George Chrousos

George Chrousos
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | uoa · First Dept. Pediatrics

MD, ScD, MACE, MACP, FRCP

About

2,215
Publications
376,207
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
136,816
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2000 - present
Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital
Position
  • Chair

Publications

Publications (2,215)
Article
Full-text available
Endocrine disorders represent a large component of the so-called “chronic non-communicable diseases” , which are responsible for the lion share of morbidity and mortality in contemporary societies. As discussed in this retrospective collection of articles, solid evidence from diabetes mellitus, the exemplar of common chronic endocrine disorders, hi...
Article
Full-text available
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) acts on several brain regions, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which is involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelations between FGF21 and stress indices in girls, as well as in their caregivers. 78 gir...
Article
Full-text available
Maternal perinatal mental disorders (PMD) are associated with developmental and behavioral problems in children, probably mediated by the programming of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased cortisol concentrations during the antenatal and perinatal periods have been related to long-term effects on children’s behavior and stress...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant changes in the care of pregnant women and their fetuses. Emerging data show elevated depression and anxiety symptoms among pregnant women. Aims: The purpose of this article is to investigate the psychological and behavioral impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women in Greece during...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the presence of a molecular pathway from hepatic 11-βHSD-1 to brain MAO-A in the dynamics of plasma corticosterone involvement in anxiety development. During 14 days following repeated exposure of rats to predator scent stress for 10 days, the following variables were measured: hepatic 11-βHSD-1 and brain MAO-A activities, brain nor...
Article
Full-text available
Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS, POMS) accounts for 3–5% of all MS cases and is characterized by a highly inflammatory profile, often warranting treatment with high-efficacy agents. Our aim is to present real-world data of a series of 18 Hellenic POMS patients treated with natalizumab (NTZ) either as adolescents or as adults, after high dise...
Article
Skeletal evidence dating back to the Mesolithic period is scarce and should be studied under a multidisciplinary perspective. The primary objective of the study was to carefully assess the skeleton of a young woman from this era, named “Avgi,” to compile its bioarchaeological profile, analyze its paleopathology and dental pathology, and deploy a 3D...
Article
Full-text available
Εισαγωγή: Άτομα που επιβιώνουν από παιδικό καρκίνο έχουν αυξημένη πιθανότητα να εκδηλώσουν δυσμεταβολικό σύνδρομο (ΔΣ). Σκοπός της μελέτης ήταν να διερευνηθεί αν αναπτύσσεται ΔΣ κατά τη διάρκεια της θεραπείας σε ασθενείς με οξεία λεμφοβλαστική λευχαιμία (ΟΛΛ) της παιδικής ηλικίας. Υλικό και μέθοδοι: Η μελέτη περιλάμβανε 48 ασθενείς με ΟΛΛ (33 άρρεν...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has massively affected people’s health, societies, and the global economy. Our lives are no longer as they were before COVID-19, and, most likely, will never be the same again. We hypothesize that the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on population health and the economy will last for a very long time and will still be felt in t...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic startle reflex (ASR) constitutes a reliable, cross-species indicator of sensorimotor and inhibitory mechanisms, showing distinct signature in cognitive aging, sex, and psychopathological characterization. ASR can be modulated by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm, which comprises the suppression of reactivity to a startling stimulus (p...
Article
Medical technology has made significant advances in the 21st century and, at present, medicine makes use of information technology, telecommunications, and state-of-the-art engineering to provide the best possible healthcare services. Electronic sensors provide health practitioners with the ability to constantly monitor their patients' health, to s...
Article
Molecular fusion events have a prominent role in the initial steps of carcinogenesis. In this study, a bioinformatics analysis was performed between four organisms that are known to induce cancer development in humans: two viruses, Human Herpesvirus 4, and Human T-cell leukaemia virus, one bacterium, Helicobacter Pylori, and one trematode, Schistos...
Article
Hypertension is the most common causative factor of cardiac remodeling, which, in turn, has been associated with changes in brain and kidney function. Currently, the role of blood biomarkers as indices of cardiac remodeling remains unclear. In contrast, cardiac imaging, including echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), has bee...
Article
Full-text available
Phytocannabinoids possess anticancer properties, as established in vitro and in vivo. However, they are characterized by high lipophilicity. To improve the properties of cannabidiol (CBD), such as solubility, stability, and bioavailability, CBD inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs) might be employed, offering targeted, faster, and prolonged...
Article
Background: Human organisms have to cope with a large number of external or internal stressful stimuli that threaten -or are perceived as threatening- their internal dynamic balance or homeostasis. To face these disturbing forces, or stressors, organisms have developed a complex neuroendocrine system, the stress system, which consists of the hypot...
Article
Full-text available
The highly heterogeneous symptomatology and unpredictable progress of COVID‑19 triggered unprecedented intensive biomedical research and a number of clinical research projects. Although the pathophysiology of the disease is being progressively clarified, its complexity remains vast. Moreover, some extremely infrequent cases of thrombotic thrombocyt...
Article
Full-text available
There are limited studies on the association of endotoxin, a potent mediator of gut-derived inflammation and telomere length (TL). We investigated (1) the influence of adiposity on endotoxin and TL amongst Saudi adults according to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) status and (2) the influence vitamin D may have on TL attrition. Anthropometric data a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder in which clinical, sonographic, and endophenotypic features have been underinvestigated or inconclusive, especially in the early stages of the disease (adolescence/young adulthood). Objective: This prospective pilot study focused on the differences of multiple physiological...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between multiple indices of stress, inflammation and metabolism vs. body composition parameters in 121 (43 boys, 78 girls) children and adolescents, aged 5–15 y. Subjects were divided into two groups: normal weight (N) (N = 40, BMI z-score = −0.1923 ± 0.6), and overweight/obese (OB) (N = 81, BMI...
Article
Background: Chronic stress is a recognized risk factor for poor health, body composition disequilibrium, impaired mental health, and deterioration of quality of life. Chronic stress-related cortisol oversecretion and circadian dysregulation and associated systemic low grade, injurious inflammation ("para-inflammation") contribute to steatosis in v...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we report the development of the five-item Brief Coronavirus Threat Scale(BCTS) to assess perceived coronavirus threat. Using exploratory (Study 1, N = 735) and confirmatory (Study 2, N = 3,977) factor analysis, we substantiate the structural validity of the scale with North American, European, Israeli, and Chinese adults. Additional...
Article
Adolescence is a period of stressful physiological and psychosocial changes. Exposure to chronic stress can cause specific structural and functional changes in the organism, which can be appraised objectively. Some of these alterations are an expected reaction of the body in its attempt to adapt to the stressful situation, while others are signs of...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe beneficial effect of glucocorticoids in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is established, but whether adrenal cortisol secretion is impaired in COVID-19 is not fully elucidated. In this case-control study, we investigated the diurnal free bioavailable salivary cortisol secretion in COVID-19 patients.Methods Fifty-two consecutive COVID-19 pa...
Article
Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological variation in the time interval between consecutive heartbeats. Extracellular water (ECW) is the aqueous compartment surrounding cells and has been used as an inflammation index. Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) refer to persistent psychosomatic bodily complaints, and their presence...
Article
Full-text available
The mission of the human stress system is the maintenance of homeostasis in the presence of real or perceived, acute or chronic stressors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are the stress system-related neuroendocrine pathways. There is abundant evidence that children and adolescents with autism sp...
Article
Full-text available
Two lifestyle intervention programs of a health initiative named “Evrostia” were conducted at (a) an outpatient obesity clinic of a children’s hospital and (b) summer camp (SC), respectively. Thirty overweight/obese children were randomly selected to participate in each intervention arm to assess the efficacy of the SC intervention and its possible...
Article
Purpose To map time-structures is a burgeoning scientific field enriching the (P4) medicine models. Relevant local evidence in Mediterranean populations is poorly investigated. Myocardial infarctions (MI) incidence and fatality rate is high, whilst its statistics fail to cover full etiology risk factors. This pilot study extents our previous work o...
Article
Full-text available
Self-efficacy is perhaps the most important parameter associated with behavioral changes. The main aim of this study was to provide insight into the diet and exercise self-efficacy of Greek adolescents and how they could be modified via a multilevel multicomponent school-based lifestyle intervention. Secondary aims were to study the associations of...
Article
Exertional chest pain/dyspnea or chest pain at rest are the main symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD), which are traditionally attributed to insufficiency of the epicardial coronary arteries. However, 2/3 of women and 1/3 of men with angina and 10% of patients with acute myocardial infarction have no evidence of epicardial coronary artery sten...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to studies of adults with emphysema, application of fixed thresholds to determine low- and high-attenuation areas (air-trapping and parenchymal lung disease) in pediatric quantitative chest CT is problematic. We aimed to assess age effects on: (i) mean lung attenuation (full inspiration); and (ii) low and high attenuation thresholds (LA...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rats exposed to chronic predator scent stress mimic the phenotype of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans, including altered adrenal morphology and function. High- and low-anxiety phenotypes have been described in rats exposed to predator scent stress (PSS). This study aimed to determine whether these high- and low-an...
Article
Full-text available
Antigen screening for the SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein is among the most promising tools for the mass monitoring of asymptomatic carriers of the virus, especially in limited resource environments. Herewith, we report on the possible use of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the natural receptor and entry point of the virus, as a biorecognit...
Article
Introduction: Prematurity is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk later in life. The adipomyokine irisin has been acknowledged as a modulator of energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate circulating levels of irisin and their relation to anthropometric measurements and cardiometabolic phenotype i...
Article
Background Therapeutic options for children with multiple sclerosis are scarce. Teriflunomide is approved in more than 80 countries for the treatment of adults with relapsing multiple sclerosis. The TERIKIDS study examined the safety and efficacy of teriflunomide in children with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Methods The TERIKIDS trial was a multi...
Article
Although insomnia is by far the most common sleep disorder, our understanding of its neurobiology is limited. Insomnia, particularly when associated with objective sleep disturbance, has been associated with activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. The objective of this experimental study was to compare the response of the hypothalami...
Article
Full-text available
RNA modifications have recently become the focus of attention due to their extensive regulatory effects in a vast array of cellular networks and signaling pathways. Just as epigenetics is responsible for the imprinting of environmental conditions on a genetic level, epitranscriptomics follows the same principle at the RNA level, but in a more dynam...
Article
Full-text available
Premature aging, as denoted by a reduced telomere length (TL), has been observed in several chronic inflammatory diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, no study to date has addressed the potential inflammatory influence of the gut-derived Gram-negative bacterial fragments lipopolysaccharide, also referred to as endo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: The beneficial effect of glucocorticoids in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is established, but whether adrenal cortisol secretion is impaired in COVID-19 is not fully elucidated. In this case-control study we investigated the diurnal free bioavailable salivary cortisol secretion in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Fifty-two consecutive COVID-19...
Article
Full-text available
Several months after the onset of the epidemic, COVID-19 remains a global health issue. Scientific data on pregnancy, perinatal outcomes and vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are constantly emerging but are still limited and unclear. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize current evidence on vertical transmission rates, maternal,...
Article
Full-text available
Transition from childhood to adolescence is known to bring about many changes in the lifestyle and psycho-emotional state of adolescents. One of the major lifestyle factors that affect adolescents’ physical and mental health is sleep. The aim of this study was to validate the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a tool that measures sleep hygiene...
Article
The aim of this study was to validate the long second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) in the Greek language. The study was carried out in two phases following a mixed-method design. Six hundred and fifty-two Greek employees (response rate 93.3%) responded in the second phase of the study, either online or in writing...
Article
Full-text available
Breast milk is the ideal food for infants and undoubtedly has immediate and long‑term benefits. Breast milk contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) i.e., exosomes secreted by maternal breast cells. Exosomes carry genetic material, such as long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which possibly participate in cell‑to‑cell communications, as they are known to r...
Article
Full-text available
In vitro fertilization is one of the most common and effective procedure for thousands of couples worldwide who want to have a child and are unable to do so for various reasons. Diverse studies show that couples who conceive naturally after one year of trying had newborns with an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with cou...
Article
Full-text available
A growing part of the literature has focused on depression, anxiety, distress and somatization. Identifying their prevalence and recording high-risk populations is essential in order to form relevant interventional programs addressing these symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and associated factors of distress, depression,...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure of animals/biological samples to human‑made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), especially in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band, and the microwave/radio frequency (RF) band which is always combined with ELF, may lead to DNA damage. DNA damage is connected with cell death, infertility and other pathologies, including cancer. ELF exposure fr...
Article
Full-text available
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects the functionality and quality of life of the affected persons. There is a well-established detrimental reciprocal relationship between stress and IBS. In this randomised controlled trial, IBS patients were randomly assigned to an 8-week biofeedback-assisted stress...
Article
Full-text available
Eating as a compensatory mechanism to adverse emotional experiences in children and adolescents has been associated with high rates of overweight and obesity, binge eating and various problematic eating behaviors. Children and adolescents who display emotional eating are likely to develop eating disorders in adult life. Stress management may be an...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The identification of pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) who will require insulin therapy, may modify their management to closer monitoring and probable early interventions. The aim of the study was to develop a predictive model for the necessity of insulin treatment in women with GDM. Materials and methods This w...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pediatric onset multiple sclerosis(POMS) is characterized by a highly active profile, often warranting treatment with high efficacy disease-modulating therapies (DMTs). Fingolimod, an oral sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator, is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)- and European Medicines Agency (EMA)-approved DMT for the...
Article
Full-text available
Social Networking Sites (SNSs) number at least 3.81 billion users worldwide, while in Greece, 74.7% of internet users resort to SNSs. However, there is no instrument adapted to the Greek language that assesses addiction to SNSs. The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale is a short 6-item questionnaire that assesses social media addiction. This study...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The effectiveness of public health measures depends upon a community’s compliance as well as on its positive or negative emotions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to perform an analysis of the expressed emotions in English tweets by Greek Twitter users during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece. Methods: The...
Article
Full-text available
In some subjects with inherited pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPG) syndromes, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) stabilization/activation could lead to an increase in angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE). This would result in the stimulation of angiotensin (AT) II production and, hence, reduce the availability of ACE 2. The latter would pro...
Article
Full-text available
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) belongs to the ALS-frontotemporal dementia (FTD) spectrum and is hallmarked by upper and lower motor neuron degeneration. Here, we present a patient with a cytoplasmic dynein 1 heavy chain 1 (DYNC1H1) pathogenic variant who fulfilled the ALS El Escorial criteria, and we review relevant literature. Using whole-exo...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The laboratory diagnosis of demyelinating inflammatory disorders (DIDs) relies on both intrathecal oligoclonal band (OCB) positivity and IgG index. Although OCB typing remains the gold-standard test for DIDs, it can be laborious and ambiguous, complicating diagnostics, and unduly increasing diagnostic time. We examined whether serum or cerebro...
Article
Full-text available
Background: According to the current state of knowledge, addictions are often developed as a maladaptive coping response to elevated stress levels. Stress management has a beneficial effect on various mental health problems. Yet, there is no strong evidence concerning the effect of stress management on stress levels of individuals with addictive b...
Article
Chronic stress exposure reduces expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in animal and disease models. The stress-hormone cortisol has an antagonistic relationship with BDNF and may be implicated in this process. Previous work including our own suggests that contemplative mental training interventions like mindfulness-based stress red...