George Banks

George Banks
University of North Carolina at Charlotte | UNC Charlotte · Department of Management

About

89
Publications
75,360
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7,129
Citations
Citations since 2016
55 Research Items
6468 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Leadership as a social influence process has always involved a complex set of phenomena that demands an interdisciplinary lens. Leadership scholarship has now entered into a digital era. In a digital era, the overall phenomenon is changing, as are the tools through which we study it, demanding a new “lens” through which we view leadership. Yet, thi...
Article
Despite a tremendous amount of research on the topic, we still have little evidence regarding the extent to which transformational leader behaviors (TLBs) cause a number of outcomes. The primary inhibitors include a lack of theoretical precision, the conflation of leader (follower) behaviors with evaluations, as well as measurement and design issue...
Article
Ethical decision making has long been recognized as critical for industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists in the variety of roles they fill in education, research, and practice. Decisions with ethical implications are not always readily apparent and often require consideration of competing concerns. The American Psychological Association (APA)...
Article
The open science movement introduced many research practices intended to enhance the rigor and trustworthiness of our science. While these practices are enticing, the breadth of tactics can be overwhelming and imply an all-or-nothing approach to open science that can discourage getting started. We cast the adoption of open science practices metapho...
Article
Given the importance and popularity of employee job attitudes in academics and practice (e.g., annual engagement surveys), it is crucial to explore and summarize previous developments in the literature to identify ways to advance the field. The current review takes a systematic approach to exploring the nomological network, including investigating...
Article
Behaviors can be characterized as “the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups) to internal and/or external stimuli.” (Levitis et al., 2009). The study of behavior is a critical component of theory advancement in the area of leadership. Yet, a large number of leadership studies confla...
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Tournament theory posits that some organizations are modeled after sports tournaments whereby individuals are incentivized to compete and win against other members of the organization. A persistent criticism of tournament theory is that rank-order success of employees is entirely dependent on non-interacting or at least non-cooperating entities. To...
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Study preregistration promotes transparency in scientific research by making a clear distinction between a priori and post hoc procedures or analyses. Management and applied psychology have not embraced preregistration in the way other closely related social science fields have. There may be concerns that preregistration does not add value and prev...
Article
Drawing upon signaling theory, charismatic leadership tactics (CLTs) have been identified as a trainable set of skills. Although organizations rely on technology-mediated communication, the effects of CLTs have not been examined in a virtual context. Preregistered experiments were conducted in face-to-face (Study 1; n = 121) and virtual settings (S...
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The increase in autistic individuals seeking employment has led to a growing need for management researchers to consider autism in the workplace. To date, little organizational research has examined this area and what research does exist relies on theories imported from either general psychology (e.g., stigma theory) or reflects a view of autism as...
Article
The science–practice gap has been recognized as a grand challenge for management scholars in the 21st century. Despite the generation of a considerable amount of knowledge, which is clearly relevant to practice, the science–practice gap continues to persist. We challenge past notions that areas of management have not sufficiently developed to be pr...
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Intellectual contribution in the form of authorship is a fundamental component of the academic career. While research has addressed questionable and harmful authorship practices, there has largely been no discussion of how U.S. academic institutions interpret and potentially mitigate such practices through the use of institution-level authorship po...
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Questionable research practices (QRPs) can occur whenever one result is favored over another, and tests of mediation are no exception. Given mediation's ubiquity and importance to both theory and practice, QRPs in tests of mediation pose a serious threat to the advancement of psychology. We investigate this issue through the introduction of a strai...
Article
Ethical leadership has attracted massive attention in the twenty-first century. Yet despite this vast literature, knowledge of ethical leadership suffers from two critical limitations: First, existing conceptualizations conflate ethical leader behaviors with followers' evaluations of leaders' characteristics, values, traits, and followers' cognitio...
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The psychometric soundness of measures has been a central concern of articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) since the inception of the journal. At the same time, it isn't clear that investigators and reviewers prioritize psychometric soundness to a degree that would allow one to have sufficient confidence in conclusions regar...
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Efforts to promote open-science practices are, to a large extent, driven by a need to reduce questionable research practices (QRPs). There is ample evidence that QRPs are corrosive because they make research opaque and therefore challenge the credibility, trustworthiness, and usefulness of the scientific knowledge that is produced. A literature bas...
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Peer review is a critical component toward facilitating a robust science in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Peer review exists beyond academic publishing in organizations, university departments, grant agencies, classrooms, and many more work contexts. Reviewers are responsible for judging the quality of research conducted and submi...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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We present a consensus-based checklist to improve and document the transparency of research reports in social and behavioural research. An accompanying online application allows users to complete the form and generate a report that they can submit with their manuscript or post to a public repository.
Article
Cognitive complexity represents the extent to which individuals cognitively structure and process their environment in a multidimensional manner. Despite over 60 years of research, gaps remain in our understanding of the construct. In this meta-analytic review (k = 74, n = 18,973), we addressed a set of research questions regarding the nomological...
Preprint
Background: Gender inequality remains a pressing issue in science, medicine, and global health. Much of the scientific literature focuses on inequality-reduction strategies specific to women. Far less attention, however, has been paid to men’s roles in reducing gender-based barriers, despite that men dominate nearly all authority structures within...
Article
Meta-analyses are well known and widely implemented in almost every domain of research in management as well as the social, medical, and behavioral sciences. While this technique is useful for determining validity coefficients (i.e., effect sizes), meta-analyses are predicated on the assumption of independence of primary effect sizes, which might b...
Article
The present research focuses on supervisor-subordinate guanxi (SSG) – a non-work or personal tie that reflects the relationship between a subordinate and their supervisor. Although SSG has received considerable attention, results are mixed. Further, how the Eastern conceptualization of SSG differs from the Western conceptualization of leader-member...
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Open science refers to an array of practices that promote openness, integrity, and reproducibility in research; the merits of which are being vigorously debated and developed across academic journals, listservs, conference sessions, and professional associations. The current paper identifies and clarifies major issues related to the use of open sci...
Article
In describing measures used in their research, authors frequently report having adapted a scale, indicating that they changed something about it. Although such changes can raise concerns about validity, there has been little discussion of this practice in our literature. To estimate the prevalence and identify key forms of scale adaptation, we cond...
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Moderated multiple regression (MMR) remains the most popular method of testing interactions in management and applied psychology. Recent discussions of MMR have centered on their small effect sizes and typically being statistically underpowered (e.g., Murphy & Russell, Organizational Research Methods, 2016). Although many MMR tests are likely plagu...
Preprint
This paper briefly reviews the current state of meta-analytics research and suggests two innovations for dramatically increasing the efficiency and robustness of meta-analytic practice while simultaneously extending meta-analyses’ “shelf life” in the face of continually accumulating evidence.
Article
As a result of globalization, large-scale modern-day businesses extend across borders as they engage in multinational enterprises. Such enterprises must conduct operations in disparate, culturally diverse contexts, which present challenges for implementing human resource management activities, such as whether to standardize or localize activities a...
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Access to data is a critical feature of an efficient, progressive and ultimately self-correcting scientific ecosystem. But the extent to which in-principle benefits of data sharing are realized in practice is unclear. Crucially, it is largely unknown whether published findings can be reproduced by repeating reported analyses upon shared data (‘anal...
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In recent decades, the amount of text available for organizational science research has grown tremendously. Despite the availability of text and advances in text analysis methods, many of these techniques remain largely segmented by discipline. Moreover, there is an increasing number of open-source tools (R, Python) for text analysis, yet these too...
Article
The organizational sciences are entering a confidence crisis where a growing number of scholars recognize our science is imperfect and our knowledge base is potentially flawed. One contributing factor that scholars have identified is the peer-review process; issues such as QRPs, positive outcome biases and publication bias are, in part, a product o...
Article
A variety of alternative mechanisms, strategies, and “ways of doing” have been proposed for improving the rigor and robustness of published research in the psychological sciences in recent years. In this article, we describe two existing but underused publication models—registered reporting (RR) and results-blind reviewing (RBR)—that we believe wou...
Preprint
Access to research data is a critical feature of an efficient, progressive, and ultimately self-correcting scientific ecosystem. But the extent to which in-principle benefits of data sharing are realized in practice is unclear. Crucially, it is largely unknown whether published findings can be reproduced by repeating reported analyses upon shared d...
Article
Tipping represents a form of compensation valued at over $50 billion a year in the U.S. alone. Tipping can be used as an incentive mechanism to reduce a principal-agent problem. An agency problem occurs when the interests of a principal and agent are misaligned and it is challenging for the principal to monitor or control the activities of the agen...
Article
Leadership remains a popular and heavily researched area in the social sciences. Such popularity has led to a proliferation of new constructs within the leadership domain. Here, we argue that such construct proliferation without pruning is unhealthy and violates the principle of parsimony. Our purpose was to examine construct redundancy via a compr...
Article
Charismatic leadership is a critical construct that draws much attention from both academic and practitioner literatures. Despite the positive attention received by the charisma construct, some have criticized its conceptualization and measurement. These critiques have, in turn, cast doubt on what we know regarding the antecedents and outcomes of c...
Preprint
The Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Committee met in November 2014 to address one important element of the incentive systems - journals’ procedures and policies for publication. The outcome of the effort is the TOP Guidelines. There are eight standards in the TOP guidelines; each move scientific communication toward greater openness. Thes...
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Despite multiple high-profile calls-across decades and from multiple stakeholders-to address the widening gap between science and practice, the relevance of research conducted in the management domain remains in question. To once again highlight this issue and, more importantly, identify solutions, we explore the grand challenge of the science-prac...
Article
Purpose: Questionable research or reporting practices (QRPs) contribute to a growing concern regarding the credibility of research in the organizational sciences and related fields. Such practices include design, analytic, or reporting practices that may introduce biased evidence, which can have harmful implications for evidence-based practice, the...
Article
Purpose – Conceptualizations of work coordination historically assumed that work systems are put into place and that these systems shape the ability of workers to accomplish tasks. Formalization has thus long been invoked as an explanatory mechanism for work coordination. Recent studies have extended interest in emergent implicit and relational coo...
Article
While authentic leadership (AL) has seen a dramatic increase in scholarly attention over the last decade, its contribution relative to more established leadership constructs merits investigation. We employ meta-analytic techniques to compare AL and transformational leadership theories using 100 independent samples and 25,452 individuals. The findin...
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The discussion regarding questionable research practices (QRPs) in management as well as the broader natural and social sciences has increased substantially in recent years. Despite the attention, questions remain regarding research norms and the implications for both theoretical and practical advancements. The aim of the current article is to addr...
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Cynicism about organizational change is often considered an important factor that influences employee acceptance of change initiatives. However, cynicism has been compared with several similar constructs with little conceptual or empirical differentiation. To provide a deeper understanding of change cynicism, we compare and contrast it with similar...
Article
Applicant attraction is a critical objective of recruitment. Common predictor variables of applicant attraction are limited in that they do not provide a comprehensive understanding of the process that shapes the perceptions and beliefs of job applicants about the firms for which they aspire to work for. Because individuals have the inherent desire...
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INSIGHTS Design principles for synthetic ecology p. 1425 ▶ Whacking hydrogen into metal p. 1429 PE R S PE C T IVE S SCIENTIFIC INTEGRITY Self-correction in science at work By Bruce Alberts, 1 Ralph J. Cicerone, 2 Stephen E. Fienberg, 3 Alexander Kamb, 4 Marcia McNutt, 5 * Robert M. Nerem, 6 Randy Schekman , 7 Richard Shiffrin, 8 Victoria Stodden, 9...
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Transparency, openness, and reproducibility are readily recognized as vital features of science (1, 2). When asked, most scientists embrace these features as disciplinary norms and values (3). Therefore, one might expect that these valued features would be routine in daily practice. Yet, a growing body of evidence suggests that this is not the case...
Article
Research has often called for studies to explain the complex causal chain known as the “black box” between human resource management (HRM) activities and individual-, unit-, and firm-level outcomes. To explore the dynamics within the “black box,” this article describes the influence of HRM activities (e.g., HRM policies, practices, and processes) o...
Article
Continuous moderators (i.e., interactions) are some of most frequently hypothesized and tested relationships in organizational behavior human resource management and applied psychology, but there is relatively little information on their average magnitudes and conditions under which they vary. We meta-analyzed 15 years of continuous moderators publ...
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Full-text available
Cynicism about organizational change is often considered an important factor that influences employee acceptance of change initiatives. To provide a deeper understanding of change cynicism, we conducted a meta-analysis examining the extent to which individual differences (e.g., tolerance for ambiguity) and workplace experiences (e.g., fairness) pre...
Article
We examined the relationships between Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy—the three traits of the Dark Triad (DT)—and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality. The review identified 310 independent samples drawn from 215 sources and yielded information pertaining to global trait relationships and facet-level relationships. We used meta-...
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Meta-analytic reviews are an important tool for advancing science and guiding evidence-based practice. Publication bias is one of the greatest threats to meta-analytic reviews. This paper assesses the degree of publication bias in four previously published meta-analytic datasets from various fields of study in the organizational sciences. Of these...
Article
Meta-analytic reviews are an important tool for advancing science and guiding evidence-based practice. Publication bias is one of the greatest threats to meta-analytic reviews. This paper assesses the degree of publication bias in four previously published meta-analytic datasets from various fields of study in the organizational sciences. Of these...
Article
Full-text available
Publication bias is the systematic suppression of research findings due to small magnitude, statistical insignificance, or contradiction of prior findings or theory. We review possible reasons why publication bias may exist in strategy research and examine empirical evidence regarding the influence of publication bias in the field. Overall, we conc...
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The issue of a published literature not representative of the population of research is most often discussed in terms of entire studies being suppressed. However, alternative sources of publication bias are questionable research practices (QRPs) that entail post hoc alterations of hypotheses to support data or post hoc alterations of data to suppor...
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Both leader–member exchange (LMX) and team–member exchange (TMX) measure the quality of reciprocal exchange among employees in the workplace. Although LMX focuses on supervisor–subordinate relationships while TMX examines the relationships among team members, both have theory-based and empirically proven relations with workplace outcomes such as jo...
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We conducted a meta-analytic review of the relations between general mental ability (GMA) and the Dark Triad (DT) personality traits—Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy—to determine if individuals who display socially exploitative social qualities tend to be more intelligent or less intelligent. Across 48 independent samples, GMA showed n...
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (MARS) of the American Psychological Association (APA) and highlight opportunities for improvement of meta-analytic reviews in the organizational sciences. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper reviews MARS, describes "best" meta-analytic practices across two sc...
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Publication bias (PB) exists when the published literature is not representative of the population of studies. PB has largely been ignored or dismissed in entrepreneurship research as there is a general belief that only fields entrenched in dominant theoretical paradigms are capable of suffering from PB. We tested this presumption by re-analyzing t...