 1986) is a self-report measure used to assess suicidality. The present study was designed to provide additional assessment of the psychometric properties of the MSSI by (a) studying it in a severe and chronic sample of suicidal ideators (aged 18–24 years); (b) examining its stabilit...
Article
This study investigated 2 methods of disseminating a cognitive-behavioral intervention for panic disorder (PD). Thirty-six Ss who met diagnostic criteria for PD according to the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Revised were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: bibliotherapy (BT), group therapy (GT), or a waiting-list control (WL) condition....
Article
The present study tested both a stress-problem-solving model and a stress-social support model in the etiology of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and suicide ideation for a group of Asian international students in the United States. Problem-solving skills and social support were hypothesized as two mediators between life stress and depressive sy...
Article
This study assessed whether stress, social support, and interpersonal problem-solving appraisal/skills were predictive of level of suicidality within a chronic suicidal college sample. Stepwise regression analyses were used to assess whether stress, social support, and problem-solving were independently predictive of severity of suicide ideation. I...
Article
Childhood trauma experiences (e.g., sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessed violence, and early separation experiences) and family environment characteristics were assessed with a questionnaire from a sample of depressed female inpatients; 17 were diagnosed as having borderline personality disorder (BPD), and 19 received no such diagnosis (NBPD). S...
Article
We conducted a meta-analysis of 40 self-help studies examining 61 treatments which used as control groups no-treatment, wait-list, or placebo comparisons. We found an overall treatment effect size for self-help interventions of 0.76 at posttreatment and an effect size of 0.53 at follow-up. Studies that used a more stringent control group — placebo...
Article
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new intervention, Guided Imaginal Coping (GIC), compared to imaginal exposure (IEX), and a waiting-list control (WLC) condition among 24 clinic outpatients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder (PD) or PD with agoraphobia. GIC was the more consistently effective intervention, with individuals de...
Article
The problem-solving deficit (PSD) diathesis-stress model of suicide behavior proposed by Clum, Patsiokas, and Luscomb (1979) and expanded by Schotte and Clum (1982, 1987) was examined in a short-term longitudinal test. The present study assessed the relationship between problem-solving deficits at Time 1—prior to the stressor (a D or F on a midterm...
Article
In a meta-analysis, the authors compared the effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for panic disorder. Percentage of agoraphobic subjects in the sample and duration of the illness were unrelated to effect size (ES). Type of dependent variable was generally unrelated to treatment outcome, although behavioral measures yielded...
Article
In a meta-analysis, the authors compared the effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for panic disorder. Percentage of agoraphobic subjects in the sample and duration of the illness were unrelated to effect size (ES). Type of dependent variable was generally unrelated to treatment outcome, although behavioral measures yielded...
Article
The present study examines the effectiveness of a self-help approach with minimal therapist contact that targeted a panic-disordered population with mild agoraphobia. Thirty-one individuals meeting the criteria for panic disorder were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: (1) Wait-list control (WL); (2) Bibliotherapy using a se...
Article
The present study describes the rationale and validation of a self-monitoring approach for suicide ideation. A sample of 49 severely ideating 18- to 24-year-old college students volunteering for a treatment study for chronic ideators served as subjects. A three-item self-monitoring scale designed to assess the strength, duration, and level of contr...
Article
A longitudinal design with a mild, naturalistic stressor (poor grade on a midterm exam) tested whether perceived problem-solving ability predicted adjustment in a sample of 303 college students. Participants completed assessments before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the stressor. Individuals who appraised their problem-solving ability as lower at Tim...
Article
Attributional style was examined as a diathesis for depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. A naturalistic stressor—obtaining a D or F on an Introductory Psychology exam—was used in a longitudinal design to test for the effects of stress in predicting these criteria. Controlling for preexam levels of depression, hopelessness, and suicide i...
Article
The literature bearing on the issue of why some individuals with panic disorder develop avoidance of various degrees of severity while others do not was examined. The data were organized around seven hypotheses. The evidence linking measures of panic disorder severity and avoidance was contradictory. Clearer evidence was found for the relationship...
Article
A growing body of research indicates that cognitive-behavioral (CB) treatments are superior to no treatment for panic. However, few compelling differences exist between treatments, questioning whether the addition of CB elements is necessary for effective treatments. The current study examined two questions. First, does the addition to treatment of...
Article
The question of whether high stress leads to attempting suicide (parasuicide) or suicide attempters are more likely to report high stress was examined in a one-year follow-up study of 98 persons, 47 of whom had attempted suicide. Cross-lagged panel correlations between stress and parasuicide provided both concurrent and predictive validity that str...
Article
Social problem-solving therapy is based on research indicating that suicidal individuals have deficits in problem-solving skills in general and in interpersonal problemsolving skills, in particular. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of social problem-solving therapy compared to supportive therapy for treating suicidal older adolescents....
Article
The present article reports on the development and validation of two self-report instruments designed to assess the symptoms and cognitions associated with panic attacks. The Panic Attack Symptoms Questionnaire (PASQ) as well as the Panic Attack Cognitions Questionnaire (PACQ) successfully differentiated a group of anxiety-disordered individuals wi...
Article
Investigators have debated whether imagery can effectively induce arousal in persons suffering from anxiety disorders. Past research suggests that imaginal exposure to feared stimuli can successfully induce arousal among simple and social phobics. However, owing to the greater complexity of precipitating stimuli associated with panic attacks (PAs),...
Article
N. Brody's (see record 1990-12934-001) comment on our meta-analysis (T. G. Bowers and G. A. Clum; see record 1989-16477-001) seems to suggest that the efficacy of behavior therapy has not been established relative to placebo control conditions, especially for "neurotic conditions." The comments appear directed at defending an earlier meta-analysi...
Article
N. Brody's (see record 1990-12934-001) comment on our meta-analysis (T. G. Bowers and G. A. Clum; see record 1989-16477-001) seems to suggest that the efficacy of behavior therapy has not been established relative to placebo control conditions, especially for "neurotic conditions." The comments appear directed at defending an earlier meta-analysis...
Article
A limited number of psychological correlates of panic have been identified. The current study employed the MMPI to examine differences on these correlates between Panic-Disordered (PD) subjects and subjects diagnosed with other anxiety disorders, as well as differences between anxiety-disordered individuals with and without panic attacks, Ninety-on...
Article
The comparative effectiveness of psychological interventions and pharmacologic treatments on panic attacks was examined for a composite group comprised primarily of individuals with a diagnosis of panic disorder or agoraphobia with panic attacks. This was accomplished utilizing a comprehensive approach which examined treatment termination, treatmen...
Article
The present study examined the incremental effectiveness of imaginal flooding (IF) over standard psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic approaches in the treatment of combat-related PTSD. Evidence was found supportive of IF's effectiveness with regard to self-report symptoms directly related to the traumatic event(s), state anxiety, subjective anxiety...
Article
Psychosocial factors (emotional distress, stress, health locus of control, and social support) and genital herpes activity (episode frequency, severity, and duration) were assessed for 46 individuals with recurrent genital herpes infections (HSV) in order to predict psychosocial status associated with herpes episodes. Multiple regression analyses r...
Article
At this point in time, what do we know concerning the etiology and treatment of panic disorders? First, it appears that panic disorder is reached through multiple paths. Genetic vulnerability manifested through biological vulnerability appears to be a factor in at least some instances of this disorder. Environmental factors, such as interpersonal a...
Article
The current investigation examined coping repertoires of individuals who experience panic. Ninety-three subjects were divided into those with panic (n = 60), regardless of diagnosis, and those without panic (n = 33). Based upon a 27-item coping questionnaire, panic subjects reported utilization of strategies that were significantly greater in numbe...
Article
Contemporary models suggest that persons with panic disorder inaccurately attribute somatic anxiety symptoms to catastrophic causes. This consequently exacerbates their physiological symptoms, triggering full-blown panic attacks. Researchers have modified catastrophic thinking using cognitive therapy, but typically have not employed these technique...
Article
We conducted a meta-analysis of 69 studies comparing forms of behavior therapy with placebo control conditions to obtain an estimate of the incremental contribution of specific interventions to the nonspecific effects of placebo. We used a credibility rating of the placebo intervention to determine the effect of placebo credibility on effect size (...
Article
Thirty-one individuals with recurrent genital herpes were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control. Each treatment condition contained two 5-member groups, and the waiting-list condition contained 11 members. Six consecutive weekly 90-min group treatment sessions were conducted...
Article
Studies were reviewed to address the question of whether antidepressant medications were effective in the treatment of panic attacks, and whether this effect was primary or secondary to their effect on depression. Evidence was gathered from studies examining comorbidity of panic and depression, level of depression in panic-disordered patients respo...
Article
Comments on the article by T. Szasz (see record 1986-27453-001) advocating against coercive suicide prevention. The present author argues that suicidal behavior is often temporary, and as such warrants temporary restraint. He argues that treatment may reduce the danger of suicide, but inaction will not. He further maintains that Szasz overestimate...
Article
Comments on the article by T. Szasz (see record 1986-27453-001) advocating against coercive suicide prevention. The present author argues that suicidal behavior is often temporary, and as such warrants temporary restraint. He argues that treatment may reduce the danger of suicide, but inaction will not. He further maintains that Szasz overestimates...
Article
We examined a diathesis-stress-hopelessness model of suicidal behavior, the diathesis in question being a cognitive deficit in problem solving. We further expanded an analysis of the problem-solving skills and deficits of suicidal persons. This we accomplished by comparing a sample of 50 hospitalized patients on suicidal precautions with a control...
Article
In an investigation of the effectiveness of strategies in the treatment of suicide attempters, 15 psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicide attempts without a diagnosis of psychosis, alcoholism, or drug abuse were assessed pre- and posttreatment for suicidal ideation, hopelessness, means–end problem solving, and flexibility of thinking. Ss were r...
Article
The present study sought to ameliorate two major deficiencies in the literature on treating response to surgery, viz., the failure to compare clearly delineated treatments, alone and in combination; and the failure to examine treatment X coping style interactions. Information imparting and brief relaxation were examined in this study as they intera...
Chapter
The third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) distinguishes between two principal types of “Anxiety States of Anxiety Neuroses,” namely, (1) “Panic Disorders,” and (2) ‘’Generalized Anxiety Disorders.” Panic disorders are defined as transient episodes lasting from several minutes to se...
Article
This study attempted to predict postoperative pain from preoperative level of anxiety and the amount of information patients possessed regarding their surgery. Pain was assessed via the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and a measure of pain complaints--number of analgesics taken. High levels of state anxiety and a high degree of information predicte...
Article
Examined a model of suicide behavior with 65 undergraduate suicide ideators (as measured by a self-report adaptation of the Scale for Suicide Ideators). The model focuses on the relationship between negative life stress, cognitive rigidity and/or poor problem-solving skills, hopelessness, and suicide ideation and attempting. The model proposes that...
Article
Relaxation training, relaxation instructions, and an attention-redirection approach were compared with no treatment in terms of their ability to affect postsurgical anxiety and pain in 59 patients (aged 40–68 yrs) undergoing gallbladder surgery. In addition, 2 hypotheses involving an interaction between treatment and locus of control (Rotter's Inte...
Article
Relaxation training, relaxation instructions, and redirection of attention techniques were compared to a no-treatment control in the treatment of acute ischemic pain. Relaxation instructions were ineffective in reducing state anxiety, verbally reported pain or distress or pain measured during presentation of the stimulus by cross-modality matching....
Article
The present study examined male suicide attempters and a control population of psychiatric patients in an effort to determine the importance of life stress and locus of control as factors in suicide attempting. The parasuicide group was found to be younger, less psychotic, and more depressed than the psychiatric group. Age was found to mediate the...
Article
The present study was aimed at assessing the relationships of locus of control and amount of information patients possess regarding their surgery to several criteria of post-surgical adjustment, utilizing a self-report measure of pain, number of analgesics taken, days in hospital and frequency of complaints. 48 patients about to undergo elective ch...
Article
Selectively reviews the suicide literature in the following areas: factors predictive of parasuicide, primary prevention of parasuicide, and secondary prevention of parasuicide. The research literature strongly suggests that secondary parasuicide prevention is the most viable path for future research to follow. Aggressive case finding and primary p...
Article
Contrasted cognitive characteristics of rigidity, impulsivity, and field dependence in a group of 49 19–59 yr old suicide attempters and a group of 48 19–64 yr old nonsuicidal psychiatric controls. All Ss were administered the same test battery consisting of the Embedded Figures Test, the Alternate Uses Test, and the Matching Familiar Figures Test....
Article
Examined 2 sets of predictor variables, intrapsychic, and environmental, in a multiple regression analysis to determine their independent contribution in predicting posthospitalization adjustment. 79 16–65 yr old Ss were followed up 1 yr after admission to a psychiatric service. All Ss completed the Life Change Inventory and the Katz Adjustment Sca...
Article
-Moderators of disagreement bemeen 190 patients' ratings of themselves and significant others' ratings' of them on dimensions of marital adiusrment, self help, and social adjustment were analyzed. Disagreement was reliably predicted by the social status of the patient and for married patients whether the spouse and patient lived together. These res...
Article
Based on a definition of stress as the presence of recent life changes, stress was examined in relation to total symptomatology as rated by the patient and a significant other and to 5 symptom factors. Ss were 196 17-66 yr old consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients who completed Rahe's Life Change Inventory and the Katz Adjustment Scale (KAS...
Article
Previous reviews of prognostic factors in hospitalized psychiatric patients have stressed the unidimensionality of both predictor and criterion variables. In the light of research in the past 11 yr the unidimensional view is no longer tenable. The stress on psychological tests and other measures of intrapsychic adjustment as prognostic indices lead...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the competing hypotheses that environmental variables contribute independent variance to the prognosis of general psychological disorders or that their predictive potential is accounted for by their relationship to initial level of psychopathology and other biographical data. The results suggested that the p...
Article
Performed a correlational analysis of the relation between item clusters derived from a biographical inventory, the MMPI, and the factors derived from the Katz Adjustment Scales. Ss were 117 psychiatric inpatients, 18-65 yrs of age. Data confirm the expected relations between life history clusters and symptomatology. The factor of Social and Famili...
Article
Mood variability, defined as variability in average daily mood, has been associated with neuroticism (Cattell, 1957; Fiske, 1957) and depression (Fiske, 1957) and negatively with defensiveness (Fiske, 1957). Variability of intraday mood, defined as the average range in daily mood, has also been negatively related to repression and "lying good" as m...
Article
Preferences for defense mechanisms as measured by the Defense Mechanism Inventory were related to average mood level as assessed in normal Ss over a 30-day period. As predicted, males ( n = 23) who tended to prefer defense mechanisms centering around denial, repression, and intellectualization tended to be less depressed, more energetic, and less a...
Article
Attempted to evaluate the relationships of biographical variables to psychiatric decisions in the natural setting of a combat zone. In a validity group of 223 ss, the decision to return a man to combat duty was found to be highly related to biographical variables. In the cross-validation study with 581 ss, these relationships had low, but significa...
Article
Used biographical variables, available at the time of admission to a Navy psychiatric service, to predict the posthospital adjustment of 827 male patients (Navy and Marine Corps personnel) to military life. Predictor variables were combined, using a multiple-regression technique and a simple item-analyzed scale. The latter proved to be slightly, bu...
Article
50 case histories were rated independently by 4 judges, 2 male and 2 female graduate psychology students, on "presence and duration of environmental stress" and "presence and duration of premorbid maladjustment." Using the kappa coefficient as an index of interrater reliability, uniformly low reliabilities were found when sufficient information exi...

Network

Cited By

Projects